SR 71 Sets New Speed Record - History

SR 71 Sets New Speed Record - History


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The SR-71 Blackbird set a new cross Atlantic speed record. It crossed the Atlantic in 1 hour 55 minutes and 42 seconds.


L.A. to D.C. in 68 Minutes : Record 2,200 m.p.h. Flight Is Last for U.S. Spy Plane : Jet Will Be Housed at Smithsonian

The Air Force’s SR-71 Blackbird spy plane smashed a transcontinental speed record today as it flew into retirement and the history books.

The nation’s fastest operational airplane took off from Edwards Air Force Base in California at 4:30 a.m., refueled offshore, flew back over Edwards and then shot off eastward at supersonic speeds that triggered a 6:01 a.m. sonic boom.

The Los Angeles-to-Washington flight was 1 hour, 8 minutes and 17 seconds, said the Smithsonian Institution, which will keep the plane in the National Air and Space Museum.

On the way to its retirement home at the museum, the airplane broke four flight time records, including the world record of 4 hours, 12 minutes and 10 seconds for a flight from Los Angeles to Washington.

“We figured it would make it in about an hour,” said Barbara Kornylo of Lockheed, the builder of the airplane.

The SR-71, designed in the early 1960s, is able to cruise faster than three times the speed of sound. The planes were built with a titanium alloy and can withstand temperatures exceeding 800 degrees Fahrenheit. The first flight of the SR-71 was on Dec. 22, 1964, the Smithsonian said.

The Blackbird flies at an average speed of 2,200 m.p.h., about 400 m.p.h. to 500 m.p.h. faster than the Concorde, which is the fastest airplane in commercial operation, Lockheed spokesman Jim Ragsdale said.

The SR-71 was never designed for commercial passenger use. It has seats only for a pilot and a reconnaissance systems officer and was designed to fly high, fast and unarmed on photographic reconnaissance missions. Because of the high altitudes the aircraft can reach, crew members on missions had to wear pressure suits and be connected to life support systems.

The SR-71s were officially retired on Feb. 26, but Lockheed requested one of them to break some records publicly on its last flight, something that the plane has been doing--but on a classified basis--for years, Kornylo said.

In addition to breaking the world Los Angeles-to-Washington record set several years ago by pilot Brooke Knapp in her Lear jet 35A, the Blackbird also set speed records for the following: Los Angeles to Washington, 2,153.24 m.p.h. St. Louis to Cincinnati, 2,242.48 m.p.h., and Kansas City to Washington, 2,200.94 m.p.h.

The Blackbird, after fueling over the Pacific Ocean from an Air Force KC-135, a type of flying gas station, passed through a radar screen and quickly accelerated past the speed of sound.

Southland residents, hearing the sonic boom, called police to report the sound of an explosion or earthquake, Sgt. James McClard said.

While the Air Force has never publicly revealed how many SR-71s it commissioned to be built, 12 of them were stationed at Beale Air Force Base in Northern California in January.

Besides the SR-71 that flew today, one is going to a museum at Warner-Robbins Air Force Base in Georgia, another to March Air Force Base in Southern California and three to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for use in high-altitude research.


Everything you need to know about the SR-71 Blackbird — the fastest jet in the world

Ever since Germany began creating the first rocket-powered aircraft in the late-1920s, mankind has developed an immense infatuation with building jets capable of hitting supersonic speeds in the blink of an eye. While most found use during wartime to outrun missiles or spy on the enemy, others were simply built out of a creator’s obsession with velocity and getting from point A to point B as quickly as possible.

However, because jets are perhaps some of the most exciting vehicles on the planet, their popularity extends beyond just those who manufacture them. People all over the globe remain absolutely enthralled with jets and most notably, jets which kick some serious ass when it comes to the speed department. To help fuel said fascination, we’ve tracked down the fastest manned aircraft ever assembled and combed through its impressive resume to see what made it so special. What follows is the story of the fastest jet known to man.

The Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird

Developed and manufactured in the 1960s, this monster of a jet plane’s primary goal was to engage in highly classified reconnaissance missions, and to just generally fly faster than anything else of its time. Its best-recorded speed came in July of 󈨐 at Beale Air Force Base in California, clocking in at an astounding 2,193.2 miles per hour — a healthy 100 miles per hour faster than any other air-breathing manned aircraft. Piloted by Eldon W. Joersz and George T. Morgan, the official time broke an 11-year record previously set by a similarly constructed Lockheed YF-12A, which recorded a top speed of 2,070.1 miles per hour.

Lockheed developed the line of SR-71 jets because of a request from the CIA for a reconnaissance plane which could essentially outrun anti-aircraft missiles and operate at high altitudes. Previous Lockheed jets like the U-2 and the A-12 served as precursors to the Blackbird, with some of the technology native to those former aircraft reappearing in the newly built model. During production, manufacturers intended the SR-71 to fly at speeds above Mach 3 — roughly 2,280 miles per hour and higher — and though the fastest recorded time clocks in just under Mach 3, an SR-71 pilot named Brian Shul claims to have taken the aircraft much faster.

In a 1994 book titled The Untouchables, Brian Shul writes about his experience as a pilot of Lockheed’s SR-71 — he even refers to the position as being a sled driver. While the book doesn’t offer up much in the way of groundbreaking or classified information, Shul does mention one particular mission in Libya in which he claims to have flown in excess of Mach 3.5 while avoiding a missile. While it’s hard to know if he’s telling the exact truth or a version thereof, details on most missions involving an SR-71 remain classified, just like its actual velocity.

The SR-71 saw a brief retirement in 1989 before the U.S. government revived the aircraft in 1993 amid concerns of threats stemming from the Middle East and North Korea. After serving for several more years, the Air Force officially retired the SR-71 in 1998 with NASA following suit in 1999. Over the course of its impressive career, the SR-71 Blackbird logged tens of thousands of hours in flight, with about a quarter of its total hours spent flying at Mach 3 or above.

Though the military recorded 12 SR-71s as missing during its tenure, the craft holds the impressive distinction of never succumbing to enemy fire during any of its missions. It is worth noting the Air Force discontinued fly-overs of the USSR in the 1980s after the Soviet’s developed the MiG-31 interceptor of which they armed with a missile capable of traveling at speeds up to Mach 4.5. Soviet pilots also claim a MiG-31 intercepted the SR-71 in 1986, however, the interceptor did not engage the aircraft.

Even after its second retirement, many believed the U.S. government never fully unleashed the SR-71 to its potential and questioned the decision to send it to the sidelines. Considering the military remains keen on unmanned aircraft in the 21st Century, it seems the SR-71’s retirement was an inevitable one.

The view from inside an SR-71 at 73,000 feet Wikipedia


2. X-15

To date, the X-15 is the fastest manned aircraft.

Although the X-43A comes ahead of the X-15, it was the X-15 which was the fastest known manned military aircraft. Surprised? No, don’t be. The X-43A was for testing the top speed that an aircraft can reach and hence unmanned you can&apost risk a person&aposs life there! The X-15, on the other hand, was designed to be a faster manned aircraft and it impacted future aircraft designs, including spacecraft and space shuttles. So, it was comparatively slower than the X-43 but faster than any other manned aircraft.

The X-15 was an experimental aircraft which served the needs of both the United States Air Force and NASA. Only three were ever built. This aircraft was operational between 1959 and 1968 and now adorns the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C.

Let’s get to the more interesting parts. This was the only manned aircraft ever to have done more than Mach 5 in the 20th century. In fact, its fastest flight was a Mach 6.72, which is a record that still stands. Also, it was an aircraft which could actually fly to a ceiling of 100 km, thus qualifying the pilots to be called astronauts NASA’s height ceiling of 80 km meant that any human flying above that height was automatically recognized as an astronaut.

  • Aircraft:X-15
  • Speed Record: Mach 6.72 [5,154 mph or 8,298 kmph]
  • Engine Type: Rocket Engine
  • Engine Power: 16,000 pound-feet (71 kN)
  • Speed Record Created: October 1967
  • Total Built: 3

1960 - 1979

Tire Production Hits One Billion

Goodyear produces its billionth tire.

Go, Go, Goodyear

"Go, Go, Goodyear," advertising theme announced.

Full Range of Radial-ply Tires

Radial-ply tires made available in a full range of sizes to all auto manufacturers.

Custom Wide Tread Polyglas Announced

Custom Wide Tread Polyglas tire announced, combining best characteristics of bias-ply tires, radial-ply tires, and the popular "wide footprint."

Goodyear Takes Outerspace

First tires on the moon (Apollo 14) supplied by Goodyear.

Custom Steelgard Radial Introduced

Custom Steelgard Radial tire introduced — the only steel-belted radial accepted by all U.S. carmakers for their 1973 models.

First All-Season Tire Introduced

Goodyear introduces two notable advances in tire design Tiempo, the first all-season tire, and the revolutionary fuel-saving elliptic tire.

Big Plans for Akron Technical Center

Plans announced to turn an idle Akron tire plant into a new $75-million Technical Center.

  • Total assets pass the $1 billion mark.
  • Goodyear-shod car wins Daytona 500 race.
  • Petrochemical Center begins construction in Beaumont, Texas for production of Natsyn and Budene synthetic rubbers at cost of $20 million, company's largest single capital investment at the time.
  • Goodyear Aircraft named prime contractor for SUBROC anti-submarine system.
  • Mickey Thompson breaks the 400-mph barrier at Bonneville Salt Flats on Goodyear tires.
  • Cuban facilities expropriated by the Cuban government.
  • New plants open in Tyler, Texas and Turkey.
  • Fulda (German tire manufacturer) and Metal Wheel Company acquired.
  • Tire production arrangements completed in Southern Rhodesia and Malaysia.
  • Vitafilm (shrinkable packaging film), Super Ortac, and Acala hose, two-ply auto tires, Super Torque farm tires share new-product spotlight.
  • Use of shredded wire undertreads in off-the-road tires expanded.
  • Tufsyn rubber in tire treads announced.
  • New chemical plant begins operations in Le Havre, France.
  • Vytacord polyester cord announced.
  • Research scientists discover sprayable polyurethane rubber.
  • Goodyear Aircraft awarded U.S. government contract for development of high-resolution radar for world's fastest fighter plane.
  • Super Single tire and rim announced as replacement for duals on trucks.
  • Goodyear racing tires used on more winning stock and sports cars than any other brand.
  • Goodyear produces its billionth tire.
  • Goodyear Aircraft changes its name to Goodyear Aerospace reflecting its increasing involvement in space programs.
  • A second blimp, the Columbia, joins the Mayflower for displaying promotional and public service messages.
  • Craig Breedlove sets the world's land speed record, 407.45 mph, in his Spirit of America equipped with special Goodyear tires.
  • New Double Eagle with LifeGuard Safety Spare announced.
  • "Go, Go, Goodyear" advertising theme introduced.
  • Russell DeYoung named chairman and CEO, succeeds retiring Edwin Thomas. Victor Holt Jr. named president.
  • Goodyear achieves $2 billion in sales (just 13 years after reaching $1 billion).
  • Motor Wheel Corporation becomes a subsidiary.
  • Flexsteel, a radial ply truck tire, added to the line.
  • Goodyear Memory Belt introduced, automatically routes packaged items, using coded information stored in the belt's matrix.
  • Craig Breedlove sets speed record of 526.28 mph in a jet-powered Spirit of America equipped with Goodyear tires.
  • Goodyear enters international racing field for first time.
  • New Italian plant opens.
  • Radial-ply tires made available in a full range of sizes to all auto manufacturers.
  • Forty-one linear miles of Goodyear butyl sheeting used to seal the joints of the Houston Astrodome.
  • Prime Wrap, a new packaging material for use by food chains, introduced.
  • Winter tires with Safety Spikes first introduced.
  • Craig Breedlove sets land speed record of 600.601 mph on Goodyear tires.
  • In less than two years after entering international racing competition, Goodyear wins the 24 Hours of Le Mans, France.
  • Work begins on a new tire plant in Guatemala.
  • Goodyear becomes first company in rubber industry to install a graphics unit that enables technical personnel to communicate directly with a programmed computer and receive the graphic answers almost immediately.
  • Thirty-foot wire grid communications satellite built by Goodyear Aerospace successfully launched.
  • Planned city at Litchfield Park, Arizona continues to progress on a 12,000-acre site.
  • Motor Wheel Corporation subsidiary becomes prime rim and wheel supplier for military vehicles, opens first plant outside U.S. in Chatham, Ontario, Canada.
  • More than 100 new retail outlets opened.
  • Jack Brabham wins World Driving Championship on Goodyear tires.
  • Plants open in Jamaica and Australia.
  • Despite a two-week strike at 11 U.S. plants, sales and earnings set record.
  • Best year for Goodyear Aerospace since World War II.
  • Metal Products Division integrated into Motor Wheel Corporation.
  • Number of Goodyear plants worldwide pass the 100 mark, work starts on plants in Northern Ireland and Germany.
  • Custom Wide Tread Polyglas tire announced, combining best characteristics of bias-ply tires, radial-ply tires, and the popular "wide footprint."
  • Largest installation to date of memory belt completed at the U.S. Postal Department's new Air Mail Facility at San Francisco's International Airport.
  • A.J. Foyt rides to victory at the Indianapolis 500, and Dennis Hulme wins the 1967 World Driving Championship, both on Goodyear tires.
  • Polyglas tires become standard or optional equipment on almost all 1969 model cars.
  • Pathfinder Polyglas introduced, a snow tire designed specifically for front-wheel use.
  • Goodyear Aerospace balloons travel on Apollo 7 journey, help right spacecraft after splashdown.
  • Instant-Floor do-it-yourself vinyl tiles with pressure-sensitive backing introduced. Sprayable colored Neothane applied to 170,000 square feet of roof at new civic center in San Rafael, California.
  • Data acquisition system installed at Goodyear Research, making laboratories the most highly computerized in the rubber industry.
  • Bobby Unser adds the company's second consecutive victory in the Indianapolis 500.
  • Construction starts on tire plants in Greece and Thailand.
  • Goodyear's first $3 billion sales year (just 5 years after reaching $2 billion).
  • Virtually all of Goodyear International's plants are either modernized or expanded.
  • New test equipment for airplane wheels and brakes placed in operation in Akron.
  • Goodyear Tire Center franchise program initiated.
  • Crashworthy fuel cells developed for aircraft.
  • Goodyear Aerospace supplies components for the Boeing 747.
  • Industrial products plant opens at Lyon, France.
  • Steel-belted Double Eagle Polysteel tire introduced.
  • Wide range of belted Glas-Guard tires introduced for campers, vans, and pickups.
  • Staran, world's fastest computer, introduced by Goodyear Aerospace for air traffic control.
  • Transport Systems created to accelerate use of Speedwalk/Speedramp passenger conveying systems.
  • Carbon-composite brake disc material, developed by aviation products, expected to improve aircraft brake life by as much as 100 percent.
  • Chemical Division, world's largest producer of synthetic rubber, becomes leading producer of polybutadiene rubber as well.
  • Gary Gabelich sets new land speed record of 622.407 mph in his Blue Flame equipped with Goodyear tires.
  • World's largest tire (11½ feet high, 7,000 pounds) built at new $23-million super-tire facility at Topeka, Kansas.
  • Polysteel tires now marketed nationally.
  • Jackie Stewart wins World Driving Championship.
  • New Speedwalk/Speedramp installations completed at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport Standiford Field in Louisville, Kentucky, and Meriden Square in Meriden, Connecticut.
  • Goodyear polyester used in double-knit wearing apparel.
  • New tire plants planned for Brazil, Zaire, Morocco, and Taiwan.
  • First tires on the moon (Apollo 14) supplied by Goodyear.
  • Charles Pilliod Jr. elected 11th president.
  • Goodyear becomes first in the industry to record sales in excess of $4 billion.
  • Custom Steelgard Radial tire introduced — the only steel-belted radial accepted by all U.S. carmakers for their 1973 models.
  • Side-looking radar, pioneered by Goodyear Aerospace, used extensively by U.S. Air Force on F-4 phantom jets.
  • New tire plants begin production in Kinshasa, Zaire, and Casablanca, Morocco.
  • Company's four-year-old franchise program adds its 100th Goodyear Tire Center.
  • Mark Donohue wins the Indianapolis 500 on Goodyear tires, setting a record speed of 162.962 mph.
  • The Goodyear Conservation Awards Program completed 25 years of recognizing resource management by the nation's soil and water conservation districts.
  • Company celebrates 75th year.
  • New packaging film plant opens in Merced, California.
  • New industrial brake plant opens in Berea, Kentucky.
  • New tire plant opens in Americana, Brazil.
  • Custom Steelguard remains only steel-belted radial tire approved by all four U.S. carmakers for 1974 models.
  • Board of directors holds its first meeting outside of U.S., in Luxembourg.
  • Goodyear Atomic receives five-year contract extension with Atomic Energy Commission for continued operation of plant in Portsmouth, Ohio.
  • 26 of 33 cars at the Indianapolis 500 ride on Goodyear tires, including winner Gordon Johncock.
  • Keep America Beautiful Inc. selects Goodyear's corporate-wide environmental improvement program as the nation's finest.
  • Goodyear is first in rubber industry to exceed $5 billion in sales.
  • Charles Pilliod Jr. elected fifth chairman of the board, John Gerstenmaier named president.
  • Custom Polysteel Radial and new top-of-the-line double Eagle Radial, with belts of Flexten cord, announced.
  • A new winter tire designed for use without metal studs, the F32 All Winter Radial, introduced.
  • Goodyear tires are on the winning cars in 151 out of the 226 major racing events throughout the world, including Johnny Rutherford's win at Indianapolis.
  • Largest U.S. Air Force contract of its type awarded to Goodyear Aerospace for aircraft wheels, brakes, and parts.
  • U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare presents outstanding public service award to Goodyear for blimp messages promoting the Social Security program.
  • For the 59th consecutive year it's still true: "More people ride on Goodyear tires than on any other kind."
  • Chairman Charles Pilliod Jr. named Employer of the Year by National Industrial Recreation Association.
  • Natural rubber processing plant starts production at Benin City, Nigeria.
  • Russell DeYoung, retired chairman, honored by Indonesia for contributions to country's economy.
  • Goodyear and Oil Shale Corporation plan pilot plant at Rocky Flats, Colorado to turn scrap tires into oil, steel, and carbon black.
  • Indianapolis 500 is won by Bobby Unser in all-Goodyear field, marking first time in 13 years one company supplied all tires.
  • Goodyear Motor Sports Club started for auto racing fans.
  • Largest single-tire service contract in history awarded to Goodyear for trans-Alaskan pipeline project.
  • General Dynamics awards Goodyear Aerospace wheel and brake contracts for F-16 fighter jet.
  • Flexten cord incorporated into auto-radial truck and bias-belted earthmover tires.
  • Sales of $5.8 billion establish a record, despite a 130-day strike at 15 major plants.
  • A hose plant at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, starts production.
  • Company and employees rally to the aid of Guatemala following massive earthquakes. Supplies are airlifted to stricken areas.
  • Company receives largest single conveyor belting order from Duval Sierrita copper mine in Arizona.
  • Topeka, Kansas plant produces super earthmover tire of Nylosteel, 11½ feet high, 5½ feet wide, weighing more than 12,500 pounds for world's largest loader.
  • Chemical Division ships first shatterproof polyester resin bottles.
  • A Holstein bull calf, equipped with an air-driven artificial heart developed jointly by Goodyear and the Cleveland Clinic, lives a record 145½ days.
  • Researchers design a tourniquet of natural rubber for use during surgery on an elephant in Miami, Florida.
  • Company begins drilling for natural gas on its Akron properties.
  • Goodyear introduces two notable advances in tire design. Tiempo, the first all-season tire and the revolutionary fuel-saving elliptic tire.
  • Ground is broken for a new tire plant in Lawton, Oklahoma, representing an initial investment of $80 million.
  • Goodyear acquires a rubber plantation in Sumatra.
  • To meet the rising demand for shatterproof, polyester drink bottles, the company begins expansion of its polyester resin plant at Point Pleasant, West Virginia
  • A.J. Foyt makes history on Goodyear tires, winning his fourth Indianapolis 500.
  • Sales record of $6.6 billion and earnings record of $205 million are set.
  • Plans announced to turn an idle Akron tire plant into a new $75-million Technical Center.
  • Goodyear is the first company in the rubber industry to top the $7 billion mark in sales, led by the most successful tire in company history, the Tiempo. The all-season tire sold 3.5 million in its first year.
  • The company marks its 80th anniversary.
  • John Gerstenmaier is elected vice chairman and chief operating officer, with Robert Mercer succeeding him as Goodyear's 13th president.
  • Point Pleasant, West Virginia plant is expanded again to cope with the increasing number and popularity of polyester uses, making a total of $30 million spent on the plant in a three-year period, increasing production by 20 percent.
  • Ashland, Ohio plant increases production to meet the demand for Pliogrip, an adhesive used to bond car components.
  • Latex plant opens in Calhoun, Georgia.
  • Expansions of tire-making facilities made in Malaysia and Luxembourg.
  • Goodyear Aerospace receives contract to develop an Imaging Radar System to map the planet Venus.
  • Toxicology lab established to determine the safety of chemicals.
  • Mario Andretti wins World Driving Championship, Al Unser the Indianapolis 500, and Kenny Roberts becomes the first American to win the World 500cc Motorcycle Grand Prix — all on Goodyear tires.
  • A new and larger airship Mayflower is launched.
  • The National 4-H Bicycle Program completes its 10th year under Goodyear sponsorship.
  • The Wingfoot radial, a new high-performance auto tire, debuts at Chicago Auto Show.
  • Rick Mears wins Indianapolis 500 on Goodyear tires.
  • U.S. cities install Goodyear-made rubber railroad crossings at rate of two every workday.
  • $71-million expansion announced for radial truck tire facilities at Danville, Virginia.
  • New airship Enterprise christened in Pompano Beach, Florida.

