The occupation of the Ruhr

The occupation of the Ruhr


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

  • A French soldier on a requisitioned coal train. Ruhr area, 1923.

    ANONYMOUS

  • The occupation of the Ruhr: "Name of a dog, the beast has spines".

    SCHILLING Erich (1885 - 1945)

To close

Title: A French soldier on a requisitioned coal train. Ruhr area, 1923.

Author : ANONYMOUS (-)

Creation date : 1923

Date shown: 1923

Dimensions: Height 0 - Width 0

Storage place: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin) website

Contact copyright: © BPK, Berlin, Dist RMN-Grand Palais © All rights reserved website

Picture reference: 08-529390

A French soldier on a requisitioned coal train. Ruhr area, 1923.

© BPK, Berlin, Dist RMN-Grand Palais All rights reserved

To close

Title: The occupation of the Ruhr: "Name of a dog, the beast has spines".

Author : SCHILLING Erich (1885 - 1945)

Creation date : 1921

Date shown: 1921

Dimensions: Height 0 - Width 0

Technique and other indications: Appeared in Simplicissimus, dated April 11, 1921.

Storage place: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin) website

Contact copyright: © BPK, Berlin, Dist RMN-Grand Palais © All rights reserved website

Picture reference: 08-529387

The occupation of the Ruhr: "Name of a dog, the beast has spines".

© BPK, Berlin, Dist RMN-Grand Palais All rights reserved

Publication date: May 2011

Historical context

France and Germany irreconcilable

Between France and Germany, the disputes arising from the Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919) remain important. Seen from across the Rhine, the treaty is a "Diktat", and Germany pays only very partially the repairs: on December 31, 1922, only 10.4 billion gold marks had been paid, out of the 24.9 billion. payable.

In 1922, when Raymond Poincaré became President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs, he took note of the inertia of the S.D.N. Dubious as to the Germans' willingness to pay, he opts for a policy of force and declares before the Chamber: "We are going to look for coal and that is all. »(Quoted by Jean-Jacques Becker and Serge Berstein, Victory and frustrations, 1914-1929, p. 216.)

The occupation of the Ruhr by French and Belgian troops began on January 11, 1923. This gesture, which was highly significant in a Europe which had just emerged from the war, became a publicized event: the images of soldiers reappeared, while the newspapers seize on the subject. The practices of propaganda and counter-propaganda are thus reactivated.

Image Analysis

Invasion and resistance

The photograph shows a French sentry perched on one of the wagons of a coal convoy. It is parked in an important railway junction (six tracks at least), but not identified. The clothing and equipment of the soldier are naturally very close to those of the end of the First World War. Helmet, provided with a bayonet rifle and cartridge belts, he also wears gaiters and a tunic. Standing on an unstable mass of charcoal briquettes, he gazes into the distance, in an attitude of rest.

Founded in Munich in 1896, Simplicissimus is an illustrated satirical publication known for its incisive tone that is at once progressive, anticlerical and patriotic. This cartoon shows a French officer dressed in 1914 style, with madder red pants and a cloth cap. Seen against a background reduced to a pinkish sky and a vast landscape of waste heaps, he hesitates to sit on what turns out to be a living creature with the mouth of a shark. This animal and mechanical hybrid carries a forest of plant chimneys bristling with spines. The houses, factories and mine shafts that it hides are there to represent the entire Ruhr area.

Interpretation

Bad omen of the Ruhr in 1923

These two images sum up the Franco-German antagonism of the time. If the sentinel photographed perfectly represents the expression of French interests, the caricature, on the other hand, expresses the state of mind of the inhabitants of the Ruhr: due to the military occupation of the region, they regard themselves as well-founded victims. to defend themselves. Hence the "quills of the beast" evoked by the legend of the drawing. Chancellor Brüning indicates in his Briefs that "when the French began to seize all the coal already loaded in the wagons, the German railway administration […] was able to give its members the order of passive resistance." This resistance took the form of zealous strikes, abandonment of switch posts and massive production slowdowns. Supported by the authorities, these practices united the German people and gave rise to social and political movements led by the lost soldiers of the various free corps. The most famous illustration of this is obviously the "brasserie putsch" fomented by Hitler in Munich a few months after the entry of Franco-Belgian troops into the Rhineland (November 8-9, 1923).

The operation was a failure for France, which withdrew in August 1925, in a weak position as regards the effective obtaining of reparations (symbolically paid in 2010 ...). In the longer term, this experience paves the way for the defensive doctrine embodied by the Maginot Line, whose project, considered since 1922, began in 1928.

  • Germany
  • War of 14-18
  • occupation of the Ruhr
  • Poincaré (Raymond)
  • League of Nations (League of Nations)
  • Treaty of Versailles

Bibliography

Jean-Jacques BECKER and Serge BERSTEIN, Victory and frustrations, 1914-1929, Paris, Le Seuil, 1990. Heinrich BRÜNING, Memoirs (1918-1934), Paris, Gallimard, 1974.Robert FRANK, The Haunting of Decline France, 1920-1960: finances, defense and national identity, Paris, Belin, 1994.Stanislas JEANNESSON, Poincaré, France and the Ruhr (1922-1924). History of an occupation, Strasbourg, University Press of Strasbourg, 1998. Frédéric MONIER, The 1920s (1919-1930), Paris, L.G.F., 1999.

To cite this article

François BOULOC, "The occupation of the Ruhr"


Video: The Bank of England Goes Into Hyperinflationary Mode.