Breaking the Sound Barrier | The Greatest Moments in Flight

This is part of a SPACE.com series of articles on the Greatest Moments in Flight, the breakthrough events that paved the way for human spaceflight and its next steps: asteroid mining and bases on the moon and Mars.

A booming thunder roared across the clear skies of the Mojave Desert on Oct. 14, 1947, as U.S. Air Force Capt. Chuck Yeager nudged an experimental rocket-powered plane faster than the speed of sound. Though only a handful of people realized it at the time, an aviation record had been set.

In 1935, a simplified explanation of the challenges of supersonic flight led to the creation of the term "sound barrier," which seemed to imply a physical wall that could not be overcome. Bullets and cannon balls had exceeded the speed of sound for hundreds of years, but the question loomed as to whether or not a plane &mdash or a man &mdash could withstand the pressures that accompanied it. The U.S. Air Force set out to answer this looming question.

Four rocket engines propelled the X-1, and it was built to absorb 18 times the force of gravity. Unlike most planes, it didn't take off from the ground, but was instead dropped from the belly of a B-29 Superfortress, rapidly accelerating in the air on only a few minutes worth of fuel before gliding back to the dry lakes below.

The plane, nicknamed the "Glamorous Glennis" for Yeager's wife, slowly approached the sound barrier over the course of nine flights. Muroc Air Force Base &mdash now known as Edwards Air Force Base &mdash in the empty southern California desert provided an ideal spot for testing a variety of experimental vehicles, including the X-1.

The man who would become the most famous test pilot in American history was born in West Virginia on Feb. 13, 1923. Charles Elwood "Chuck" Yeager enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army Air Corps at the age of 18 and served in World War II, where he flew 64 combat missions.

Like many of his generation, Yeager enrolled in the military in 1941. In a 2017 interview with Forbes, Yeager said he was a gifted mechanic who had never seen an airplane before he turned 18.

"But I noticed that, as a mechanic, my hands were always greasy while the pilots' were clean &mdash and they had good-looking girls on their arms. Flying looked pretty good to me," he told Forbes.

The military required a college education for its pilots, but when they didn't get enough applicants for the cadet flier program in 1942, they dropped the requirements to a high school diploma.

"With my visual acuity and understanding of mechanics, I was really a hell of a lot better than the cadets. From there on, I was in the right place at the right time," he told Forbes.

In 1945, he was assigned as a maintenance officer to the Flight Test Division at Wright Field, Ohio, flight-testing the planes. Col. Albert Boyd, in charge of the test program for the Air Force, invited him to become a test pilot, and Yeager accepted, transferring to Muroc to enroll in the Flight Performance School. It was there that Yeager was selected to be the first person to attempt to exceed the speed of sound.

Yeager's first test launch of the Glamorous Glennis took place on Aug. 29, 1947, with subsequent attempts increasing speed by two-hundredths of a Mach number. Mach is a unit of measuring the speed of sound in a given medium a plane traveling at .2 Mach moves at only two-tenths the speed of sound, while Mach 1 is equal to it. (The speed of sound is about 758 mph or 1,220 km/h at sea level, and decreases with altitude.)

Reaching .86 Mach on the sixth flight, the X-1 began to experience turbulence from the shock wave formed by the compression of the air. On the seventh flight, at Mach .94, Yeager lost the ability to control the plane's elevator, which was a problem because the shock waves caused the nose to pitch up and down. He cut the engines, dumped the fuel, and landed safely in the desert. Another pilot suggested using the horizontal stabilizer to correct the problem, and on-the-ground tests seemed to suggest the alternate method of control would work.

Two days before his historic flight, Yeager was thrown from a horse while riding with his wife and broke two ribs. Knowing that he would never be allowed to fly, he traveled to a doctor off base and had them taped up. Unable to close and latch the side door by hand, he utilized a broom handle at the suggestion of a fellow pilot.

On Oct. 14, 1947, Yeager and the X-1 were dropped from the B-29, and quickly accelerated away. When the controls locked up, he successfully used the horizontal stabilizer to keep the plane stable at an altitude of 43,000 feet (13,000 meters). As the plane accelerated to a speed of 700 mph (1,127 km/h), or Mach 1.06, controllers on the ground heard the first sonic boom. (The end of a bullwhip moves faster than the speed of sound. Some say the "crack" is a small sonic boom.)

After exceeding the speed of sound, the buffeting decreased, creating a smooth short flight. The plane remained supersonic for approximately 20 seconds before Yeager turned off two of the four engines and slowly decelerated.

The follow-up

Yeager continued to fly experimental aircraft for the Air Force, and was appointed director of the Space School, NASA's precursor, where he trained astronauts to prepare for launch. He flew more than 120 combat missions in Vietnam. After 34 years in the military, he retired in 1975 at the rank of brigadier general, though he continued to serve as a consultant. His last flight as a military consultant occurred 50 years to the day after he broke the sound barrier, at the age of 74.

According to This Day in Aviation, he told the crowd, "All that I am…I owe to the Air Force."

In 1979, Tom Wolfe's best-selling nonfiction book, "The Right Stuff," and the subsequent 1983 movie popularized Yeager's exploits to a generation too young to remember them.

Yeager and his wife, Glennis, had four children before her death in 1990. He remarried in 2003.

Supersonic research

In the meantime, research continued on supersonic flight. By 1959, the X-15 would travel five times faster than the speed of sound, paving the way toward human space flight. The 1990s saw the launch of the High-Speed Research Program, a NASA-industry collaboration to develop a concept for the next-generation supersonic passenger jet. Engineers envisioned it carrying 300 passengers at more than 1,500 mph (2,414 km/h).

"Although phased out in 1999 because of economic constraints, the HSR effort set new standards in concepts for propulsion systems, materials and structures, cockpit controls, and assessment of environmental impacts," NASA said in a statement.

In 2016, Langley announced that it was collaborating with Lockheed Martin to assess quiet supersonic technology as part of NASA's latest X-plane initiative New Aviation Horizons.

"We're at the right place, at the right time, with the right technologies," Jaiwon Shin, associate administrator for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, said in a statement. "We need the X-planes to prove, in an undeniable way, how that tech can make aviation more Earth friendly, reduce delays and maintain safety for the flying public, and support an industry that's critical to our nation's economic vitality."


71-Year-Old Sets Blazing Fast Mile World Record&mdashon Low Mileage

Gary Patton runs only once every three days. The other days? Strength training, and lots of it.

Gary Patton of Rock Rapids, Iowa, gave himself a fitting early birthday gift: a world record in the indoor mile for the 70&ndash74 age group. It was something he&rsquod long pursued, and he had improved his training over the past year to chase the goal.

On December 7, a few days before his 72nd birthday, Patton ran 5:29.81 for the mile on the indoor track at the New York Armory.

He broke the previous world record of 5:32.4, which had stood for 30 years.

Patton has been a top age-group runner for a decade, and he holds several American records in the middle distance events. But the indoor mile world record had been elusive&mdashand intriguing.

He first took a serious crack at it last year on the same track, but he ran 5:34.9, missing the mark by two and a half seconds.

As the race last week got under way, Patton settled in and felt relaxed. Perhaps he was a bit too relaxed. To set the record, he needed to cover each quarter mile in a shade over 83 seconds. But when Patton heard his half mile split time of 2:49.2, he realized he was well off pace.

&ldquoI kind of messed up the first half,&rdquo he said. &ldquoAnd when I saw I was almost four seconds off the pace my thought was, &lsquoI&rsquom just going to sprint this sucker and see how long I can last.&rsquo&rdquo

He sped up on each of the remaining four laps to finish in his record time. His take? &ldquoSometimes you just start flying,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand it works out.&rdquo

Patton does not run a lot of miles. But he is adamant about supplementing his running with a full complement of strength work and cross training. Each of the past few years he has tacked a bit more onto the schedule.

&ldquoThis year I&rsquove added a morning session of a lot of squats, push-ups and burpees, and a lot of stretching,&rdquo he said. &ldquoI spend 30 to 40 minutes every morning doing those. And I&rsquom on a three-day rotation with my afternoon workouts&mdashone day of running, one day of weight training, and one day of cross training.&rdquo

Below, Dr. Jordan Metzl demonstrates variations of the burpee as part of his IronStrength workout:

That&rsquos right&mdashPatton runs only once every three days. He also follows a rotation with his running workouts. One day it&rsquos hill repeats. The next day it&rsquos a 7-mile run incorporating long intervals (typically 1200-meter repeats with 400-meter jog recoveries). The third day shorter is intervals (200s and 400s) on the track. He does the same running workout only once every nine days.

&ldquoThe fact that I mix up my training is why I don&rsquot get injured, which is probably my primary advantage over my competition,&rdquo he said. &ldquoI haven&rsquot missed a masters indoor or outdoor national meet since my first one in 2008. Fifteen miles a week or so is easy on the legs.&rdquo

A retired engineer, Patton spends time as a volunteer, helping seniors figure out the Medicare system. &ldquoI sit down next to a lot of 65-year-olds, and I&rsquom thinking to myself, &lsquoBoy, I&rsquom sure glad I&rsquom not in their condition,&rsquo&rdquo he said.

&ldquoYeah, to get to 72 and not have any major health problems&mdashand to still be able to run&mdashyou&rsquore doing a few things right. And you&rsquore also extremely lucky.&rdquo


Lockheed unveils SR-72 hypersonic Mach 6 scramjet spy plane

Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works has confirmed that it is developing the SR-72 spy plane. The successor to the SR-71 Blackbird, which was capable of Mach 3.5, the SR-72 will be a hypersonic unmanned aircraft capable of Mach 6, or just over 4,500 mph. At hypersonic speeds, the SR-72 will be able to traverse any continent in around an hour — meaning, if they’re strategically positioned around the world on aircraft carriers, the US military can strike or surveil any location on Earth in about an hour. It is also suspected that the SR-72’s hypersonic engine tech — some kind of hybrid scramjet — will find its way into the US military’s High Speed Strike Weapon (HSSW), a missile that can theoretically strike anywhere on Earth in just a few minutes.

The SR-71, or Blackbird as you probably know it, was the pinnacle of the US military’s Cold War reconnaissance efforts. Introduced in 1966, the Blackbird, with its hybrid turbojet/ramjet engines, was the fastest manned aircraft in the sky until it was retired in 1998. Despite being utterly massive — 107 feet (32 meters) long with a 55-foot (17-meter) wingspan — the SR-71 only had two crew and no weapons (it was loaded up with cameras, radio antennae, and other surveillance-oriented loadout). Due to high running costs, and reallocation of funds towards other efforts such as UAVs, the SR-71 was retired after 32 years of active service. Of 32 aircraft that were built, 12 were lost in accidents — but none were ever shot down or captured by the enemy.

The SR-72, despite the similar name, is a completely new plane. At the moment, the SR-72 is still only a concept, though Lockheed has now confirmed that the plane is in active development. An optionally piloted scale version of the plane with a single engine will be built in 2018, with test flights scheduled for 2023. If all goes to plan (funding hasn’t yet been secured by Lockheed Martin), a full-size SR-72 (about 100 feet long) will be built and tested by 2030. As it stands, the current plan is for the SR-72 to be unmanned. It will be a very, very large drone. It will probably be unarmed, too, and outfitted entirely for intelligence gathering, though it’s too early to say for sure.

The view out of the window of an SR-71 at 73,000 feet. Look ma, I’m in space!

While the SR-72 will undoubtedly be a paragon of stealth and fashioned from monolithic crystals of titanium wrapped in carbon fiber, its defining feature is its operational speed of Mach 6 — or 4,567 mph (7,350 kph). At this speed, the SR-72 can cross the Atlantic (or Europe or China or…) in about an hour — or circumnavigate the planet in six hours. At an operational altitude of around 80,000 feet (24,300 meters) and Mach 6, the SR-72 will be almost impossible to shoot down.

To reach Mach 6, some aeronautic magic needs to occur, otherwise we would’ve built a Mach 6 aircraft years ago. Basically, turbofan engines — like you would find in every big airliner — are only really efficient up to around Mach 2.5. Ramjets can then take you to around Mach 4, but then they too lose their efficiency. To get to Mach 6, Lockheed’s Skunk Works lab — which has developed such luminaries as the U-2, SR-71, F-22, and F-35 — is working with Aerojet Rocketdyne to create a turbojet/scramjet hybrid engine that uses a turbine at low speeds, and a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) at higher speeds. Like the SR-71, these engines will have the same inlet and nozzle, with some kind of mechanical system that shifts the airflow between the two portions of the engine as airspeed changes. Whereas a ramjet decelerates incoming air to subsonic speeds, a scramjet is supersonic throughout, allowing for much higher air speeds (no one knows quite how fast, but we’re talking about at least Mach 10).

SR-72, hybrid turbine/scramjet engine operation

The SR-72 isn’t the first attempt to crack hypersonic flight, too. Boeing has been working on the X-51 scramjet tech demo for the last decade, and in 2013 it finally completed a successful hypersonic (Mach 5.1, 3,400 mph, 5,400 kph) test flight. The scramjet within the X-51 may eventually find its way into the US military’s High Speed Strike Weapon, an air-launched missile that travels fast enough to evade early warning systems and countermeasures. Hybrid engines, such as the SR-72’s, may eventually find their way into long-range missiles that can travel great distances to strike almost anywhere on Earth.


Electric groupsets

Electric groupsets are commonplace on WorldTour bikes now, in fact, the technology has evolved to the point that it's now considered news if a pro rider doesn't use it.

The three major players all have at least one electronic groupset offering, and it's plain to see that electric shifting is here to stay. SRAM and FSA have even integrated wireless technology into their offerings, and rumours surrounding a new wireless Dura-Ace groupset are gaining traction, too.

Shimano Dura-Ace Di2

Shimano's top-tier electronic groupset

Speeds: 2x11 | Chainrings: 50/34T, 52/36T, 53/39T, 54/42T, 55/42T | Cassettes: 11-25T, 11-28T, 11-30T, 12-25T, 12-28T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: Starting from £3,098 / $3,486 / AU$4,699 | RRP Disc: Starting from £3,590 / $3,776 / AU$4,499

Offering both rim and disc options, Shimano was the first of the big three to jump into electronic drivetrains with its Di2 shifting which spurred Campagnolo and later, SRAM, to follow suit. Though it wasn't the first-ever with Mavic's Zap breaking that ground some 16 years prior.

The latest Dura-Ace Di2 offers synchro and semi-synchro shift, allowing a single shift lever to be used to control both derailleurs for optimum chain line while minimising the jumps in gear ratio.

Dura-Ace is still 11-speed, and the rear derailleur is capable of turning an 11-30T cassette. Shimano has also used its Shadow design for the rear mech, meaning its svelte profile is more out of the way should you hit the deck drive-side down. The cranks are hollow aluminium, and all the chainrings use the same bolt circle diameter &mdash you can have an inner chainring as small as 34t and a big ring with up to 55T. The Dura-Ace crank is also available with an integrated power meter, which utilises strain gauges built into each arm which are hardwired together in the spindle.

Campagnolo Super Record EPS

Campagnolo's top-tier electronic groupset

Speeds: 2x12 | Chainrings: 53/39T, 52/36T, 50/34T | Cassettes: 11-29T, 11-32T, 11-34T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: tarting from £3,809 / $3,939 / AU$7,199 | RRP Disc: Starting from £4,099 / $3,194 / AU$7,709

Campagnolo was fashionably late to the disc brake party, but this tardiness allowed them to avoid the performance and aesthetic growing pains SRAM and Shimano experienced. Using flat-mount callipers, the front comes with fittings for 160mm and 140mm rotors.

As the most expensive drivetrain you can buy, Super Record is heavy on carbon fibre, titanium, and ceramic bearings which drives the price up. The latest EPS V4 features an upgraded junction box, a more compact and longer-lasting battery, and an upgraded front derailleur with more shifting power. Both the mechanical and electronic shifters also feature the famous thumb shifter, and a carbon brake lever complete with reach adjustment.

To make the jump to 12-speed, Campagnolo moved each cog closer together, so the cassette occupies the same space as an 11-speed, which also means a skinnier chain. With three cassette options 11-34T, 11-32T and 11-29T, the one derailleur can handle both, and front chainrings are available in 34T up to 52T.

SRAM Red eTap AXS

SRAM's top-tier electronic wireless groupset

Speeds: 1x12, 2x12 | Chainrings: 46/33T, 48/35T, 50/37T, 36T, 38T, 40T, 42T, 44T, 46T, 48T, 50T | Cassettes: 10-26T, 10-28T, 10-33T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: Starting from £3,159 / $3,488 / AU$3,142 (no chainset) 2x | RRP Disc: Starting from £3,349 / $3,648 / AU$3,929 (no chainset) 2x

Launched at the beginning of 2019, RED eTap AXS is SRAM's top group. It's wireless and electronic and there are 12 gears at the back. It&rsquos available in 1x or 2x versions and features a built-in Quarq power meter, with the extra sprocket at the rear SRAM has removed a few teeth from the front chainring the biggest commercially available double-ring option is now a 50/37T &mdash though the pros have been riding 54/41T rings. However, there is no loss in gear range, which equates to smaller jumps between the cogs.

The chain is also new, with a flat top, it's narrower and also claimed to be stronger and quieter &mdash but some reports suggest it adds some friction to the equation.

The rear derailleur is clutched using a fluid-based damper, which SRAM says doesn't add shifting resistance like a roller bearing clutch system, while also significantly reducing chain bounce and allowing for 1x or 2x setups with the same components.

FSA K-Force WE

FSA's top-tier electronic groupset

Speeds: 2x11 | Chainrings: 53/39T, 52/36T, 50/34T | Cassettes: 11-25T, 11-28T, 11-32T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: Starting from £2,600 / $2,760 / &euro2,859 | RRP Disc: Starting from £2,980 / $TBC / &euro3,270

FSA's first groupset has been years in the making and the component brand has employed a semi-wireless system to wrangle your gears. The front and rear derailleurs are connected to a battery hidden in the seatpost, the front derailleur acts as the brain of the system and houses all the hardware that allows it to talk to the shifters via an ANT+ wireless connection &mdash standard coin cell 2032 batteries power the shifters.

Available in both rim and disc brake options, the shift buttons take the form of a rocker. Instead of trying to build adjustability into the shifters for different sized hands, FSA instead opted for small and large-sized levers.

With 11-speeds at the back, FSA offers its own cassette made from titanium and heat-treated steel and available in three versions 11-25T, 11-28T and 11-32T. The K-Force crank features hollow carbon arms and is based around a four-arm 110BCD with chainrings ranging from 34T to 53T.

SRAM Red eTap

The groupset that paved the way for AXS

Speeds: 2x11 | Chainrings: 46/36T, 50/34T, 52/36T, 53/39T, 55/42T | Cassettes: 11-25T, 11-26T, 11-28T, 11-30T, 11-32T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: Starting from £2,059 / $2,719 / AU$3,440 | RRP Disc: Starting from £2,758 / $2,150 / AU$3,700

Red eTap was the first modern wireless group to hit the market (Mavic was first here too with Mektronic), and it built the foundation for AXS. It no longer sits at the top of SRAM's hierarchy, but it's still a top-performing groupset. eTap was also the first instance we saw of SRAM's intuitive shifting system - press one shifter for a harder gear, the other for an easier one, and both to shift chainrings at the front.

Each component uses its own battery, with the shifters powered by coin cell batteries and the derailleurs using rechargeable versions. Unfortunately, AXS and eTap don't speak the same language and the parts are not compatible with one another.

Available in rim or disc brake varieties eTap has 11 gears at the back and is compatible with SRAM's standard brakes, cranks, cassettes and chains. That said, there is no clutched rear derailleur or 1x solution.

Shimano Ultegra Di2

Shimano's second-tier electronic groupset

Speeds: 2x12 | Chainrings: 46/36T, 50/34T, 52/36T, 53/39T | Cassettes: 11-25T, 11-28T, 11-30T, 11-32T, 11-34T, 12-25T, 14-28T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: Starting from £2,000 / $2,229 / AU$2,999 | RRP Disc: Starting from £1,700 / $1,870 / AU$2,650

Shimano's Ultegra Di2 offers nearly the same performance as the flagship Dura-Ace, with only a small weight penalty and a substantially lower price tag.

With 11 speeds at the back, Ultegra is available with hydraulic disc or standard rim brakes. When it comes to shifting quality and speed, (especially with Di2) the difference between Ultegra and Dura-Ace is negligible and the second tier group also offers Syncro and semi-Syncro shifting.

Ultegra also gets the low profile Shadow rear-derailleur, however with gearing up to 11-34T you will require a mid-cage mech. Shimano also offers a clutched version of the latest Ultegra rear mech for improved chain retention when the tarmac ends &mdash the Japanese outfit also has a gravel-specific GRX group.

Like Dura-Ace, the hollow cranks are only available in one bolt-circle diameter, meaning they will work with chainrings from 34 teeth all the way up to 55. But, if you're after a power meter, you'll have to look for a third-party option.

SRAM Force Etap AXS

A more budget-friendly wireless groupset

Speeds: 1x12, 2x12 | Chainrings: 48/35T, 46/33T, 36T, 38T, 40T, 42T, 44T, 46T, 48T | Cassettes: 10-26T, 10-28T, 10-33T | Brakes: Disc / Rim | RRP Rim: Starting from £2,164 / $2,478 / AU$2,593 2x | RRP Disc: Starting from £2,274 / $2,678 / AU$3,143 2x

Much the same as Ultegra is to Dura-Ace, so SRAM's Force group is to Red. Force AXS is 12-speed, sees the same motors and highspeed chipset in the wireless derailleurs, and the Orbit fluid-based damper too, however, there's a bit less carbon, no ceramic bearings to be found and a small weight penalty over Red.

While the Force AXS chainset is a few grams heavier than the elaborate one-piece Red version, for the consumer we would argue it's a better option. Not only are the one-piece Red chainrings expensive but if you wear one out, or want to go bigger or smaller, you have to replace the integrated power meter too &mdash SRAM does have an exchange program, but it adds a few steps and doesn't reduce the cost all that much.

Force AXS also uses a flat top chain which some friction testing has shown to actually be about half a watt faster than its Red-branded compatriot.

SRAM Rival eTap AXS groupset

The newest addition to the AXS family

Speeds: 1x12, 2x12 | Chainrings: 48/35T, 46/33T, 43/30T, 40T, 46T | Cassettes: 10-30T, 10-36T | Brakes: Disc only | RRP Disc: Starting from £1,102 / $1,190 / AU$TBC

It was always a matter of time until SRAM added its third-tier Rival road groupset to its wireless AXS family, which happened just a couple of months ago. It may be that Rival has a reputation for being a gravel riding groupset, but SRAM says this new electric iteration will double up for use across a multitude of disciplines both on and off the tarmac. It&rsquos available as an electronic groupset only and makes use of full wireless technology and hydraulic disc actuation.

Naturally, SRAM built the Rival eTap AXS around the same blueprint as its other AXS siblings, though the third-tier groupset uses heavier materials to cut costs and make it more affordable. It comes with SRAM&rsquos proprietary flat-top chain and 12-speed X-Range cassette, a spring-actuated clutch rear derailleur and a virtually identical braking system. All the while it retains the same aesthetic and AXS cross-compatibility, and benefits from a nifty DUB-spindle-specific power meter.


Records of the Bureau of Land Management [BLM]

Established: In the Department of the Interior by Secretary's Order 2225, July 15, 1946, implementing Reorganization Plan No. III of 1946, effective July 16, 1946.

Predecessor Agencies:

In the Department of the Treasury:

  • Office of the Secretary of the Treasury (1789-1812)
  • Register of the Treasury (1789-1812)
  • General Land Office (1812-49)

In the Department of State:

In the War Department:

  • Office of the Secretary of War (military land warrants, 1789-1812) Ordnance Department (supervision of lead and copper mines, 1821-46)

In the Department of the Interior:

  • General Land Office (1849-1946)
  • Division of Grazing Control (1934-35)
  • Division of Grazing (1935-39)
  • Grazing Service (1939-46)

Functions: Classifies, manages, and disposes of public lands and their resources according to principles of multiple-use management. Administers federally owned mineral resources on nonfederal lands.

Finding Aids: Preliminary inventory in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Bureau of Land Management and its predecessors in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, RG 48.
Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, RG 75.
Records of the National Park Service, RG 79.
Records of the Forest Service, RG 95.
Records of the Bureau of Reclamation, RG 115.

49.2 GENERAL RECORDS OF THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE AND THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
1796-1981

History: The Federal Government inherited a substantial public domain from its predecessor, the government under the Articles of Confederation. By Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2 of the Constitution, Congress was empowered "to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States." In the act establishing the Treasury Department (1 Stat. 65), September 2, 1789, the Secretary of the Treasury was authorized "to execute such services relative to the sale of the lands belonging to the United States, as may be by law required of him," and the Office of the Register of the Treasury was designated the agency for the collection and dispersal of Treasury revenues. The Secretary of War, in the act establishing the War Department (1 Stat. 50), August 7, 1789, was made responsible for granting military bounty lands (lands to which veterans of the Revolutionary War were entitled by virtue of their military service). Treasury responsibility for administering the public lands was defined initially in the Land Act of 1796 (1 Stat. 464), May 18, 1796, which provided for the orderly survey and sale of lands northwest of the Ohio River. This responsibility was extended geographically and amended procedurally by additional land laws of 1800, 1803, and 1804. The act of 1796 required the Secretary of State to record and issue patents (titles) to public land. The General Land Office Act (2 Stat. 716), April 25, 1812, created the General Land Office (GLO) in the Department of the Treasury to "superintend, execute, and perform, all such acts and things, touching or respecting the public lands of the United States," including those functions formerly vested in the Secretaries of War and State. GLO transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior under provisions of its establishing act (9 Stat. 395), March 3, 1849. GLO and Grazing Service (SEE 49.6) consolidated to form BLM, 1946. SEE 49.1.

49.2.1 Correspondence

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1796-1909. Letters received, 1803-1965, with registers and indexes, including separately filed letters from registers and receivers, 1803-49 and from surveyors general, 1803-71. Letters sent, 1908-48. Telegrams sent, 1909-40.

Microfilm Publications: M25, M27.

49.2.2 Records relating to lands administration

Textual Records: Records relating to power-site reserves, 1909- 61 classifications, 1921-64 restorations, 1909-60 and cancellations, 1918-52. Records relating to power projects, 1920- 67. Records relating to withdrawals of air navigation sites, 1928-59, and stock driveways, 1916-59. Miscellaneous records relating to restorations and reserves of public water, Alaska shore space, reservoirs, and water wells, 1911-64. Mineral land survey approval files, 1874-1964. Forest reserve land list files, 1906-49. Unpatented serial land entry application case files, 1908-64.

49.2.3 Other records

Textual Records: Railroad mortgages, 1886-1938. Register of mining entries, 1875-1907. Federal reimbursements for tax revenues lost by counties in Oregon and California when railroad land grant titles were revested in the United States, 1916-31. Valuation of Indian lands acquired by the United States, 1864- 1908. Records of the Board of Commissioners for the Hot Springs, AR, Reservation, 1877-79. Correspondence concerning Alabama selections under the May 23, 1928, Muscle Shoals Grant, 1915-28. Records relating to the Kaweah Cooperative Colony of California, 1934-35. Annual grazing statistical reports, 1938-69. Records relating to GLO work relief programs, 1933-45. Records of Thomas C. Havel, acting commissioner, consisting of office files, 1924-48 and budget files, 1942-48. Organizational files of headquarters field offices, 1946-80. Records relating to the Federal lands inventory project, 1938-42. School land grant status and use cards, 1806-1933. Presidential Proclamations and Executive Orders affecting Alaska, 1907-15. Manuscript land classification map volumes, 1906-26. Exhibit materials relating to litigation cases, 1887-1917. Case files for lands acquired from cancelled loans, 1934-58. District land office serial number registers, 1908-50. Schedules of allowances, 1912-40. Contest docket binders, 1907-32. Abstracts of collections for desert lands, 1909-12. Forest and range fire control records, 1942-53. Records relating to the organization and function of the Records Improvement Project (RIP), 1955-64. Records of the Office of Legislation and Regulatory Management, consisting of House, Senate, and Joint Resolution bills and other records of the 86th-97th Congresses relating to land management, 1959-81 and records concerning proposed rules and regulations relating to federal land policy, 1971-81. Records of the Branch of Organization and Management, consisting of records relating to organization and management, 1946-62. Records of the Division of Environmental and Planning Coordination, consisting of program planning records, 1954-65. Records of the Office of the Budget, consisting of budget estimates, 1971-78.

49.3 RECORDS OF OPERATING DIVISIONS OF THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE
1715-1962 (bulk 1770-1962)

History: GLO division-level functions date from the beginning of federal responsibility for administration and disposal of public lands. Specialization of function began well before GLO first assigned alphabetical designations to and denominated its operating units as divisions, August-September 1867. All GLO divisions not abolished in the interim were discontinued upon merger of GLO and Grazing Service to form BLM, 1946. The National Archives has continued to assign BLM-generated records to selected GLO series.

49.3.1 Records of Division "A" (Chief Clerk's Division)

History: Established by order of the Chief Clerk, September 1, 1867, and designated as Division "A." Known also as the Chief Clerk's Office. Exercised general supervision over the activities of the GLO and its personnel, equipment, expenditures, and requisitions. Supervised appointments and promotions, leaves of absence, and officers' bonds. Conducted correspondence with local land officers and the surveyors general. Inspected offices of surveyors general, administered the establishment of new land districts, and made changes in land district locations and boundaries. Published notices of intent to offer final proof and managed the opening and sale of land on Indian reservations.

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to GLO operations, 1813- 1950. Personnel records, 1820-1926. Divisional scrapbooks, 1904- 20. Appointment notices to registers and receivers, 1841-44. Circulars sent, 1850-54. Letters sent by the receiving clerk, 1871-1910. Office files of the associate director, 1938-47, and of the Chief of Division "A," 1924-47. Oil shale lands investigation files of the GLO Denver, CO, field division chief, 1920-33. "Stock driveway files" relating to public lands in the west used as stock trails, 1916-50.

49.3.2 Records of Division "B" (Recorder's Division)

History: Position of Recorder dates from at least 1837. No specific date determined for establishment of Recorder's Division as Division "B." Had responsibility for all GLO land patent activities, including affixing of GLO seal, engrossing, recording, and transmitting of patents. Administered military bounty land warrants (special certificates, redeemable for public land, which were issued to veterans pursuant to statutes enacted between 1788 and 1855 [see below]) and land scrip (scrip issued in accordance with laws passed between 1830 and 1872 [see below] and exchangeable for public land). These latter responsibilities were transferred to Division "R" in 1905.

Bounty land warrant acts: July 9, 1788 (39 Journals of the Continental Congress 306) April 7, 1798 (1 Stat. 547) March 3, 1803 (2 Stat. 236) April 15, 1806 (2 Stat. 378) December 24, 1811 (2 Stat. 669) January 11, 1812 (2 Stat. 672) March 5, 1816 (3 Stat. 356) July 27, 1842 (5 Stat. 497) February 11, 1847 (9 Stat. 125) September 28, 1850 (9 Stat. 520) March 22, 1852 (10 Stat. 4) and March 3, 1855 (10 Stat. 701).

Land scrip acts: Military Bounty Land Scrip, May 30, 1830 (4 Stat. 422) same, March 2, 1833 (4 Stat. 665) same, March 3, 1835 (4 Stat. 770) Surveyor General Scrip, July 4, 1836 (5 Stat. 107) Choctaw Scrip, August 23, 1842 (5 Stat. 515) same, March 3, 1845 (5 Stat. 777) Sioux Half-Breed Scrip, July 17, 1854 (10 Stat. 304) Chippewa Half-Breed Scrip, treaty of September 30, 1854 (10 Stat. 1109) Surveyor General Scrip, June 2, 1858 (11 Stat. 294) Sioux Half-Breed Scrip, May 19, 1858 (11 Stat. 292) Porterfield Scrip, April 11, 1860 (12 Stat. 836) Supreme Court Scrip, June 22, 1860 (12 Stat. 85) Agricultural College Scrip, July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503) Chippewa Half-Breed Scrip, treaty of October 2, 1863 (14 Stat. 669) same, treaty of April 12, 1864 (14 Stat. 690) Supreme Court Scrip, March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 544) same, June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 378) and Valentine Land Scrip, April 5, 1872 (17 Stat. 649).

Textual Records: Letters sent relating to patents, 1817-1908. Abstracts, notices of caveats, and other records relating to bounty land warrants, 1817-1906. Register of Ohio land patents, 1805-19. Docket of Surveyors General scrip certificates, 1866- 1917. Location registers of Choctaw, Sioux Half-Breed, Chippewa, Porterfield, Valentine Land, Surveyor General, and Supreme Court Scrip, 1846-1908. Records relating to Virginia military bounty land warrants (issued by the state to its Revolutionary War veterans and exchangeable for patents to land in the Virginia Military District in Ohio), 1784-1886, including entry and survey books for the Virginia Military District, 1784-1813 with name indexes to warrantees and patentees, 1782-1838. Records concerning the conveyances or locations of warrants granting public lands for service in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican War, and Indian wars and frontier skirmishes, 1788-1855, including lands patented by Canadian and Nova Scotian refugees, 1802-11. Records relating to the issuance of land scrip, 1830-62, including exchanged warrants, applications for scrip, scrip stubs, indexes, lists, copies of the scrip issued for warrants, Agricultural College Scrip, Chippewa Half-Breed Scrip, Choctaw Scrip, and Surveyor General Scrip. Correspondence relating to the Brothertown (Brotherton) Indians, 1839-40. Lists of approved patents forwarded from Division B to the GLO, 1908-49.

Microfilm Publications: M68, M829, M848, T1008.

Maps (1,072 items): Plats of townships in CA, CO, OR, ID, MT, NM, SD, and WY, showing mines and mining claims and, in some instances, patent numbers and dates and survey and document numbers, 1872-96. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.3.3 Records of Division "C" (Public Lands Division)

History: Position of Principal Clerk of Public Lands dates from at least 1837. Designated as Division "C" by order of Chief Clerk, August 30, 1867. Primarily responsible for adjudication of land claims, including cases arising under the Graduation Act (10 Stat. 574), August 4, 1854, which called for price reductions on unsold public land, and under the superseding Homestead Act (12 Stat. 392), May 20, 1862, which allowed issuing of patents after five years' occupation to improvers of public land. Administered provisions of the Timber and Stone Act (20 Stat. 89), June 3, 1878. Responsible for posting lands and maintaining tract books, until new Division "O" (Posting and Tract Book Division) established, April 12, 1907.

Textual Records: Letters sent relating to public land disposals, 1796-1908. Records of cases submitted to the Board of Equitable Adjudication, 1877-1910. Records relating to abandoned, voluntarily relinquished, canceled, suspended, amended, and reinstated homestead entries, 1868-78. Letters sent relating to posting and tract books, 1885-89. Numerical abstracts of cash entries ("Division 'O' Cash Books"), 1886-89. Numerical abstracts of final homestead entries ("Division 'O' Final Books"), 1885-89. Selected issuances of the General Land Office, 1916-17.

Related Records: Tract books maintained by Division "C" to 1907 and subsequently by Division "O," UNDER 49.4.

49.3.4 Records of Division "D" (Private Land Claims Division)

History: Position of Principal Clerk of Private Land Claims dates from at least 1837. Designated as Division "D" by order of the Chief Clerk, September 1, 1867. Responsible for all matters relating to private land claims based on titles granted by former governments in territories acquired by the United States. Supervised the activities of boards of land commissioners appointed to consider such claims. Administered the Preemption Act (4 Stat. 420), May 29, 1830, as extended by acts of 1832, 1834, and 1838, and made permanent by the Preemption Act of 1841 (5 Stat. 453), September 4, 1841, which gave a preferential purchase right to the improvers of unsold public land. Abolished by Chief Clerk, June 27, 1895, and functions assigned to Division "G" (SEE 49.3.8).

Textual Records: Correspondence, docket books, court records, claims, certificate lists, reports, proceedings, and other records, 1715-1909 (bulk 1788-1909), relating to private land claims in the states of AL, AZ, AR, CO, IL, IN, LA, MI, MS, MO, and NM, including claims based upon Spanish and Mexican land grants. Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of California for the "rancho" period, and consisting of "complete expedientes" (1-579), "incomplete expedientes" (1-315), transcripts and translations of documents submitted in support of titles in cases 1-809 before the Board of California Land Claims Commissioners, a journal and minutes of board proceedings, and lists or indexes to land grants, 1852-56. Records relating to private land claims in Florida, including warrants and survey plats, chiefly about British private grants, 1824-98 a few records of the Governor and Council of West Florida, 1770-79 and reports, correspondence, and lists concerning the Spanish archives of East and West Florida and the attempts by the Department of the Interior to trace and acquire them, 1848-98.

Maps (7,418 items): Plats of private land claims in AZ, CA, CO, FL, LA, IL, MO, and NM, 1853-1915 (2,918 items). "Complete exedientes," nos. 1-579 "incomplete expedientes," nos. 1-315 "case expedientes," and "disenos" received from the California Board of Land Commissioners, 1852-56 (4,500 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.3.5 Records of Division "D" (Mail and Files Division)

History: Established by order of the Chief Clerk, December 12, 1906, absorbing functions previously assigned to registering room of Division "A" and file clerks of Division "B." Maintained general files of GLO and distributed all correspondence. Known also as "New D" to distinguish it from earlier Division "D," Private Land Claims Division (SEE 49.3.4).

Textual Records: Executive orders and proclamations relating to notices of land sales, opening and closing of land offices, withdrawal or restoration of land for military reservations, national parks and forests, wildlife refuges, and reservoirs, 1806-1949.

49.3.6 Records of Division "E" (Surveying Division)

History: Position of Principal Clerk of the Surveys dates from at least 1837. Designated as Division "E" by order of Chief Clerk, September 1, 1867. Absorbed Division "L" (Drafting Division), February 26, 1925. Exercised general supervision over all public surveys and resurveys, including those made of Indian reservations, national forests, national parks, reclamation projects, railroad land grants, private land claims, town sites, and military reservations. Directed cadastral (boundary) surveys and resurveys. For additional administrative history, SEE 49.8.

Textual Records: Letters sent to executive departments, 1864- 1903. Letters sent to registers and receivers, 1883-94. Letters received by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Commissioner of the GLO from the Surveyor General of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, 1797-1831. Reports, letters, and memorandums received from surveyors general of public land states, including records of the Surveyors General of MS, 1803-31 MO, 1813-32 AL, 1817-32 and FL, 1824-32. Letters, with registers and indexes, and other records received from surveyors general, ca. 1826-83. Contracts with deputy surveyors, 1817-32. Surveyors contracts and bonds with surveyors general, 1851-1913, including correspondence, special instructions, and diagrams. Records relating to surveys of state boundaries, military reservations, islands, townsites, private land claims, and national parks, 1860-1940. Group survey records created after surveyors general discontinued hiring deputy surveyors in 1910, including reports, correspondence, special instructions, and plats and copies of progress reports, 1910-62. Records that relate to surveying small islands, 1910-26. Field notes from survey examinations, ca. 1883- 1913. Plats, field notes, correspondence, and other records relating to rejected and abandoned surveys, ca. 1847-1915. Records relating to Alaskan surveys, 1918-53, and to homestead entry and forest exchange surveys in national forests, 1910-53.

Field notes compiled during township surveys of the public land states of AL, IN, IA, KS, MO, OH, WI, the Indian Territory, and parts of OR and WA, 1785-1946 (in College Park). Field notes and related textual records and maps ("Old Case F File") of state, territorial, and Indian-land boundaries, including notes of the dependent resurvey of the boundaries of a few reservations, 1809- 1938 (in College Park). Field notebooks from townsite surveys, 1844-93 (in College Park).

Microfilm Publications: M478, M1325, M1329, T1234, T1240.

Maps (52,324 items): Township plats from surveys made by deputy surveyors supervised by surveyors general in the seven ranges in OH (the first public land survey), AL, IN, IA, KS, MO, other parts of OH, WI, the Indian Territory, and parts of OR and WA, some of which are annotated to show land entry numbers and entrymen's names, 1785-1946 (40,000 items). Township exterior boundary plats showing the perimeter of each township as approved by the surveyor general for most of the public land states, 1786- 1910 (7,269 items). Township exterior boundary plats for the Indian Territory, 1856-92 (96 items). Manuscript and annotated maps ("Old Map File") showing development and disposal of public lands in the United States, individual states, and territories, including progress of surveys, land district boundaries, Indian and military reservations, forest and national park reserves, private land claims, and special surveys including the site of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, NY, 1790-1946 (1,388 items). Manuscript boundary survey maps relating to public land states and territories and Indian-land boundaries that later became state boundaries, 1799-1927 (264 items). Plats showing Indian grants and reserves in IN, MI, and OH, 1807-49 (100 items) and in KS and NE, 1857-65 (39 items). Plats of proposed townsites in public land states, including Alaska, showing street layouts, 1825-1915 (550 items). Plats showing naval timber reserve requirements in AL, FL, LA, and MS, 1827-48 (111 items) and naval petroleum reserves in CA, 1908-14 (167 items). Plats marked to show the status of public land withdrawals in CO, MT, and NM, 1930-35 (2,000 items). Maps from special field examinations and resurveys, including islands and river changes not shown in the original plats, 1917-66 (340 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

Related Records: For tract books and land entry papers, SEE 49.4.

49.3.7 Records of Division "F" (Railroads, Rights-of-Way, and Reclamation Division)

History: Organized, 1872. Assumed responsibility for canals, ditches, and reservoirs, formerly under Division "C." Had taken over responsibility for railroads, including rights-of-way, probably from Division "C," by 1877. Administered GLO responsibilities with respect to rights-of-way, easements, and permits power sites desert land entries reclamation work and withdrawals and restorations of land under the Withdrawal Act (36 Stat. 847), June 25, 1910.

Textual Records: Letters sent relating to lands granted for railroads, canals, and reservoirs, 1856-1908. Dockets relating chiefly to contests concerning railroad land grants that conflicted with private entries, 1867-1909. "Selection" and "adjustment" lists reflecting selection of land for railroads and wagon roads, 1829-1935. "Canal and reservoir grants," 1891-1929, with an index, relating to lands granted for irrigation purposes under the Canal and Ditch Companies Right of Way Act (26 Stat. 1095), March 3, 1891. Records ("Railroad Rights-of-way Files"), 1878-1931, concerning rights-of-way granted railroads across public lands under the Railways Right of Way Act (18 Stat. 482), March 3, 1875. Ledger of deposits by railroad companies to reimburse the United States for the cost of surveying lands, 1880- 1939. Records relating to rights-of-way for railroads and highways across Indian reservations, 1908-45 and to rights- of-way across forest reserves, 1908-39. Records relating to reclamation projects on public lands ("Reclamation Project Files"), 1901-50. New Mexico right-of-way serial number case files, 1956-64.

Maps (10,478 items): Manuscript and annotated maps showing rights-of-way through public lands for railroads, military and other wagon roads, highways, canals, irrigation ditches, transmission lines, reservoirs, and quarries, 1851-1939 with index to maps for canals, reservoirs, and ditches, n.d. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.3.8 Records of Division "G" (Preemption Division)

History: Established by order of the Chief Clerk, September 1, 1867, acquiring responsibility for preemptions from Division "D," Private Land Claims Division, in which function had been vested since at least 1859. Division "G" known as Preemption Division since 1877. Adjudicated and adjusted land grants to states and corporations. Handled preemption claims by entrymen and corporations on the public domain. Adjudicated contest cases between preemption claimants and corporations. Upon abolishment of Division "D," June 27, 1895, its principal functions were assigned to Division "G."

Textual Records: Letters sent relating to preemptions and grants to states for schools, townsites, and other state selections, 1832-1908. School selection and school indemnity selection lists and other records concerning grants to states for schools and other purposes, 1826-1919.

49.3.9 Records of Division "H" (Contests Division)

History: Established as Contest Board prior to April 16, 1887. Known also as "New H" to distinguish it from earlier Division "H," Military Warrant Division, established, 1859, and abolished between 1881 and 1883. Division "H" handled homestead contest cases arising from conflicting claims to the same tract of land and from disputes between entrymen and contestants alleging failure to comply with the terms for settlement and seeking cancellation of entry, and cases deriving from government investigations of possible fraud or misrepresentation. Contests Division abolished by order of the Chief Clerk, February 25, 1923, with functions distributed among Divisions "C," "F," "G," "K," and "N." (SEE 49.3.3, 49.3.7, 49.3.8, 49.3.10, and 49.3.14.) All docketed homestead contest case files, 1883-1908, were destroyed as "useless papers" by the GLO pursuant to House Report 358, 69th Congress, 1st session, February 24, 1926.

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1887-1908. Dockets of contested cases, 1883-1910, with name indexes. Appeals dockets, 1883-1909. Records of appealed cases, 1893-94.

49.3.10 Records of Division "K" (Reclamation, Swampland, and Special Entries Division)

History: Swamp Lands Division established about 1859, designated Division "K" about September 1, 1867. Initially responsible for administering swampland selections and cancellation of swampland lists. Name changed to Reclamation, Swamplands, and Special Entries Division following assignment to Division "K" of responsibility for abandoned military and Indian reservations, arid lands, homestead entries in forests, and logging in Chippewa ceded lands, April 12, 1907. Subsequently made responsible for townsites, bounty land warrants and preemptions, Indian allotments and homesteads, agricultural college and similar scrip, Indian exchange selections, lieu claims (after 1917), and Minnesota drainage entries.

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1890-91, 1907-8. Letters received from and other records of or relating to boards of townsite trustees, Oklahoma, 1893-96 (in Fort Worth). Records of boards of townsite trustees in Alaska, 1906-70. Federal townsite docket files, 1837-1955. Files concerning abandoned military reservations and some nonmilitary reservations, such as lighthouses and lifesaving stations, 1822-1940, with index. Reports, correspondence, and other records relating to swamplands granted to states, 1849-1909. Records relating to swamp and overflowed lands, 1849-1929. "Indian Reserve files" relating to Indian allotment applications for land, 1839-1916 with a register, 1855-1916. Records of the GLO Washington office, 1897- 1938, and the Office of the Superintendent of Logging at Cass Lake, MN, 1903-38, relating to logging on Chippewa ceded lands in Minnesota.

Maps (1,240 items): Township plats and diagrams of lands on Indian reservations in the northwestern and north central states, showing the classification and status of lands offered for settlement, and in AZ and NM showing railroad land grant sections, 1904-31. SEE ALSO 49.16.

Related Records: Additional records of Oklahoma boards of townsite trustees UNDER 49.10.2.

49.3.11 Records of Division "L" (Drafting Division)

History: Originally a part of Division "E" (Surveying Division). Separate "Draughting Division" existed by 1880. Responsible for compiling, engraving, and publishing the annual United States Map. Compiled and revised state maps. Had custody of original plats, field notes, and photolithographic copies of township plats. Absorbed by Division "E," February 26, 1925. (SEE 49.3.6.) Known also as "Old L" to distinguish it from new Division "L" (Law Division).

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1888-1915. Correspondence relating to withdrawals and restorations, 1903-18.

49.3.12 Records of predecessors of Division "L" (Law Division)

History: Position of Solicitor established by 1837. Board of Law Review under Division "A" until November 29, 1886, when designated as Division "O." Division "O" abolished, July 8, 1889, and supervision of Board reverted to Division "A." Board redesignated as separate Division "L" (Law Division), May 11, 1925. Responsible for reviewing all land law decisions advising on proposed regulations and legislation and handling criminal, trespass, and cancellation of patent cases. Known also as "New L," to distinguish it from old Division "L" (Drafting Division).

Textual Records: Register of letters received by the Board of Law Review, 1887-89. Office file of Law Examiner W.P. Pugh, Board of Law Review, 1907-21.

49.3.13 Records of Division "M" (Accounting Division)

History: Designated as Division "M," 1877. Supervised accounts of GLO central offices (Washington, DC) and field offices, including those of receivers, surveyors general, special disbursing agents, and local land offices.

Textual Records: Letters sent by the Solicitors' Bureau, 1836-53. Letters sent, 1857-1909, 1918-33. Correspondence, 1934-47. Accounting records, relating to such special accounts as those for timber depredation, contingent surveying, and Indian and swamp lands, ca. 1802-1909. Record of repayments, 1910-16. Survey returns, 1852-1913, and contract books, 1857-1951. Bond books, 1820-1946 and sureties, 1874-1923. Ledgers, 1908-25. Public and Indian land disposals, 1885-1925. Mineral lease receipts, 1919- 25.

49.3.14 Records of Division "N" (Mineral Division)

History: Designated as Division "N," September 1, 1867. Adjudicated mineral contests and applications for patents and leases of mineral lands, including coal lands. Adjusted conflicts between mineral and nonmineral claims.

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1844-1908. Registers of letters received, 1866-1909. Registers of mining claims, 1878-1908 and agricultural claims, 1878-1911. Registers of mineral patents, 1889-1913. Records of appeals and decisions in mineral contest cases, 1870-1909. Dockets relating chiefly to contests concerning mineral lands that conflicted with private entries, 1870-1909. Records relating to coal lands classification and restoration, oil and gas structures, and forest withdrawals, 1907-27. Indexes to mineral contest dockets, 1929-42.

Maps (45,367 items): Survey plats of mineral claims in AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, NM, OR, SD, UT, WA, and WY, 1872- 1908. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.3.15 Records of Division "P" (Timber Depredations and Special Services Division)

History: Timber Division, responsible for timber trespass cases, in existence by 1859. Earliest reference to Division "P" is as Timber Depredations Division, 1880, and Special Services Division, 1884. Designated as Field Service Division, April 24, 1907. Protected the public lands from unlawful entry or appropriation and from timber and other trespasses. Supervised work force of special agents employed for that purpose. Prepared cases of violations for the Justice Department. Had charge of all matters relating to timber on unreserved public lands. Consolidated with GLO field force as Division "FS," March 3, 1913. (SEE 49.3.17).

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1862-1910. Registers of letters received, 1877-1907. Registers, 1882-1903, and press copies, 1884-1909, of reports by special timber agents. Entry docket books, 1884-88. Homestead contests dockets and forest reserve appeals dockets, 1891-98. Legal opinions of the Board of Law Review relating to contest cases filed with Division "P," 1908- 21. Contest dockets, 1883-1910. Timber trespass case records, 1879-1904. Timber trespass dockets and docket books, 1887-1907. Timber permit dockets, 1892-99, and docket books, 1897-99. Timber sales dockets, 1898-1900.

49.3.16 Records of Division "R" (Forestry Division)

History: The work of caring for the forests was conducted by the Special Services Division "P" until Division "R" established, February 28, 1901, with responsibility for forest lieu selections. Abolished, February 14, 1911, with functions to Divisions "P" and "K." (SEE 49.3.15 and 49.3.10.) Known also as "Old R" to distinguish it from new Division "R" (Government Contests), established as Division "U," 1910, redesignated as "R," April 17, 1911, and absorbed by Division "H," March 24, 1914.

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1891-1911. Registers of letters received, 1899-1907. National forest reserves docket books, 1891- 1907, with index. Forestry Division docket books, 1900-6. National forest files, 1891-1955. Miscellaneous "scrapbooks" relating to other divisions and including copies of orders and circulars relating to public land law, ca. 1850-1920.

49.3.17 Records of Division "FS" (Field Service Division)

History: A field force of "timber depredation agents," established 1883, merged with Division "P" (SEE 49.3.15) to form Division "FS," March 3, 1913. Examined and acted on reports of special agents concerning fraudulent land entries and claims, timber trespasses, timber depredations, and unlawful enclosure. Abolished February 20, 1925, with functions to Divisions "A" and "K." (SEE 49.3.1 and 49.3.10).

Field Division Office No. 2 (San Francisco, CA) and Field Division Office No. 7 (Denver, CO) were two of 12 GLO Field Division offices as defined by GLO circular of November 7, 1910. Continued operations at least through June 30, 1932. Became part of Division of Investigations, Department of the Interior, 1933. Became Office of Regional Field Examiner in GLO's Branch of Field Examinations, June 1942. Continued as such under BLM at least through November 1946. Eventually became BLM regional Land Planning Divisions.

Textual Records: Personal letters received by the GLO Commissioner, 1899-1923. Correspondence, 1905-33. Records of the Division of Investigations, consisting of subject files, 1922-31 miscellaneous administrative subject files of the Chief of Field Division, 1920-40 Washington headquarters administrative files, 1931-42 card record of lieu selections and holding claims, 1900-32 closed Field Service ("FS") case files, 1926-29 closed Investigation Division ("ID") case files, 1933-42 closed Eastern Division ("ED") case files, 1934-42 decisions relating to investigations, 1940-42 numerical index to "FS" attorney files. 1888-1923 charges against special agents and other officials, 1910-18 alphabetical and numerical indexes, 1930-31 and miscellaneous indexes, n.d. Records of the Branch of Field Examinations ("BFE"), including index to administrative files, 1946-47 and indexes to closed files, 1936-47. Reports of special agents, 1899-1910, and of charges against special agents, 1911- 24. Card files of soldiers' additional homestead entries, 1862- 1919, and of claims for forest lieu selections, 1922-54. Administrative files, 1908-33. Contest dockets, 1910-48. Attorney files, 1888-1923. Timber trespass and permit files, 1909-25. Unlawful timber enclosure files, 1909-25. Records of Field Division Office No. 2 (in San Francisco), consisting of an investigative case file related to U.S. v. Southern Pacific Railroad, 1898-1916 issuances, 1905-30 and an index to land selections made by the State of California, 1907-17. Records of Field Division Office No. 7 (in Denver), consisting of correspondence from agents operating in CA, NE, ND, SD, OK, and WY, 1890-1907.

49.3.18 Records of Division "SRP" (Surplus Real Property Division)

Textual Records: Files of C.W. Kershaw, division chief, 1945-47 and Francis L. McFarren, acting chief, 1945-47. Records concerning disposal of surplus lands and facilities after World War II, 1945-47. Disposal case files, 1945-47. Index to letters received relating to the disposition of surplus property or to property being considered for designation as surplus, 1945-47.

49.4 LAND STATUS RECORDS
1800-1973

History: The GLO, in exercising its responsibility for the orderly transfer of land from the public domain under general land laws, generated case files (commonly known as land entry papers) containing land descriptions, financial records, and records showing successive steps taken to secure the issuance of land titles or patents. The papers originated in Divisions "B," "F," "G," "H," "K," and "R," and were maintained by Division "D" (Mail and Files Division). The responsibility for posting land and maintaining the central office set of tract books (volumes in which the legal descriptions of land entries were recorded and that serve as geographical indexes to the papers) was vested in Division "C" (Public Lands Division) to April 12, 1907, and subsequently in Division "O" (Posting and Tract Book Division). The National Archives has continued to assign BLM-generated records to the GLO-originated series of land entry papers and tract books.

Textual Records: Nonmilitary land entry papers, 1800-1973 with an alphabetical index to the names of applicants, 1908-47, and a numerical serial index, 1908-65. Tract books, ca. 1800-1964. Monthly abstracts of entries submitted to the central land office by district land office registers and receivers, 1800-1908. Record copies of patents issued by GLO for land in the western states, excluding those bordering on the Mississippi River, ca. 1855-1907. Registers of entries of mining lands, 1868-1908, with indexes. Mineral patents, 1868-1908, with index. Name index to land entries made in AL, AK, AZ, FL, LA, NV, and UT, 1800-1908. List of canceled mineral land applications, 1871-97 and index to canceled mineral entries, 1898-1907. List of approved indemnity school lands and state selections, 1866-1934.

Microfilm Publications: M145, M203, M815.

Finding Aids: Harry P. Yoshpe and Philip P. Brower, comps., Preliminary Inventory of the Land-Entry Papers of the General Land Office, PI 22 (1949, reprinted 1976).

Related Records: Maps, plats, and field notes of township surveys UNDER 49.3.6, Records of Division "E" (Surveying Division).

49.5 RECORDS OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT RELATING TO LEAD MINES
1824-47 (bulk 1842-47)

History: A general land law of March 3, 1807 (2 Stat. 449), directed that mineral (lead) lands on the public domain were to be reserved from sale and leased to developers. At the request of Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford, on behalf of the GLO, which had found the demand for leasing insufficiently productive of revenue, President James Monroe transferred the function to the War Department, November 29, 1821, where it would be managed for the benefit of the army's demand for rifle shot. Secretary of War John C. Calhoun delegated the responsibility to the Ordnance Department, where the Chief of Ordnance, Col. George Bomford, responding to the failure of Congress to provide appropriations to cover the employment of civilians as mineral agents, initiated the practice, in 1822, of detailing army officers to superintend the mines. These officers were variously, and unofficially, styled as "U.S. Mineral Agents" and "Superintendents, U.S. Lead Mines." Miners' resistance to War Department oversight was such that President James Polk advised Congress in his annual message, December 22, 1845, that leasing was costing the government more to administer than it raised for the treasury. By an act of July 11, 1846 (9 Stat. 37), therefore, the leasing policy was abandoned. The lead lands were returned to the administration of the GLO for disposal under provisions of general land laws.

Textual Records: Correspondence, permits and leases, lists of mineral lands, and accounting records of officers in charge of leasing lead and copper lands in IL, WI, and MI, 1824-47 (bulk 1842-47).

Related Records: Records relating to mineral lands, 1821-60, in RG 156, Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance.

49.6 RECORDS OF THE GRAZING SERVICE
1917-58

History: Established in the Department of the Interior as the Division of Grazing Control pursuant to the Taylor Grazing Act (48 Stat. 1269), June 28, 1934. Name shortened to Division of Grazing, early 1935. Redesignated the Grazing Service by Departmental Order 1416, effective August 26, 1939. Administered, through a regional office system, 60 grazing districts aggregating 142,000,000 acres. Consolidated with the GLO, 1946, to form the BLM. Grazing Service functions subsequently combined with those of the Range Development Service, GLO, to form the Branch of Range Management, BLM. SEE 49.1 and 49.11.

49.6.1 Records of headquarters

History: Administrative headquarters, initially established in Washington, DC, transferred to Salt Lake City, UT, 1941.

Textual Records (in Denver, except as noted): General correspondence, 1934-46 (56 ft., in Washington Area). Range management correspondence, 1934-46 (in Washington Area). Range appraisal reports, 1939-41 (in Washington Area). General correspondence, 1941-45. Correspondence of Grazing Service Director F.R. Carpenter, 1935-41. Correspondence relating to cooperative projects, 1940-43. Correspondence relating to grazing districts, 1934-39. Correspondence relating to organization and management of the Grazing Service, 1937-42. Range management subject file, 1933-37 (30 ft.). Legislative records, 1934-40. Administrative records, 1934-47. Grazing Service reports, 1942- 48. Records relating to Grazing Service studies, 1941-51. Job load analyses, 1938-41. Financial records, 1939-42, 1947, 1950. Records relating to stock driveways, 1917-49.

Maps (197 items): Grazing district boundaries, ca. 1940 (1 item). Specific grazing districts in AZ, CO, and NM showing status of lands, 1934-45 (196 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.6.2 Records of Grazing Service branches

Textual Records: Case files of the Branch of Range Management, relating to issuance of grazing licenses and permits and to appeals of range apportionments, 1934-46.

49.6.3 Records of Grazing Service regional offices

History: Regional system in place by mid-1937. Consisted of a regional field office headquarters in Salt Lake City, UT, with nine statewide regional offices, designated as Region 2 (UT), Salt Lake City, UT Region 3 (NV and CA), Reno, NV Region 4 (OR), Burns, OR Region 5 (ID), Boise, ID Region 6 (MT), Billings, MT Region 7 (NM), Albuquerque, NM Region 8 (CO), Grand Junction, CO Region 9 (AZ), Phoenix, AZ and Region 10 (WY), Rawlins, WY.

Textual Records: Records of Grazing Service Region 3 (in San Francisco), consisting of grazing district boundary records of the Regional Grazier, 1932-46 and northeast Nevada range and economic study records of Nevada District No. 2, 1938-41. Records of Grazing Service Region 7 (in Denver), consisting of general subject files, 1936-43 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) work project files, 1935-42 and plats of stock driveways and grazing districts, 1934-41. Records of Grazing Service Region 9 (in Los Angeles), including CCC camp records, 1935-52 (52 ft.), and other records, 1938-58, of the Regional Grazier and subject files of Arizona District No. 3, 1939-57. Records of Grazing Service Region 10 (in Denver), consisting of range survey records of Wyoming District No. 2, 1938-41.

49.6.4 Records relating to Civilian Conservation Corps activities

Textual Records (in Denver): General correspondence, 1933-42. Correspondence relating to CCC camp construction, 1935-38 and work programs, 1935-39. Camp histories, 1933-45. Administrative records, 1935-43. Records of the Winter Emergency Relief Program, 1936. Narrative reports of camp programs, 1940-43 and of individual CCC camps, 1936-38. Camp inspection reports, 1938-42. Weekly, statistical, and summary reports, 1935-39. Records relating to training activities, 1931-45. Records relating to fires and accidents, 1938-42. Handbooks, manuals, and publications, 1936-42.

Maps (52 items, in Denver): State road maps annotated to show locations of CCC camps, 1936-42. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7 RECORDS OF SURVEYORS GENERAL
1685-1965 (bulk 1797-1965)

History: Surveyors general directed land surveys in individual states and territories. First surveyor general appointed to superintend the survey of the territories northwest of the Ohio River pursuant to the Land Act of 1796 (1 Stat. 464), May 18, 1796. Additional surveyors general authorized by Congress as required to direct the work of contract surveyors. When contract surveyors were superseded by GLO surveyors, organized as the Field Surveying Service (FSS), 1910, the surveyors general became primarily administrators and oversight managers for their jurisdictions. Position of surveyor general abolished, effective July 1, 1925, by the Interior Department Appropriation Act for FY 1926 (43 Stat. 1144), March 3, 1925, and implementing GLO General Office Circular 996, April 7, 1925, with functions devolving upon the FSS (SEE 49.8).

49.7.1 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Alaska

Textual Records (in Anchorage): Departmental letters received, 1894-1921. Letters sent to deputy surveyors, 1897-1900. Circulars, 1882-1923. Miscellaneous letters received by the Surveyor General, 1890-1921.

49.7.2 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Arizona

Textual Records (in Los Angeles, except as noted): Letters sent, 1871-1923. Letters received, 1856-1947. Administrative records, 1870-1928. Records of mineral surveys, 1871-1950, and homestead surveys within national forests, 1909-50. Mineral survey case files, 1871-1965 (in Denver). Group survey case files, 1911-65 (in Denver). Records relating to cases before the U.S. Court of Private Land Claims, 1879-1904.

Maps (4,266 items): Blueprint maps of homestead surveys within national forests, with accompanying field notes, 1909-23 (266 items, in Los Angeles). Survey plats, ca. 1868-1960 (4,000 items, in Denver). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.3 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Arkansas

Textual Records (in Fort Worth, except as noted): Letters sent and received, 1840-59. Correspondence, 1831-59 (in Washington Area). Statement of accounts, 1867-78.

49.7.4 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of California

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Letters sent and received, 1906-21. Correspondence and other records, 1896-1910. Records of fiscal year accounts and summary of expenditures, 1877-79. Requests for field notes, 1908-12. Instructions to U.S. surveyors, 1912-18. Records of Deputy Surveyors, 1896-1917. Contracts and bonds for Deputy Surveyors issued by the Surveyor General, 1900-11. Instructions to Deputy Surveyors approved by the Agricultural Division, 1906-21. Correspondence of the mineral inspector, 1912-19. Record of authorities to make mineral surveys, 1906-21. Reports of approval, mineral surveys, 1912-21. Record of mining notes, 1906-19. Statement of special deposits for surveys of mining claims, 1873-1920. Official field notes of national forest surveys, 1904-6. Field notes of south and east borders of San Jacinto Forest Reserve, 1904-5. Records relating to swamplands designations and court case, State of California v. U.S., 1907-17. Trespass docket, 1903-6.

49.7.5 Records of the Surveyor General of Colorado

Textual Records (in Denver): Correspondence, 1861-1934. Records relating to surveys, including applications, contracts, bonds, instructions, and location certificates, 1861-1939 (300 ft.). Mineral survey field notes, 1868-1954 (195 ft.). Group survey files, 1910-44.

Maps (32,000 items, in Denver): Mineral survey plats (27,000 items), 1869-1963, with indexes. Township survey plats, 1879-1952 (5,000 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.6 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Idaho

Textual Records (in Seattle): Official letters received, 1867- 1911. Miscellaneous letters and letters from deputy surveyors, 1868-1915. Circulars, 1870-1902. Instructions relating to mineral surveys, 1896-1918.

49.7.7 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Montana

Textual Records (in Denver): Letters sent, 1892-1922. Mineral survey case files, ca. 1882-1960.

Maps (19,700 items, in Denver): Township survey plats, ca. 1870- 1915 (8,700 items). Mineral survey plats, ca. 1870-1915 (11,000 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.8 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of New Mexico

Note: Records designated as in Santa Fe are on deposit in the New Mexico State Archives. Address all reference inquiries concerning these records to Chief, Archival Services, State Records Center and Archives, 404 Montezuma Ave., Santa Fe, NM 87503.

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1902-7 (in Washington Area). Letters received, 1854-90 (in Washington Area). Correspondence, 1894-1910 (in Denver). Field notes, 1855-81 (in Denver). Land claim case files, Office of the Surveyor General, 1854-92 (in Santa Fe). Case files, Court of Private Land Claims in New Mexico, 1892-1912 (in Santa Fe). Spanish and Mexican land grant and related records, 1685-1846 (in Santa Fe).

Microfilm Publications: M1288.

Maps (10,925 items, in Denver): Township survey plats, 1855-1957 (7,900 items). Plats of private land claims within Pueblo Indian grants, ca. 1932-33 (525 items). Mineral survey plats, 1873-1965 (2,500 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.9 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Nevada

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Letters sent, 1861-69, 1896, 1910-20.

Maps (7,430 items, in San Francisco): Original township survey plats, 1861-92 (5,400 items). Plats of exterior boundary surveys, 1861-1914 (1,560 items). Plats of national forest homestead entry surveys, 1910-25 (470 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.10 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Oregon

Textual Records (in Seattle): Letters sent to the Commissioner, 1851-1921 deputy surveyors, 1875-1904 deputy mineral surveyors, 1887-1903 and land offices, 1856-1906. Letters received from the Commissioner, 1865-1913 deputy surveyors, 1851-1902 and land offices, 1873-1903. Miscellaneous letters sent, 1851-1921, and received, 1851-1913. Registers of donation land claims, 1853- 1910. Contracts and bonds for surveys, 1851-1910.

49.7.11 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Utah

Textual Records (in Denver): Correspondence, 1855-1915. Survey contracts, 1875-1910. Applications for mineral surveys, 1875- 1913.

Microfilm Publication: M1110.

Maps (20,300 items, in Denver): Mineral survey plats, ca. 1870- 1915 (16,520 items). Township survey plats, ca. 1855-1960 (3,780 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.12 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Washington

Textual Records (in Seattle): Copies of selected letters received from the Commissioner, 1854-83. Letters sent to the Commissioner, 1883-1920 and deputy surveyors, 1888-1921. Letters received from the Commissioner, 1883-1913 and deputy surveyors, 1893-1913. Miscellaneous letters sent, 1883-1921, and received, 1909-16. Contracts and bonds for surveys, 1855-1910.

49.7.13 Records of the Office of the Surveyor General of Wyoming

Textual Records (in Denver): Letters sent, 1870-1922. Letters received from the Commissioner, 1867-1929, with registers, 1899- 1908. Register of miscellaneous letters received, 1870-1918. Township descriptions, 1870-1901. List of employees, 1906-14.

Maps (900 items, in Denver): Township survey plats, 1869-1943 (700 items). Mineral survey plats, 1879-1922 (100 items). Miscellaneous plats, 1879-1922 (100 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.7.14 Records of other surveyors general

Textual Records: Letters sent by the Surveyor General of Dakota Territory, 1887-88 (in Denver). Township land description survey, Office of the Surveyor General of Iowa, of portions of Muscatine, Cedar, and Johnson counties, ca. 1841 (in Kansas City). Correspondence of the Surveyor General of South Dakota, 1920-22 (in Denver). Letters sent, 1797-1854, and received, 1797-1856, by the Surveyor General of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.

Microfilm Publications: M477, M479, M1323.

49.8 RECORDS OF SURVEYING DISTRICTS/CADASTRAL ENGINEERING
DISTRICTS
1870-1948

History: Corps of professional surveyors established in GLO as the Field Surveying Service (FSS) pursuant to the Civil Appropriation Act for FY 1911 (36 Stat. 741), June 25, 1910, which discontinued the practice of contracting for surveys. FSS, headed after 1925 by the Supervisor of Surveys, who also headed Division "E" (SEE 49.3.6), organized and headquartered initially as follows: District 1, MT (Helena, MT) District 2, CO and WY (Denver, CO) District 3, NE and SD (Neligh, NE) District 4, NM (Santa Fe, NM) District 5, AZ and CA (Phoenix, AZ) District 6, NV and UT (Salt Lake City, UT) District 7, ID and WA (Boise, ID) District 8, OR (Portland, OR) District 9, AK (Juneau, AK) and Eastern States (designated District 10, January 1918, Washington, DC). By 1917, responsibility for WA had been transferred to District 8, with new headquarters at Olympia, WA. Effective July 1, 1925, concurrently with the abolishment of the position of surveyor general (SEE 49.7) and the vesting of all survey functions in FSS, its assistant supervisors of surveys became district cadastral engineers in charge of cadastral engineering districts. On June 1, 1930, District 3 was abolished, and NE and SD were assigned to District 2. District 1 was closed on May 1, 1937, and MT went to District 7. On January 1, 1941, the districts were renumbered 1-8 to close gaps created by the abolishing of old Districts 1 and 3. A reorganization of January 1, 1946, redesignated the districts as regions, in charge of regional cadastral engineers, constituted and headquartered as follows: Region 1, CO, MT, NE, SD, and WY (Denver, CO) Region 2, AZ, southern CA (San Bernardino Meridian), and NM (Santa Fe, NM) Region 3, ID, NV, and UT (Salt Lake City, UT) Region 4, northern CA (Humboldt and Mount Diablo Meridians), OR, and WA (Portland, OR) and Region 5, AK (Juneau, AK).

By March 1947 GLO's Division "E" (Surveying Division, SEE 49.3.6), headed since 1925 by the Supervisor of Surveys, had been redesignated BLM's Branch of Engineering and Construction, with a subordinate Division of Surveys in place by November 1947. By July 1948 a Division of Engineering (redesignated Division of Cadastral Engineering, January 1950) under the Chief Cadastral Engineer had superseded the Branch of Engineering and Construction, with a subordinate Branch of Surveying by January 1949 (redesignated Branch of Surveys by August 1950). In a reorganization of BLM approved on January 26, 1954, the Division of Cadastral Engineering became the Cadastral Engineering Staff in the Division of Technical Programs. This organization remained stable through May 1961, but by March 1962 the staff had been reconstituted as the Division of Engineering. Pursuant to BLM Order 701, July 23, 1964, the Chief Cadastral Engineer became the Chief, Division of Engineering. By March 1968 the division included a Branch of Cadastral Engineering. By Amendment 6 to BLM Order 701, February 4, 1969, the Branch of Cadastral Engineering became a separate Division of Cadastral Survey under a Chief of Cadastral Survey.

FSS itself had been in process of informal redesignation as the Cadastral Engineering Service (CES) since at least August 1922, and the term CES had virtually (if unofficially) superseded FSS by 1940. Secretary's Order 2225, July 15, 1946, implementing the consolidation of GLO and the Grazing Service to form BLM, redesignated the Supervisor of Surveys as the Chief Cadastral Engineer. Although the new bureau initially adopted the organizational structure of its predecessors, including the CES, it had by 1947 embarked on a decentralization program that effectively broke up the CES and placed its regional components under the immediate authority of BLM regional administrators, with the Chief Cadastral Engineer in Washington, DC, providing overall policy guidance.

49.8.1 General records of the Supervisor of Surveys

Textual Records (in Denver): Subject files, 1910-46. General files, 1910-46. Property records, 1943-48. Deposit accounts, 1944-48.

49.8.2 District records (Arizona)

History: Arizona and California assigned to District 5, 1910, with headquarters in Phoenix, AZ, under Assistant Supervisor of Surveys for California and Arizona. Position of Assistant Supervisor of Surveys abolished concurrently with Office of Surveyor General of Arizona, July 1925, and functions assigned to District Cadastral Engineer, with headquarters in newly established Public Survey Office, Phoenix, AZ. When Public Survey Office in San Francisco moved to Glendale, CA, 1932, it became new headquarters for District 5, which was redesignated District 3, 1941. Arizona assigned, with New Mexico and southern California, to Region 2 in GLO reorganization of 1946.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Records of the Assistant Supervisor of Surveys for California and Arizona, consisting of correspondence, 1912-25 and administrative records, 1911-31. Correspondence, 1913-24, and instructions, 1910-13, of the Arizona group surveys. Letters sent and received by the District Cadastral Engineer, 1925-32, and Office Cadastral Engineer, 1925- 47.

49.8.3 District records (California)

History: California and Arizona assigned to District 5, 1910, with headquarters in Phoenix, AZ, under Assistant Supervisor of Surveys for California and Arizona. Position of Assistant Supervisor of Surveys abolished concurrently with Office of Surveyor General of California, July 1925, and functions assigned to District Cadastral Engineer, with headquarters in newly established Public Survey Office, Phoenix, AZ. When Public Survey Office in San Francisco moved to Glendale, CA, 1932, it became new headquarters for District 5, which was redesignated District 3, 1941. California split between Region 2 and Region 4 in GLO reorganization of 1946.

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Issuances, 1870-1945. Correspondence of the District Cadastral Engineer with the Supervisor of Surveys, 1925-32. Cadastral survey group register, 1915-26. Forest exchange survey case files, 1929-32. National forest homestead entry survey case files, 1908-28. Correspondence, 1914-25, and instructions, 1914-29, of the California group surveys (in Los Angeles).

Maps (20 items, in San Francisco): Department of the Interior oil and gas field surveys, 1925-36. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.8.4 Records of other districts

Textual Records (in Denver): Small holding claims files (New Mexico), 1892-1923. Group survey files (Wyoming), 1910-46.

49.9 RECORDS OF DISTRICT LAND OFFICES
1800-1980

History: For most of the active period of public land settlement, district land offices were the basic operating units that conducted the business of transferring title. All transactions relative to the disposal of public land within a declared land district were handled through its land office by officials designated as registers, who recorded land applications, and receivers, who accepted payments for land and issued receipts. The position of receiver was abolished, July 1, 1925, and the functions devolved upon the register, whose title was changed to "manager" by Reorganization Plan No. III of 1946, effective July 16, 1946.

The first of 362 land offices was opened at Steubenville, OH, on July 2, 1800 the last at Newcastle, WY, on March 1, 1920. The peak year for land offices was 1890, with 123 in operation. The subsequent closing of the public domain gradually reduced the number of land offices, until, in 1933, only 25 offices remained. Under BLM, the district land offices and their functions were integrated into regional administrative structures, becoming, variously, elements (sometimes styled land offices) in the regional office hierarchies or components of multifunction district offices. The process was concluded by BLM Circular 2342, May 2, 1973, which formally discontinued use of the term "land offices." Records described below include some created by successor organizational units, but assigned by GLO and BLM to series begun by district land offices.

49.9.1 Records of Alabama land offices

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the Cahaba land office (1819-56), consisting of receipt stubs for land sales, 1851-54. Records of the Mobile land office (1869-79), consisting of press copies of letters sent, 1880-83, 1890-92. Records of the Huntsville land office (1811-61, 1867-1905) and its predecessor at Nashville, TN (1809-11), consisting of record of Creek reservations under the Treaty of 1832, 1840-54. Records of the St. Stephens land office (1806-61), consisting of record of preemption rights confirmed by the old Board of Commissioners, 1805-33.

49.9.2 Records of Alaska land offices

Textual Records (in Anchorage): Records of the Rampart land office (1900-1) and its predecessor at Circle City (1898-1900), consisting of register and tract books, 1899-1901. Records of the Juneau land office (1902-23), consisting of register and tract books, 1902-19. Records of the St. Michael land office (1900-1) and its predecessors at Nukalo (1898), Weare (1898), and Rampart (1898-1900), consisting of register and tract books, 1898-1902. Records of the Sitka land office (1885-1902), consisting of register and tract books, 1885-1909. Records of the Anchorage land office (1923-73), consisting of register and tract books, 1914-64. Records of the Fairbanks land office (1907-73), consisting of register and tract books, 1911-64.

49.9.3 Records of Arizona land offices

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Records of the Phoenix land office (1905-50) and its predecessors at Florence (1873-81) and Tucson (1881-1905), including correspondence with the Commissioner, 1880-1943 (88 ft.) rights-of-way case files, 1882- 1958 tract books, 1873-1908 records of the receiver, 1873-1942 and records of land entries, 1870-1930, including serialized land entry case files, 1908-22 (48 ft.). Records of the Prescott land office (1868-1905), consisting of land entry records, 1870-1908.

49.9.4 Records of Arkansas land offices

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records of the Dardanelle land office (1871-1909) and its predecessor at Clarkesville (1839-61, 1867-71), consisting of letters sent, 1857-59. Records of the Champagnolle land office (1845-61), consisting of record of lands located with military bounty land warrants and fees collected, 1857-61. Records of the Little Rock land office (1821-60, 1866- 1933), including contest dockets and records of the proceedings of the United States Commission for the Disposal of the Hot Springs Reservation of Arkansas, 1877-79.

49.9.5 Records of California land offices

Textual Records: Records (in San Francisco) of the Eureka land office (1899-1925) and its predecessor at Humboldt (1858-99), including registers of applications for mineral lands, 1858-1907 records of the receiver, 1873-1907 register of patents delivered, 1884-1914 schedules of Indian allotments for the Hoopa, Klamath, and Round Valley Indian Reservations, 1883-1913 and unpatented land entry case files, 1908-24. Records (in San Francisco, except as noted) of the Independence land office (1887-1925) and its predecessors at Aurora, NV (1869-73), Independence (1873-78), and Bodie (1878-87), including registers of applications for mining patents, 1871-1908 records of the receiver, 1873-1907 records of land entries, 1905-24 and (in Los Angeles) rights-of-way case files, 1903-29. Records (in Los Angeles) of the Los Angeles land office (1853-65, 1869-1961), including letters sent, 1853-80, letters received, 1853-1919, and correspondence of the register, 1883-1928 tract books, 1881- 1936 decision letters from the Commissioner, 1931-48 (34 ft.) records of the receiver, 1863-1938 consolidated file of letters received by the register and receiver from the Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner, 1885-1964 records relating to rights-of- way, 1878-1959 and records relating to land entries, 1859-1964, including case files of the Interior Department's Division of Investigation, 1928-52. Records (in San Francisco) of the Marysville land office (1855-1925), including registers of applications for mineral patents, 1867-1905 registers of mineral entries, 1867-1911 registers of mineral lands sold, 1883-1907 and record of patents delivered, 1884-1925. Records (in San Francisco) of the Redding land office (1890-1925) and its predecessor at Shasta (1870-90), including registers of mineral applications and mineral entries, 1871-1908 records of patents delivered, 1860-1914 and records of land entries, 1906-24. Records (in San Francisco) of the Sacramento land office (1867- 1945), including registers of mineral entries, mineral applications, and mining claims, 1867-1908. Records (in San Francisco) of the San Francisco land office (1911-27) and its predecessors at Benicia (1853-57), San Francisco (1857-1906), and Oakland (1906-11), including correspondence of the register, 1908-13, and receiver, 1908-14 and land entry case files, 1908- 27. Records (in San Francisco) of the Stockton land office (1858- 1906), including registers of mineral applications and entries, 1866-1906 record of delivered patents, 1861-1906 record of canceled applications, 1905-45 and township survey plat book with amended survey plats, Mount Diablo Meridian, 1856-1908. Records (in San Francisco) of the Susanville land office (1871- 1925), including registers of mineral applications and entries, 1871-1908 a timber trespass docket that includes entries for WI, 1903-4, and CA, 1904-6 land entry case files, 1908-26 Grazing Service committee files, 1964-66 records of the Grazing Service Advisory Board, 1965-67 long range management plans, 1971-72 cooperative agreements, 1976-77 and watershed studies, n.d. Records (in San Francisco, except as noted) of the Visalia land office (1858-1927), including a register of school land locations, 1861-94 records relating to mining land entries and patents, 1873-1906 land entry case files, 1908-28 and (in Los Angeles) rights-of-way case files, 1925-28.

Maps (9,236 items, in San Francisco, except as noted): Mount Diablo Meridian mining entry survey plats, 1873-84 (25 items) Humboldt Meridian township maps, 1856-94 (35 items) and forest homestead survey plats, 1904-6 (48 items), maintained by the Eureka land office. Power project survey maps, 1916-27 (50 items), maintained by the Independence land office. Survey plats (7,490 items) and mining plats, 1873-1972 (1,242 items), maintained by the Riverside land office (in Los Angeles). Homestead survey plats and accompanying field notes, 1912-35 (250 items) and Indian allotment plats, Hoopa Valley, 1915-25 (6 items), and Klamath National Forest, 1928-36 (40 items), maintained by the Sacramento land office. Amended survey plats, 1856-1908 (50 items), maintained by the Stockton land office. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.9.6 Records of Colorado land offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Akron land office (1890-1905), consisting of a register of homestead entries, 1890- 1905. Records of the Central City land office (1868-94), including tract books, 1868-94 and registers of homestead entries, coal land cash entries, mineral entries, and timber culture entries, 1868-94. Records of the Del Norte land office (1875-1925), including tract books, 1875-1925 registers of homestead entries and mineral entries, 1875-1915 abstracts of desert land entries and final certificates, 1891-1908 and canceled serialized land entry case files, 1890-1924. Records of the Denver land office (1864-1949) and its predecessor at Golden City (1863-64), including Commissioner's letters, 1934-47 miscellaneous correspondence, 1942-52 tract books, 1863-1949 serial register books, 1908-49 registers of homestead entries, mineral entries, and timber culture entries, 1863-1908 and canceled serialized land entry case files, 1912-15. Records of the Durango land office (1882-1925), including registers of letters received from the Commissioner, 1889-1908 and rejected, tract books, 1882-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 registers of homestead entries, mineral entries, and timber culture entries, 1882-93 abstracts of desert land entries, 1892-1908 and rejected, cancelled, or relinquished serialized land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Glenwood Springs land office (1884-1927), including Commissioner's letters, 1922-48 serial register books, 1908-27 and registers of homestead entries, mineral entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1884-1908. Records of the Gunnison land office (1883-1907), including registers of cash entries, homestead entries, mineral entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1883-1907. Records of the Hugo land office (1890-1922), including tract books, 1890-1922 serial register books, 1908-22 and registers of cash entries, homestead entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1880- 1908. Records of the Lamar land office (1887-1925), including registers of letters received from the Commissioner, 1894-1908 tract books, 1887-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 registers of homestead entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1887-1908 and canceled serialized land entry case files, 1913-24. Records of the Leadville land office (1879-1925) and its predecessor at Fair Play (1867-79), including Commissioner's letters, 1920-25 correspondence relating to national forests, 1907-23 serial register books, 1908-25 registers of cash entries, mineral entries, and timber culture entries, 1869-1909 and canceled serialized land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Montrose land office (1888-1925) and its predecessor at Lake City (1877-88), including Commissioner's letters, 1922-25 tract books, 1877-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 registers of homestead entries, mineral entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1875-1908 and rejected, cancelled, or relinquished serialized land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Pueblo land office (1871-1950), including Commissioner's letters, 1930-48 tract books, 1871- 1949 serial register books, 1908-49 registers of cash entries, homestead entries, mineral entries, and timber culture entries, 1871-1908 and registers of entrymen, 1885-1908. Records of the Sterling land office (1890-1925), consisting of serial register books, 1908-25 registers of patents delivered, n.d. and abstracts of homestead and desert land entries, 1890-1908.

49.9.7 Records of Florida land offices

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the Gainesville land office (1873-1933), consisting of lists of offered lands, 1879 and letters received by registers and receivers, 1932-33.

49.9.8 Records of Idaho land offices

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Boise land office (1867-1927), consisting of registers of cash sales, 1897-1908 and registers of land entries, 1869-1908. Records of the Blackfoot land office (1886-1948) and its predecessor at Oxford (1879-86), consisting of registers of cash sales, 1899-1906 and registers of land entries, 1888-1908. Records of the Hailey land office (1883-1925), consisting of registers of cash sales, 1883- 1909 and registers of land entries, 1883-1908. Records of the Coeur d'Alene land office (1885-1948), consisting of registers of cash sales and land entries, 1885-1908. Records of the Lewiston land office (1867-1925), consisting of registers of cash sales, 1877-1906 and registers of land entries, 1874-1908.

49.9.9 Records of Illinois land offices

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the Chicago land office (1835-55), consisting of abstracts of cash entries, 1835-55 and abstracts of warrant locations, 1847. Records of the Danville land office (1831-56), consisting of cash certificates, 1833-56. Records of the Dixon land office (1840-55), consisting of cash certificates, 1841-55. Records of the Edwardsville land office (1816-55), including cash certificates, 1816-49 declarations, 1821-22 and relinquishments, 1821-29. Records of the Dixon land office (1840-55) and its predecessor at Galena (1835-40), consisting of cash certificates, 1835-41. Records of the Kaskaskia land office (1809-55), including applications to purchase, 1814-18 cash certificates, 1820-55 credit system receipts, 1814-20 and relinquishments, 1828-29. Records of the Palestine land office (1821-55), consisting of cash certificates, 1821-51. Records of the Quincy land office (1831-55), consisting of cash certificates, 1831-55. Records of the Shawneetown land office (1814-55), consisting of cash certificates, 1820-55. Records of the Springfield land office (1823-76), consisting of cash certificates, 1823-76. Records of the Vandalia land office (1821-55), consisting of cash certificates, 1821-55.

49.9.10 Records of Indiana land offices

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the Crawfordsville land office (1823-53) and its predecessor at Terre Haute (1820-23), consisting of cash certificates, 1820-53. Records of the Fort Wayne land office (1823-52), consisting of cash certificates, 1823-53. Records of the Indianapolis land office (1825-76) and its predecessor at Brookville (1820-25), consisting of cash certificates, 1820-76 and abstracts of warrant locations, 1847- 69. Records of the land office at Jeffersonville (1808-55), consisting of cash certificates, 1820-54 credit certificates, 1808-11 and abstracts of warrant locations, 1847-55. Records of the land office at Winamac (1840-55) and its predecessor at Laporte (1833-39), consisting of cash certificates, 1836-55 and cash certificates and warrant locations, 1833-54. Records of the Vincennes land office (1807-61), consisting of cash certificates, 1820-59 credit applications, 1808-11 receivers returns, 1807- 17 and abstracts of warrant locations, 1847-55.

49.9.11 Records of Iowa land offices

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the Burlington- Fairfield land office (1838-55), including receipt registers, 1840-57 registers of certificates, 1836-55 and abstracts of military warrants, 1847-55. Records of the Chariton land office (1853-59), including abstracts of military warrant locations, abstracts of land sold, and registers of certificates, 1853-59. Records of the Council Bluffs land office (1855-73) and its predecessor at Kanesville (1853-55), including abstracts and registers of receipts, 1853-73 abstracts of military warrant locations, 1853-71 and a register of homestead entries, 1853-63. Records of the Osage land office (1856-59) and its predecessor at Decorrah (1855-56), including abstracts of military warrant locations, 1855-59. Records of the (Fort) Des Moines land office (1852-1910), including registers of certificates issued to cash purchasers, 1853-1909 abstracts of military warrants, 1853-80 and registers of entries, receipts, and final certificates for homesteads, 1863-1908, and timber culture, 1874-1902. Records of the Dubuque land office (1843-59) and its predecessors at Dubuque (1838-43) and Marion (1843), including registers of certificates issued to land purchasers, 1838-54 abstracts of land sold, 1854- 55 abstracts of military warrant locations, 1848-59 and town lot appraisals, Peru (Dubuque County), IA, December 1886. Records of the Fort Dodge land office (1855-73), including abstracts of land sold, 1855-72 registers of receipts, 1857-73 and registers of homestead entries, receipts, and certificates, 1863-73. Records of the Iowa City land office (1846-56), including abstracts of land sold, 1846-56 and registers of receipts, 1846- 56, and final certificates, 1853-56, issued to cash purchasers. Records of the Sioux City land office (1849-78), including abstracts of military warrant locations, 1849-74 registers of homestead entries, receipts, certificates, and declarations, 1863-78 and registers of timber culture entries and receipts, 1873-78.

49.9.12 Records of Kansas land offices

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the Colby land office (1893-1908) and its predecessor at Oberlin (1880-93), including tract books, 1880-1908 homestead entry papers, 1881-98 records relating to contested claims, 1885-97 declaratory statements, 1884-90 and records relating to rejected homestead entries, 1894-99. Records of the Concordia land office (1870-89), including tract books, 1870-89 correspondence, 1871-87 declaratory statements and filing receipts, 1871-74 homestead entry papers, 1871 and agricultural college scrip records, October 1871. Records of the Dodge City land office (1893-1919) and its predecessor at Garden City (1881-93), including tract books, 1881-1919 declaratory statements, 1885-91 and papers relating to homestead contests, cancellations, and relinquishments, ca. 1900- 19. Records of the Independence land office (1872-89) and its predecessors at Fort Scott (1857-61), Humboldt (1861), Mapleton (1861-62), Humboldt (1862-71), and Neodesha (1871-72), including tract books 1857-89 letters received, 1857-89 correspondence relating to Osage ceded lands, 1867-89, cash entries, 1870-89, and military bounty land warrant claims, 1872-88 declaratory statements, 1857-86, and filing receipts, 1868-75 purchase applications, 1862-88 cash entry register, 1857-65 and homestead entry papers, 1865-89. Records of the Kirwin land office (1875-93) and its predecessor at Cawker City (1872-75), including tract books 1872-93 declaratory statements, 1872- 88, and filing receipts, 1872-84 and homestead entry papers, 1872-87. Records of the Larned land office (1874-93), including tract books, 1874-93 canceled checks, 1880 and cash entry papers, 1884-87. Records of the Salina land office (1871-93), and its predecessors at Ogden (1857-59) and Junction City (1859-71), including tract books, 1859-93 a register of homesteads, 1863-70 and homestead entry papers, 1872-89. Records of the Topeka land office (1861-1925) and its predecessor at Lecompton (1854-61), including tract books, 1854-93 letters received, 1866-1901 correspondence relating to Osage ceded lands, 1882-91 circulars received, 1853-89 financial records, 1861-85 declaratory statements, 1874-89, and filing receipts, 1867-72 homestead entry papers, 1865-90 military bounty land papers, 1863-92 timber culture claims, 1883-89 and papers relating to homestead contests, cancellations, and relinquishments, ca. 1900-25. Records of the Wichita land office (1872-89) and its predecessor at Augusta (1870-72), including tract books, 1870-89 letters received, 1872-89 correspondence relating to Osage ceded lands, 1872-89 declaratory statements, 1872-86, and a filing receipt, 1871 records relating to contested claims, 1872-89, and preemption claims, 1872-86 papers relating to cash entry, 1872-89, homestead entry, 1872-88, and timber culture claims, 1876-89 and Oklahoma land rush affidavits, 1892. Records of the Wakeeny land office (1879-1905) and its predecessor at Hays City (1874-79), consisting of tract books, 1874-1905 a single declaratory statement, 1878 a contest affidavit, 1890 a contested claim case docket sheet, 1891 and a tract book entry, 1890.

Maps (7 items, in Kansas City): Plat maps of Pawnee, Ford, Comanche, Pratt, Barber, Barton, and Rice Counties, published in the 1874 annual report of the Kansas Board of Agriculture, and used by the Larned land office, 1875. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.9.13 Records of Louisiana land offices

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records of the Baton Rouge land office (1911-27), and its predecessors at St. Helena (1819-37), Greensburg (1837-43), Baton Rouge (1844), and Greensburg (1844- 61), consisting of a docket of cash entries, 1854-1907 and abstracts of credit accounts, 1847. Records of the Monroe (Ouachita) land office (1821-61, 1867-69, 1872-78), consisting of dockets of cash entries, 1832-60, and suspended cash entries, 1838-60.

49.9.14 Records of Minnesota land offices

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the Benson land office (1876-89) and its predecessors at Minneapolis (1854-58), Forest City (1858-62), Minneapolis (1862-66), Greenleaf (1866-69), and Litchfield (1870-76), consisting of a docket book of cash entries, 1855-82.

49.9.15 Records of Mississippi land offices

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the Paulding land office (1860-61) and its predecessor at Augusta (1820-59), consisting of abstracts of land entries, 1851-54, 1865. Records of the Columbus land office (1833-61), consisting of quarterly accounts of the receiver, 1849-60 abstracts of land entries, 1833-1917 and a register of receipts, Confederate land office in Augusta, 1861- 65. Records of the Grenada land office (1840-60) and its predecessor at Chocchuma (1833-40), consisting of a register of cash receipts, 1833-36 and abstracts of land entries, 1836-60. Records of the Jackson land office (1823-27, 1836-61, 1866-1925), consisting of minutes of meetings, register and receiver, concerning preemption claims, 1821-23 and abstracts of land entries, 1823-1908, receivers' receipts, 1820-61, and homestead entries, 1866-1907. Records of the Washington land office (1807- 61), consisting of abstracts of applications, 1809-18, registers' certificates, 1807-21, and land entries, 1820-62 and registers of credit receipts, receiver of the land office west of the Pearl River, 1807-21. Letters sent and other records, 1833-73, possibly of the Pontotoc land office (1836-61), relating to the Chickasaw cession under the Treaty of 1832, and to Chickasaw reservations under the Treaty of 1834.

49.9.16 Records of the Missouri land offices

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Correspondence of the land offices in Missouri, 1843-1922. Duplicate copies of receipts for land entries and cash sales at land offices in Missouri, 1820-1908.

49.9.17 Records of Montana land offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Billings land office (1906-60), including tract books, 1906-60 serial register books, 1908-50 land entry case files, 1908-50 and a grazing lease register, 1935-40. Records of the Bozeman land office (1874- 1925), including tract books, 1874-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 and land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Glasgow land office (1907-25), including tract books, 1907-25 serial register books, 1908-25 and land entry case files, 1908- 25. Records of the Great Falls land office (1902-50), including tract books, 1902-50 serial register books, 1908-50 and registers of homestead entries, desert land entries, and mineral entries, 1902-8. Records of the Havre land office (1910-25), consisting of serial register books and land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Helena land office (1867-1925), including tract books, 1867-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 land entry case files, 1908-25 contest dockets, 1865-1909 registers of homestead entries, timber culture entries, and mineral entries, 1868-1908 and railroad selections, 1906-7. Records of the Kalispell land office (1897-1925), including tract books, 1897-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 and land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Lewistown land office (1890-1925), including tract books, 1890-1925 serial register books, 1911-25 land entry case files, 1908-25 and closed serialized land entry case files, 1910-11. Records of the Miles City land office (1880- 1925), consisting of serial register books and land entry case files, 1908-24. Records of the Missoula land office (1891-1925), including tract books, 1891-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 and land entry case files, 1908-25.

49.9.18 Records of Nebraska land offices

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the Alliance land office (1890-1933), consisting of letters received, 1900-31 summary records of applications for use of the public domain ("Serial Register"), 1905-24 contest dockets, 1912-34 record book of patents delivered, 1890-1907 and registers of homestead entries, 1890-1908, and final homestead certificates, 1905-8. Records of the Broken Bow land office (1890-1922), consisting of summary records of applications for use of the public domain ("Serial Register"), 1904-27 and record book and register of patents delivered, 1886-1912. Records of the Chadron land office (1886-94), consisting of abstracts of land sold, 1887-94. Records of the Lincoln land office (1868-1925) and its predecessor at Nebraska City (1857-68), consisting of summary records of applications for use of the public domain ("Serial Register"), 1908-25. Records of the McCook land office (1883-1905), consisting of record books of patents delivered, 1859-1905. Records of the North Platte land office (1872-1918), consisting of summary records of applications for use of the public domain ("Serial Register"), 1904-19 record books of patents delivered, 1876-93, and military bounty land warrants, 1882-1905 and registers of homestead patents, 1875-1908, cash patents, 1875- 1909, and timber culture entry patents, 1884-1906. Records of the O'Neill land office (1888-1918), consisting of summary records of applications for use of the public domain ("Serial Register"), 1909-18 record book and register of patents delivered, 1859- 1918 and registers of final homestead patents, 1873-94, cash patents, 1860-94, and timber culture entry patents, 1887-1912. Records of the Sydney land office (1887-1906), consisting of a record book and register of cash patents, 1884-1908 and registers of homestead and timber entry patents, 1890-1906. Records of the Valentine land office (1883-1918), consisting of summary records of applications for use of the public domain ("Serial Register"), 1908-20 record book and register of cash patents, 1882-1919 register of timber culture entry patents, 1890-1908 and declaratory statement abstracts, 1890-1908.

49.9.19 Records of Nevada land offices

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Carson City land office (1864-1949), and the absorbed land offices at Belmont (1862-73)/Pioche (1874-76), Elko (1872-77), Austin (1867- 73)/Eureka (1873-93), Aurora (1868-73), and Elko (1917-27), including tract books, 1864-1934 letters sent by the register, 1868-1926, and receiver, 1864-1909 registers of letters received from the Commissioner, 1890-94, 1905-18 accounts and other financial records of the receiver, 1880-1914 contest dockets, 1879-1926 railroad selection lists, 1875-1934 records relating to desert land entries, 1877-1908 registers of homestead entries, final certificates, receipts, and final receipts, 1869-1908 and registers of mining lands entries, 1862-1908, applications for mining patents, 1866-1908, and receipts for sold mineral lands, 1875-1906. Records of the Elko land office (1872-77, 1917-27), including Mount Diablo Meridian township tract books, 1872-1913 lieu land selection case files, 1913-55 and land entry case files, 1915-28. Records of the Eureka land office (1873-94) and its predecessor at Austin (1867-73), including letters sent by the register, 1879-91, and receiver, 1889-94 letters received from the Commissioner, 1879-93 registers of homestead certificates and receipts, 1868-93 and case files of adverse mining claims, 1878-91.

Maps (228 items, in San Francisco): Copies of plats of Indian reservation surveys, 1861-1935 (28 items), and farm unit diagrams of the Newlands (Truckee-Carson) Reclamation Project, 1900-30 (200 items), maintained by the Carson City land office. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.9.20 Records of New Mexico land offices

Textual Records: Records (in Denver) of the Clayton land office (1892-1925) and its predecessor at Folsom (1888-92), including tract books, 1888-1925 letters received, 1908-25 serial register books, 1908-22 registers of homestead entries, contested homestead entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1881-1908 and serialized selection lists, 1909-22. Records (in Fort Worth, except as noted) of the Fort Sumner land office (1910-25), including tract books, 1910-25 serial register books, 1908-22 (in Denver) contest dockets, 1910-24 abstracts of money received, 1915-24 record of accounts current, 1912-24 and schedules and abstracts of land entries and money transferred from Roswell to Fort Sumner, 1910- 14. Records (in Denver, except as noted) of the Las Cruces land office (1883-1949) and its predecessor at La Mesilla (1874-83), including tract books,1874-1949 letters received, 1915-48 serial register books, 1908- 49 registers of homestead entries, mining entries, and desert land entries, 1876-1903 selection lists, 1921-51 contest dockets, 1885-1904, 1926-44 patent conveyance case files, 1949- 51 color of title actions, 1938-58 monthly abstracts of declaratory statements, 1877-89 (in Fort Worth) and abstracts of desert land entries, 1877-92 (in Fort Worth). Records (in Fort Worth, except as noted) of the Roswell land office (1889-1925), including tract books, 1889-1925 serial register books, 1908-25 (in Denver) register of certificates issued on cash entries, 1890-1906 a record of rejected claims, 1890-1903 and abstracts of cash and final cash certificates, 1875-89, desert land entries, 1889-98, and timber culture entries, 1878-89. Records (in Denver, except as noted) of the Santa Fe land office (1858-1954), including letters received, 1908-49 serial register books, 1908-56 tract books, 1856-1956 registers of homestead entries, donation entries, mining entries, timber culture entries, and desert land entries, 1858-1908 registers of receipts, 1868-1906 contest dockets, 1921-46 selection lists, 1930-51 patent conveyance case files, 1922-52 and abstracts of homestead entries, 1868-89 (in Fort Worth). Records (in Denver) of the Tucumcari land office (1908-22) and its predecessor at Clayton (1892-1908), including tract books, 1892-1908 serial register books, 1908-21 and registers of homestead entries and desert land entries, 1889-1907.

49.9.21 Records of North Dakota land offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Bismarck land office (1874-1948), including tract books, 1874-1950 serial register books, 1908-50 registers of homestead entries, 1874-1908, including entries from the Dickinson land office state selection lists, 1905-10 and land entry case files, 1908-50. Records of the Devil's Lake land office (1884-1913) and its predecessor at Creelsburg (1883-84), including tract books, 1883-1913 serial register books, 1908-13 registers of homestead entries and timber culture entries, 1883-1902 state selection lists, 1892- 96 and land entry case files, 1908-13. Records of the Dickinson land office (1904-25), consisting of tract books, 1904-25 serial register books, 1908-25 registers of desert land entries, 1904- 8, and timber culture entries, 1886-91 abstracts of homestead entries, 1907-8 and land entry case files, 1908-25. Records of the Fargo land office (1874-1913) and its predecessor at Pembina (1870-74), including serial register books, 1908-12 registers of homestead entries, 1881-1908 state selection lists, 1894-1906 and land entry case files, 1908-12. Records of the Grand Forks land office (1880-1905), including registers of homestead entries and timber culture entries, 1880-1905. Records of the Minot land office (1890-1922), including tract books, 1891-1922 serial register books, 1908-22 registers of homestead entries, 1891- 1906 state and indemnity selections, 1898-1905 and land entry case files, 1908-12. Records of the Williston land office (1906- 22), consisting of tract books, 1906-22 serial register books, 1908-22 abstracts of homestead entries, 1906-8 and land entry case files, 1908-22.

49.9.22 Records of Ohio land offices

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the Wooster land office (1816-40) and its predecessor at Canton (1808-16), consisting of credit applications, 1806-11. Records of the Chillicothe land office (1801-76), consisting of credit applications, 1801-13 credit certificates, 1801-11 and credit final certificates, 1813-24. Records of the Cincinnati land office (1801-40), consisting of credit applications, 1817-28 and credit certificates, 1803-11. Records of the Steubenville land office (1800-40), consisting of credit certificates, 1806-11. Records of the Zanesville land office (1804-40), consisting of credit certificates, 1800-11.

49.9.23 Records of the Oklahoma land offices

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Local tract books for Oklahoma, 1892-1926.

49.9.24 Records of Oregon land offices

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Portland land office (1905-27) and its predecessor at Oregon City (1854-1905), consisting of letters received by the register and receiver, 1858-1915 Oregon Donation Land Claims land entry papers, 1853- 1900 registers of cash sales and land entries, 1857-1908 Oregon and California Railroad selection lists, 1870-1920 lists of state selections, 1857-1908 and Indian allotment registers for the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, 1891-1904, and the Siletz Reservation, 1873-1904. Records of the Roseburg land office (1860-1948) and its predecessor at Winchester (1855-60), consisting of letters received by the register and receiver, 1859-1910 Oregon Donation Land Claims land entry papers, 1857- 80 registers of cash sales and land entries, 1863-1908 Oregon and California Railroad selection lists, 1870-1920 register for public domain Indian allotments under Section 4 of the General Allotment Act, 1892-1901 publications, 1942-80 interagency, advisory, or international committee files, 1948-61 and management plans for public lands, 1946-62. Records of The Dalles land office (1875-1948), consisting of correspondence, 1930-48 registers of cash sales and land entries, 1875-1908 lists of state selections, 1875-1908 register for Indian allotments under Section 4 of the General Allotment Act, 1891-1921 and Fort Dalles military reservation town lot lists, 1882-1908. Records of the La Grande land office (1867-1925), consisting of registers of cash sales and land entries, 1867-1908 lists of state selections, 1851-1910 Indian allotment lists for lots on the Umatilla Indian Reservation, 1891-93 and Pendleton town lot lists, 1883-1905. Records of the Lakeview land office (1877-1948) and its predecessor at Linkville (1873-77), consisting of correspondence, 1908-48 registers of cash sales and land entries, 1896-1908 lists of state selections, 1884-1909 Oregon and California Railroad selection lists, 1901-20 and register of public domain Indian allotments for absentee Wyandotte Indians under Section 4 of the General Allotment Act, 1900-7.

49.9.25 Records of South Dakota land offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Aberdeen land office (1882-1911), consisting of tract books, 1892-1911 a register of homestead entries, 1891-1908 abstract of scrip locations, n.d. and a record of patents delivered, 1903-6. Records of the Belle Fourche land office (1909-25), consisting of serial register books, 1908-30. Records of the Chamberlain land office (1890- 1913), consisting of serial register books, 1908-13 and register of homestead entries, 1890-1908. Records of the Gregory land office (1909-22) and its predecessors at Vermillion (1861-73), Sioux Falls (1873-79), and Mitchell (1880-1909), including serial register books, 1908-30 registers of homestead entries, 1863-71, and timber culture entries, 1873-95 and abstracts of cash entries, 1862-73, and of warrant and scrip locations in Dakota Territory, 1864-80. Records of the Huron land office (1882-1908), including tract books, 1882-1908 registers of homestead entries and final certificates, 1882-1908 and registers of Sioux Indian Lands homestead final certificates and final receipts, 1896-1907. Records of the Lemmon land office (1908-22), consisting of serial register books, 1908-26. Records of the Pierre land office (1890- 1948), including registers of letters sent, 1901-17, and received, 1905-37 tract books, 1890-1940 serial register books, 1908-51 registers of homestead entries, 1905-8 registers of Sioux Indian Lands homestead entries and final certificates, 1890-1905 and a register of Lower Brule Lands homestead entries, 1907-8. Records of the Rapid City land office (1889-1925) and its predecessor at Deadwood (1887-88), consisting of tract books, 1877-88 serial register books, 1908-30 registers of homestead entries and mineral entries, 1879-1908 registers of applications for mineral patents, 1877-1908 and a record of patents delivered, 1880-1908. Records of the Timber Lake land office (1911-18), consisting of serial register books, 1908-28. Records of the Watertown land office (1879-1907) and its predecessor at Springfield (1870-79), consisting of registers of cash receipts and homestead receipts, 1870-91 registers of timber culture entries, 1873-94, and timber culture final certificates, 1894- 1904 register of final certificates issued, n.d. abstracts of agricultural college scrip, 1870-81 index to letters received, 1882-86 record of Sioux lands sold under Presidential proclamation, 1881 and state selection lists, 1894-97. Records of the Yankton land office (1872-93), consisting of registers of homestead entries, 1891-93 registers of timber culture entries, 1873-92, and timber culture final receipts, 1882-93 abstracts of military bounty land warrants, 1873-89, and declaratory statements, 1872-91 and agricultural college scrip locations, 1872-93.

49.9.26 Records of Utah land offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Salt Lake City land office (1869-1959), including registers of cash entries and homestead entries, 1869-1908 abstracts of desert land entries and final certificates, 1877-1908 and abstracts of agricultural college scrip entries, 1870-89, and military bounty land warrant and scrip locations, 1869-1907. Records of the Vernal land office (1905-27), consisting of townsite tract books, 1905-50 and schedules of allotments to Uintah, White River Ute, and Uncompahgre Ute Indians of the Uintah reservation, 1897-98, 1905. Consolidated Salt Lake City-Vernal records, including tract books, 1870-1959 and canceled land entry case files, 1908-29.

49.9.27 Records of Washington land offices

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the (New) Olympia land office (1890-1915), consisting of correspondence, 1908-15 state selection lists, 1892 and registers of land entries and cash sales, 1890-1908. Records of the Spokane Falls (Spokane) land office (1883-1949) and its predecessor at Colfax (1876-83), consisting of correspondence, 1902-54 indemnity school land selections, 1906 and registers of cash sales and land entries, 1882-1927. Records of the Vancouver land office (1861-1925), consisting of correspondence, 1908-25 and abstracts of land entries and cash sales, 1861-1914. Records of the Walla Walla land office (1871-1925), consisting of correspondence, 1911-25 and registers of land entries and cash sales, 1871-1925. Records of the North Yakima land office (1885-1925) and its predecessor at Yakima (1880-85), consisting of correspondence, 1905-25 and registers of land entries and cash sales, 1880-1913. Records of the Waterville land office (1890-1925), consisting of correspondence, 1908-25 registers of land entries and cash sales, 1890-1908 and register of public domain Indian allotments under Section 4 of the General Allotment Act, 1900. Records of the Seattle land office (1887-1927) and its predecessor at Olympia (1855-87), consisting of correspondence, 1907-27 registers of land entries and cash sales, 1898-1908 and register of public domain Indian allotments (mostly to Skagit Indians) under Section 4 of the General Allotment Act, 1893-1910.

49.9.28 Records of Wisconsin land offices

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the Wassau land office (1872-1925) and its predecessor at Stevens Point (1853-72), consisting of press copies of letters sent, 1888, 1905.

49.9.29 Records of Wyoming land offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Buffalo land office (1887-1950), including letters received from the Commissioner, 1934-46 tract books, 1888-1940 enlarged homestead, 1909-40, and stockraising, 1925-40, designations combined abstracts of cash entries and coal land sold, 1880-1908 and registers of homestead entries, homestead final certificates, and desert land final entries, 1888-1908. Records of the Cheyenne land office (1870- 1950), including letters received from the Commissioner, 1890- 1946, with a register, 1905-11 registers of homestead entries, 1870-1908, final receipts, 1900-8, and final certificates, 1874- 1902 registers and other records relating to mineral lands, 1876-1908, timber culture, 1874-1903, coal lands, 1881-1908, and desert lands, 1877-1924 land entry contest dockets, 1907-18 and record of published notices for final proof, 1921-25. Records of the Douglas land office (1890-1925), including tract books, 1890- 1925 registers of homestead entries and final certificates, 1890-1908 abstracts of desert land entries, 1891-1908 and contest dockets, 1911-23. Records of the Evanston land office (1876-1950), including letters received from the Commissioner, 1908-37, with a register, 1905-41 tract books, 1877-1940 combined abstract of cash entries and coal cash certificates, 1878-1908, with register and indexes registers of homestead entries, entry receipts, and final certificates, 1878-1908, with indexes registers of mineral patent applications and mineral land entries, 1882-1907 records relating to coal lands, 1877- 1908 records relating to desert lands, 1877-1908 and closed serialized land entry case files, 1908-42. Records of the Lander land office (1890-1927), including letters received from the Commissioner, 1926-27 tract books, 1890-1927 registers of homestead entries, 1890-1908, homestead entries on Shoshone Indian land, 1906-8, and homestead final certificates, 1890-1908 records relating to mineral and coal lands, 1891-1908 registers of timber culture entries and final certificates, 1890-1901 desert land entry abstracts and final certificate registers, 1890-1908 and register of cash certificates issued for entries made on ceded Shoshone and Wind River Indian lands, 1906-8. Records of the Newcastle land office (1920-25) and its predecessor at Sundance (1890-1920), consisting of letters received from the Commissioner, 1911-18. Records of unidentified or various land offices, including tract books, 1890-1920 land grant files, 1871-1921 enlarged homestead designations, 1909-41 and stockraising designations, 1918-41.

Maps (371 items, in Denver): Wyoming oil fields, 1920 (21 items). Right-of-way and railroad land grant plats, 1874-1927 (350 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.10 RECORDS OF BOARDS OF TOWNSITE TRUSTEES
1889-1930

History: Boards of townsite trustees were established for Oklahoma and Alaska in accordance with statute law and implementing GLO regulations to facilitate urbanization in newly opened areas of the public domain. GLO Circular Instructions, July 9, 1886, in effect at the time of the Oklahoma land rush, provided that pursuant to acts of March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 541), and March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. 392), lands actually occupied as townsites could be entered as such by municipal officials (for incorporated towns) or by county judges (for unincorporated communities), acting as trustees for the occupants. Alaska townsite trustees were governed by the act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1095), and implementing GLO Circular of July 11, 1899, which provided that all townsite entries be made by trustees appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. The boards of townsite trustees were required to file for lands through the local land offices.

49.10.1 Records of Alaska boards of townsite trustees

Textual Records (in Anchorage): Townsite deed and register books, minutes, and other records of boards of townsite trustees for Cordova, 1923-25 Craig, 1924-29 Douglas, 1918-19 Eagle, 1903- 19 Fairbanks, 1911-22 Haines, 1917-19 Hyder, 1924-27 Juneau, 1921-24 Ketchikan, 1912-30 Nome, 1904-11 Petersburg, 1919-20 Sitka, 1927-29 Skagway, 1908-12 Tenakee, 1925-26 Valdez, 1911- 13 and Wrangell, 1909-19.

49.10.2 Records of Oklahoma boards of townsite trustees

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Proceedings of boards of townsite trustees ("Minutes"), docket books, assessment ledgers, records of accounts, cash entry books, records of lots purchased ("Block Diagrams"), and other records of Townsite Boards No. 1-4, 6-7, 9-10, and 12-14, relating to townsites in Alva (Townsite Board No. 10), 1893-95 Blackburn (Townsite Board No. 13), 1894- 95 Blackwell (Townsite Board No. 14), 1894-95 Choctaw City (Townsite Board No. 2), 1893-95 Cleo (Townsite Board No. 10), 1894-95 Downs (Townsite Board No. 6), 1891-92 Edmond (Townsite Board No. 2), 1891 El Reno (Townsite Board No. 4), 1891-96 Enid (Townsite Board No. 9), 1891-97 Frisco (Townsite Board No. 7), 1891-94 Guthrie (Townsite Board No. 6), 1890-99 Hennessey (Townsite Board No. 3), 1891-97 Jonesville (Townsite Board No. 6), 1898 Kingfisher (Townsite Board No. 3), 1890-97 Lexington (Townsite Board No. 4), 1890-94 Mulhall (Townsite Board No. 1), 1891 Newkirk (Townsite Board No. 14), 1894-97 Norman (Townsite Board No. 4), 1889-1902 Noble (Townsite Board No. 4), 1890-91 Oklahoma City (Townsite Board No. 2), 1890-95 Pawnee (Townsite Board No. 13), 1893-96 Perkins (Townsite Board No. 1), 1891 Perry (Townsite Board No. 6), 1893-1909 Reno City (Townsite Board No. 3), 1891 Round Pond (Townsite Board No. 12), 1893-98 Stillwater (Townsite Board No. 6), 1890-91 and Woodward (Townsite Board No. 6), 1893-1913. Fragmentary records of Anadarko, Hobart, and Lawton, established as county seats, August 6, 1901, pursuant to the act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 1093), opening the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, and Wichita ceded lands to settlement, n.d.

49.11 RECORDS OF THE RANGE DEVELOPMENT SERVICE (RDS)
1939-48

History: Established within the GLO pursuant to the Taylor Grazing Act amendments (49 Stat. 1976), June 26, 1936, to administer a range improvement program for tracts of land not included within the Taylor Act Grazing Districts administered by the Grazing Service. Transferred to BLM upon establishment of that agency by merger of GLO and Grazing Service, 1946. (SEE 49.1.) Functions of RDS transferred to BLM Branch of Range Management by BLM Administrative Order No. 3, May 16, 1947, with bureau regional administrators assigned responsibilities formerly vested in the Chief, RDS.

Textual Records: General administrative files, 1939-47. Range improvement and soil and moisture conservation files, 1939-48.

49.12 RECORDS OF BLM REGIONAL OFFICES
1866-1954 (bulk 1927-51)

History: Regional system in place by mid-1947. Patterned after that of the Grazing Service, with seven regional offices, designated as Region 1, ID, OR, and WA (Portland, OR) Region 2, CA and NV (San Francisco, CA) Region 3, KS, IA, MO, MT, NE, ND, SD, and WY (Billings, MT) Region 4, CO and UT (Salt Lake City, UT) Region 5, AZ, AR, LA, NM, OK, and TX (Albuquerque, NM) Region 6, MN and all states east of the Mississippi River (Washington, DC) and Region 7, AK (Anchorage, AK). In 1950 the western boundary of Region 6 was extended to include IA and MO (from Region 3) and AR and LA (from Region 5). In 1954 the existing regions were abolished. Region 6 was redesignated as the Eastern States Office. The remaining states were organized into four area offices. (SEE 49.13.) Regional offices supervised district grazing, land, and forestry offices within their jurisdictions.

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Regional Office, Region 2, including general correspondence, 1947-51 Manzanar and Tule Lake Relocation Center disposal files, 1945-48 records relating to the court case, U.S. v. U.S. Borax Company, 1942-47 records of the Regional Cadastral Engineer, including index to field notes of surveys of Mount Diablo, San Bernardino, and Humboldt Meridians, 1906-50 register of appointment of U.S. mineral surveyors, 1906-50 and register of certificates of deposit for mineral surveys, 1915-51. Records absorbed by the Region 2 Land Planning Division from the San Francisco office of the GLO Field Examination Branch (1942-46) and its predecessors in the GLO Field Service (1909-32) and Division of Investigations, Department of the Interior (1933-42), including general correspondence, 1933-45 investigative case files, 1927- 45, with index (57 ft.) railroad selection (clear) lists, 1866- 1945 general administrative files, 1917-40 records relating to evaluation and administration of the Taylor Grazing Act, 1928-41 and schedules of various land office serial case numbers for conversion to Sacramento and Los Angeles land office case numbers, 1924-36. Records of the Nevada Land and Survey Office, Region 2 (Reno, NV), including records of land entry serial numbers, 1948-54 records of patents, 1913-53 and mineral survey certificates of deposit, 1912-48.

Maps (50 items, in San Francisco): Copies of plats of NV state boundary surveys, 1912-48, consolidated at the Nevada Land and Survey Office (Reno, NV). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.13 RECORDS OF BLM STATE OFFICES
1853-1990

History: Regional offices were abolished, 1954. Old Region 6 became the Eastern States Office, with headquarters in Washington, DC (Silver Spring, MD, 1967-79, Alexandria, VA , 1979- ). The remaining states were organized into area offices, designated as Area 1, OR and WA (Portland, OR) Area 2, (AZ, ID, NV, and UT (Salt Lake City, UT) Area 3, CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, ND, OK, SD, TX, and WY (Denver, CO) and Area 4, AK (Anchorage, AK Juneau, 1957-61). Under the area offices (except in Area 4) were individual state offices headed by state supervisors. Area offices were abolished, May 1961, and state offices (some with multistate jurisdiction) became under state directors the highest level in the BLM regional structure, with responsibility for range, forest, and land management, and for supervision of district offices.

State offices and headquarters, 1954-61: AZ (Phoenix), CA (Sacramento), CO (Denver), ID (Boise), MT (Billings), NV (Reno), NM (Santa Fe), OR (Portland), UT (Salt Lake City), WA (Spokane), WY (Cheyenne). There were no separate state offices for KS, NE, ND, OK, SD, and TX. These states were administered directly out of the Area Office for Area 3.

State offices, headquarters, and jurisdictions, 1961- :

Office Headquarters Jurisdiction
Alaska Anchorage AK
Arizona Phoenix AZ
California Sacramento CA
Colorado Denver CO, KS (1983-85 only)
Idaho Boise ID
Montana Billings MT, ND, SD
Nevada Reno NV
New Mexico Santa Fe KS (from Colorado, 1985), NM, OK, TX
Oregon Portland OR, WA
Utah Salt Lake City UT
Wyoming Cheyenne KS (to Colorado, 1983), NE, WY

49.13.1 Records of the Alaska State Office

Textual Records (in Anchorage): Field notes for surveys of the Fairbanks base line, 1910 for townsite surveys, 1900-10 for rectangular surveys, 1914-77 for metes and bounds surveys, 1892- 1976 for mineral surveys, 1896-1976 and for U.S. Coal Surveys, 1907-8. Serialized case files for canceled and relinquished land transactions, ca. 1865-1969. Townsite tract books for Anchorage, 1914-64 Aniak, 1952-65 Baranof, 1956-60 Bethel, 1963-77 Birch Lake, 1958 Buffalo Center, 1954-56 Cantwell, 1958-59 Cordova, 1925-33, 1953-63 Craig, 1924-29 Dillingham, 1950-64 Douglas, 1918-19 Eagle, 1909-10, 1963 Fairbanks, 1911-22, 1938-39, 1958- 60 Fort Yukon, 1956-64 Girdwood, 1923-62 Graehl, 1922-25 Haines, 1918, 1953-62 Hoonah, 1933-78 Hyder, 1924-37 Juneau, 1921, 1962-63 Kake, 1948-78 Kasilof, 1963-64 Kenai, 1951-66 Ketchikan, 1912-25, 1958-69 Kodiak, 1945-64 Kotzebue, 1955-69 Loring, 1966-71 McGrath Pass, 1950 Nenana, 1916-61 Ninilchik, 1957-78 Nome, 1905-11 Pelican, 1949-58 Petersburg, 1919-20, 1942-64 Portage, 1949-52 Saxman, 1952-68 Seldovia, 1931-69, 1955-77 Seward, 1916-55 Sitka, 1927-29, 1953-66 Skagway, 1909- 12 Talkeetna, 1919-23, 1936-58 Tanacross, 1963 Tanana, 1958- 62 Teller, 1957-64 Tenakee, 1925-26 Tok, 1951-56 Unalaska, 1940-63 Valdez, 1912-13 Wasilla, 1918-51 Whittier, 1942 Wrangell, 1909-19, 1933-66 and Yakutat, 1953-78.

Maps (3,922 items, in Anchorage): Numbered survey plats for metes and bounds surveys, 1892-1976 (2,716 items) mineral surveys, 1885-1974 (445 items) and coal surveys, 1885-1977 (761 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.13.2 Records of the Arizona State Office

Textual Records (in Denver, except as noted): Commissioner's letters, 1903-62. Serial register books, 1908-70. Tract books, ca. 1875-1959. Contests, patents, and state selections, 1968-70. Land entry case files, 1970. General reports, 1918-44. Sale and lease case files, 1940-41. Closed right-of-way files, 1965-76. Correspondence, 1955-59, and miscellaneous case files, 1955-61, of the State Supervisor (in Los Angeles). Patent conveyance files, 1916-56 (in Los Angeles). Right-of-way case files, 1955(in Los Angeles). Mineral survey case files, 1965-69 (in Los Angeles). Patent files-allowed, 1919-64 (in Los Angeles). Patent files- rejected, 1963-64 (in Los Angeles). Rejected land applications, 1906-46 (in Los Angeles). Cancelled land applications, 1908-50 (in Los Angeles). Land contest files, 1910-59 (in Los Angeles). Patented land files, 1910-59 (in Los Angeles). Forest exchange files, 1916-40 (in Los Angeles). Right-of-way files, 1908-46 (in Los Angeles).

49.13.3 Records of the California State Office

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Correspondence, 1937-62, and issuances, 1962-81, of the Office of the State Director. Resource Study 1981-85 (in Los Angeles). Impact studies, 1965-74. Cooperative agreements, 1944-71. Enviromental studies and plans, 1967-77. Records of the Branch of Cadastral Surveys, including group survey case files, 1910-76 mineral survey case files, 1906-65 supplemental plat survey case files, 1954-63 index to mineral claim surveys, 1916-57 lot book, Mount Diablo Meridian, 1869-1958 and register of homestead entry surveys in national forests, 1909-62. Files of the Grazing Service Advisory Board, 1966-69. Records of the Land and Minerals Program and Land Office Division, including contest case files absorbed and updated from the Region 2 and Sacramento District Offices, 1903-72 (85 ft.) and records relating to forest rehabilitation, 1957-64. Township tract books consolidated by the state office and covering GLO land districts, including Eureka, 1856-1970 Independence, 1866-1972 Marysville, 1861-1970 Redding, 1870-1971 Sacramento, 1870-1971, including mineral claims, 1872-1963 San Francisco, including oil and gas leases, 1853-1975 Stockton, 1863-1966 Susanville, 1871-1974 and Visalia, 1866-1974. Patented land entry case files, 1963-74. Unpatented land entry case files, 1908-74. GLO land status inventory of federally owned land, 1940-41, updated for Monterey County only, 1961-62. Records relating to river basin studies conducted by the Federal Power Commission and the Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, 1948-63.

Maps (15,762 items, in San Francisco): Township survey plats consolidated and continued by the state office from GLO land offices, including Eureka, 1860-1970 (770 items) Independence, 1857-1971 (990 items) Marysville, 1853-1970 (1,155 items) Redding, 1855-1973 (1,210 items) Sacramento, 1859-1976 (1,760 items) San Francisco, 1907-71 (1,595 items) Stockton, 1854-1970 (990 items) Susanville, 1867-1950 (715 items) and Visalia, 1855-1950 (715 items). Mineral survey plats continued from the Sacramento land office, 1882-1972 (5,832 items). Relief maps of withdrawn land, 1960-61 (30 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.13.4 Records of the Colorado State Office

Textual Records (in Denver): Records relating to hearings, 1960- 72. Survey records, 1960-77. Records relating to contests, 1960- 67. Right-of-way files, 1964. Records relating to land patents, 1965-68. Records of the Denver Service Center, including technical studies and resource management plans, 1964-71. Field investigation case files, 1920-40.

49.13.5 Records of the Idaho State Office

Textual Records (in Seattle): Township plats, 1892-1952. Tract books, 1877-1934. Group survey case files, 1923-70. Serialized case files for canceled and relinquished transactions, 1908-65.Land acquisition files, 1936-38. Public relations files, 1952-75. Unit resource analysis, 1964-82. Cooperative agreements, 1979-90. Resource Activity Plan (RAP) records, 1983-91. History files, 1966-84.

49.13.6 Records of the Montana State Office

Textual Records (in Denver): Closed contested mineral cases, 1961-64. Mineral survey files, 1946. Mineral rights transfer case files, 1940-60. Contests, 1964. Hearings, 1967-69. Records relating to land exchanges, 1954-57. Color of title actions, 1908-23. Serialized patent case files, 1963-68. Resource development records, 1967. Cooperative agreements and memorandums of understanding, 1939-81. School land selection cases, 1905-20. Closed contested mineral case files, 1905-20. Case files for sale or withdrawal of public land, 1962-73. Long range program and management plans, and records of advisory boards, 1959-70. Index cards to closed land use applications, 1907-43. Records relating to state advisory boards, 1940-78. Studies, publications, and resource inventories, 1956-81. Records of the Dillion Resource Area, including environmental assessment reports, 1972-81 and improvement projects, 1939-63.

49.13.7 Records of the Nevada State Office

Textual Records (in San Francisco): General administrative files, 1950-66. Issuances, 1963-71. Records of various advisory boards, 1962-72. Press releases and informational brochures, 1964-72. Records relating to "special situations," including management of wild horses, 1948-70. Records relating to grazing and range management, 1935-66 to grazing hearings and appeals, 1937-71 and to range conservation and improvement, 1941-63. Serialized land entry case files, 1908-74 (410 ft.). Patented land entry case files, 1964-71. Mineral claim and survey case files, 1920-70 (95 ft.). Contest case files, 1930-67. Township tract books, 1864-1964.

Maps (14,873 items, in San Francisco): Triplicate original township survey plats, consolidated and continued by the state office, 1861-1962 (4,400 items). Mineral survey plats, 1867-1970 (9,773 items). Connecting sheets, 1920-70 (700 items). SEE ALSO 49.16.

Aerial Photographs (5 items, in San Francisco): Palisades fire, Elko District, August 18, 1964. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.13.8 Records of the New Mexico State Office

Textual Records (in Denver): Register's correspondence relating to homestead and other applications and final certificates, 1908-43. Contest docket sheets, 1909-25. Case files relating to land exchanges, 1950-64 terminated rights-of-way, 1951-63 color of title actions, 1950-69 patent conveyances, 1951-57 and contested land entries, 1955-56. Records relating to Branch of Soil and Moisture Conservation programs, studies, and reports, 1937-54. Interagency cooperative agreements and memorandums of understanding, 1950-79. Withdrawals and adverse proceedings against mining claims within the Alamagordo and Ordcit bombing ranges, NM, 1942-55. Records relating to Federal legislation affecting public land in New Mexico, 1954-75. Records relating to land planning, cooperative, and advisory boards, 1940-76. School land indemnity and lieu selection case files, 1909-56. Patent files, 1961-69. Studies and reports, 1939-81. Job Corps plans, correspondence and reports relating to construction and operation of Job Corps camps, 1963-65. Serial register and log sheets, 1962-75. Records of the Denver Service Center, including plans and reports relating to land withdrawals for Air Force defense installations, 1963-83.

49.13.9 Records of the Oregon State Office

Textual Records (in Seattle): Tract books for OR and WA, 1867- 1960. Township plats for OR and WA, 1862-1972. Land office serial books and serialized case files for canceled and relinquished transactions for OR and WA, 1908-54. Group survey records of OR and WA, 1910-69. Land office serial books, 1908-54. Proposed legislation and regulation files, 1934-58. Right-of-way case files, 1942-49. Public relations files, 1934-53. Directives, 1959-71. Cooperative relations files, 1954-60. Oxbow fire plot records, 1967. Records of the Division of Resources, including committee files, 1937-79 and real property improvements and development files, 1968-74. Records of the Branch of Engineering, including final construction project files, 1960-70.

49.13.10 Records of the Utah State Office

Textual Records (in Denver): Registers of serialized land entries, 1956-68. Contested land entries, 1955-66. Records of advisory boards, 1942-68. Group survey files, 1910-66. Notices of location for mining claims, 1909-68. Watershed studies, 1954-69. Mineral survey files, 1955-67. Records of withdrawals, 1965. Land patent records, 1967.

49.13.11 Records of the Wyoming State Office

Textual Records (in Denver): Records relating to hearings, 1967. Right-of-way files, 1959, 1968. Land exchange records, 1959. Townsite survey plats, 1870-1969. Mineral survey and patent registers, and related records, 1869-1936. Indian allotment schedules, 1860-1960. Serial register pages and logs, 1950-86. Townsite serial log book, 1909-72.

49.14 RECORDS OF BLM DISTRICT OFFICES
1855-1988

History: BLM adopted the field office structure of its predecessors, including their district land offices, grazing offices, and forestry offices. They were gradually consolidated and redesignated as or superseded by multipurpose district offices.

49.14.1 Records of Arizona district offices

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Records of the Phoenix District Office, including serialized land entry case files, 1919-64 (240 ft.) rejected or withdrawn patent applications, 1908-47 cancelled or relinquished patent allowed entries, 1908-47 patent contest files, 1909-35 right of way case files, 1908-63 case files of contested mining claims, 1899-1968 subject files of district advisory boards, 1943-70 engineering field notebooks, 1953-69 property conveyance allowed files, 1936-63 property conveyance contest files, 1916-63 and property conveyance rejected files, 1961-62. Records of the Safford District Office, including wilderness inventories, 1979. Records of the Yuma District Office, including long range management plans, 1970-75.

49.14.2 Records of California district offices

Textual Records: Records (in Los Angeles) of the Bakersfield District Office, including abandoned or closed range improvement project files, 1935-69 environmental impact and assessment reports, 1979-88 environmental analysis files, 1980-84 publications, 1968-74 real property improvement and development files, 1960-76 and organization and history files, 1975-76. National Resources Planning Board project inventory summaries, 1943-48 records of the National, 1955-69, State, 1949-73, and District, 1939-70, Advisory Boards and miscellaneous records relating to grazing, 1954-67. Records (in Los Angeles) of the Los Angeles District Office, including serialized land entry case files, 1908-61 (1,017 ft.) field case files, 1922-60 case files of mining and grazing claims affected by the construction of the Friant and Shasta Dams as part of the Central Valley Project, 1935-61 records concerning Joshua Tree National Monument, 1933-64 case files and other records relating to BLM efforts to regain title to lands required for military purposes, 1940-64 case files of contested mining claims, 1936- 64 range improvement records, 1942-60 and San Bernardino Meridian land entry records, including field case files, 1945-60, tract and small tract registers, 1941-61, and small tract classification files, 1940-69. Records (in San Francisco) of the Redding District Office, consisting of general correspondence, 1951-64 cadastral survey correspondence, 1956-70 and range resource development and conservation case files, 1941-65, including case file of the California 6-S (Mount Hebron seeding) project, 1942-61. Records (in Los Angeles) of the Riverside District Office, including serialized land entry case files, 1961-70 Mount Diablo Meridian townsite case files, 1948-64, quitclaim deed files, 1942-69, trespass case files, 1953-70 and Advisory Committee activity files, 1975-84 and San Bernardino Meridian township tract books, 1870-1972, small tract books, 1941-64 propose plan information, 1981 and resource management plans, 1978-81. Records of the Sacramento District Office, including records of land entries, 1908-66 (342 ft.). Records of the Susanville District Office, including general correspondence, 1936-69 press releases, 1938-74 forage and range surveys, 1959-64 records of cooperative agreements, 1960- 62 range improvement project files, 1935-65 and case files of hearings and appeals, 1956-69. Records of the Ukiah District Office, consisting of range improvement and conservation case files, 1941-60 forest development records, 1959-66 press releases, 1963-76 and road, trail, and bridge construction project files, 1963-72. Records of the California Desert District Office (Riverside), including desert oral history, 1975-77 archaeology site inventory-mixed gem field data books, 1975 and memorandums of understanding, 1971-86.

Maps (3,552 items, in Los Angeles): San Bernardino Meridian preliminary survey plats, 1953-61 (32 items), maintained by the Los Angeles District Office. San Bernardino Meridian mineral survey plats, 1877-1973 (640 items), and township survey plats, 1855-1970 (2,880 items), maintained by the Riverside District Office. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.14.3 Records of Idaho district offices

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Boise District Office, including grazing appeals and Job Corps project records, 1964-73. Records of the Burley District Office, including grazing appeals, grazing association correspondence, advisory board minutes, and range improvement case files, 1938-67 advisory board files, 1980 and YCC (Youth Conservation Corps) and YACC (Young Adult Conservation Corps) program records, 1980. Records of the Coeur d'Alene District Office, including forest inventories, 1958-65 and river basin planning records, 1962-71. Records of the Idaho Falls District Office, consisting of grazing appeals, 1956-66 range conservation project case files, 1941-59 and environmental assessment studies 1975-78. Records of the Malad Resource Center, including grazing operator case files, 1936-70. Records of the Shoshone District Office, consisting of grazing appeals case files, 1946-71 and advisory board files, 1940-65, 1974-80.

49.14.4 Records of Montana district offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Miles City District Office, consisting of range condition and trend studies, 1954-64 case files for appeal and trespass cases, 1956-63 and abandoned work programs, 1965-67.

49.14.5 Records of Nevada district offices

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Records of the Battle Mountain District Office, consisting of grazing appeals records, 1953-66. Records of the Carson City District Office, consisting of grazing appeals, 1935-70. Records of the Elko District Office, consisting of range management records, 1938-51 grazing advisory board election records, 1938-56 grazing hearings and appeals, 1960-63 and lieu land selection case files, 1913-55. Records of the Ely District Office, including narrative historical reports, 1938-70 range surveys, 1941-65 range resource development and conservation records, 1944-66 environmental assessments, 1974-77 and grazing appeals records, 1916-71 (bulk 1940-71). Records (in Los Angeles) of the Las Vegas District Office, including range improvement project case files, 1936-67 grazing range studies, 1936-60 forage inventory and survey sheets, 1957-65 directive files, 1969-76 range surveys, 1963-67 and Redrock Canyon master plan and draft, 1975. Records of the Winnemucca District Office, including general administrative files, 1936-66 range adjudication survey records, 1936-64 minutes of grazing advisory boards, 1935-65 and grazing appeals, 1935-68.

Aerial Photographs (76 items, in Los Angeles): Army Map Service aerial range survey photographs of the Delamar, Panaca, Tule, and Clover Mountain Units (1954), used by the Las Vegas District Office in its forage surveys, 1957-65. SEE ALSO 49.16.

49.14.6 Records of the New Mexico district offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Albuquerque district office, including interdepartmental Rio Grande Board committee studies, 1934-38 correspondence relating to grazing district boundaries, 1933-34 correspondence relating to establishment and modification of grazing boundaries, 1936-44 records relating to grazing land valuations, patents, and exchanges, 1935-47 correspondence relating to valuation and exchange of grazing land, 1936-46 inspection and classification reports pertaining to the Stockraising Homestead Act, 1918-20 range improvement project reports, 1935-48 and index cards to closed Homestead and other entries, 1908-50. Records of the Las Cruces District Office, including land disposal case files, 1946-58 watershed studies, resources inventories, and environmental analysis, 1940-81 contested grazing case files and related hearings, 1934-54 and records relating to field inspections, trespass cases, and advisory boards, 1969-71.

49.14.7 Records of Oregon district offices

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Baker District Office, including lot allotment case files, 1937-72. Records of the Baker Resource Area, including range and fire reports, 1939-65 fire records, 1957-70 and records of the interagency, advisory or international committees, 1949-74. Records of the Burns District Office, including range permits, grazing appeals case files, right-of-way case files, and advisory board minutes, 1934-61. Records of the Coos Bay District Office, including forest inventory and timber sale records, right-of-way and easements for timber access roads, 1951-72 public relations files, 1973 and final report of youth conservation program, 1980. Records of the Eugene District Office, consisting of forest inventories and records of timber access road construction, 1947-67 public relations files, 1972-73 advisory board minutes, 1945-53 improvement and development files, 1942-59 press releases, 1974-75 and historical files, 1980-81. Records of the Medford District Office, including forest inventories, 1920-44, 1958-65 timber access road right-of-way case files, 1948-71 public relations files, 1968-73 and environmental assessments, 1975-83. Records of the Salem District Office, including Oregon and California (O&C) revested lands land exchange records, O&C Advisory Board minutes, forest inventories, and forest resource studies, 1940- 71. Records of the Tillamook District Office, consisting of grazing appeal case files, 1936-69. Records of the Vale District Office, consisting of advisory board minutes, 1935-71 livestock association cooperation case files, 1954-67 Vale Project (range restoration) reports and work plans, 1962-68 range improvement case files, 1939-72 grazing appeals, 1936-69 resource development and conservation project case files, 1939-71 and wild horse management files, 1959-82. Records of the Lakeview District Office, including range improvement case files, adjudicated grazing case files, range surveys, and grazing appeals case files, 1943-69 and advisory board files, 1977.

49.14.8 Records of Utah district offices

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Cedar City District Office, including records of advisory boards, 1939-62 and resource development and conservation records, 1944-63. Records of the Moab District Office, including advisory board records, 1935-70 resource development and conservation records, 1935- 66 and originating planning records for Canyonlands National Park in southern Utah, 1962. Records of the Price District Office, consisting of watershed plans, timber contracts, and grazing trespass case files, 1949-63 records relating to range improvement programs, 1957-63 and studies and reports, 1939-59. Records of the Richfield District Office, consisting of advisory board records, 1941-67. Records of the Salt Lake City Office, consisting of registers of serialized land entries, 1908- 57 (33 ft.). Records of the Vernal District Office, consisting of registers of serialized land entries, 1908-57.

49.15 RECORDS OF OTHER FIELD ACTIVITIES
1859-1993

49.15.1 Records of the Oregon and California Railroad Revested Lands Administration

History: Established in the GLO, June 1, 1938, pursuant to an act of August 28, 1937 (50 Stat. 874), assigning administrative responsibility for Oregon and California Railroad Company revested lands to the Department of the Interior. These were lands originally granted to the railroad by an act of July 25, 1866 (14 Stat. 239), but to which the Federal Government reasserted title by an act of June 9, 1916 (39 Stat. 218), following a successful court proceeding against the railroad for violation of the provisions of the original land grant.

Textual Records (in Seattle): Tract books, 1859-1967. Historical data files, 1914-59.

49.15.2 Records of the Boise Interagency Fire Center, ID

History: Established in the BLM, April 1, 1965, as a cooperative venture of the BLM, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Fish and Wildlife Service, and Forest Service. Provides nationwide logistical support in the suppression of forest and range fires, including support to the states and, through the Department of State, to foreign countries.

Textual Records (in Seattle): Original fire reports, 1939-63. Fire reports for AK, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, OR, SD, UT, WA, and WY, 1964-78. History files, 1974. Interagency training, documents, 1976-93.

49.16 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
1827-1992

Maps (5,789 items): Administrative maps showing activities of the agency, historical acquisition of the public domain, principal meridians and baselines used in the establishment of the township and range system, the format to be used in printing township plats, and locations of surveys planned for the United States and Alaska during selected years, 1909-46 (18 items). "Standard published" (SP) maps, issued in updated editions by both the GLO and the BLM, of the United States and individual states and territories, showing the extent of public surveys, land purchases and cessions by the Federal Government, township and range lines, private land claims and grants, Indian and military reservations, national parks and forests, railroad land-grant limits, and the locations of land offices and offices of the surveyors general, 1873-1964 (460 items). Set of SP maps arranged into an atlas of the public land states, 1876 (19 items). Reference maps used in the compilation of the published state maps, 1903-40 (317 items). "Special published" (P) maps showing routes of principal explorations in the United States, the progress of public land surveys for specific years, Federal Government reservation boundaries, locations of abandoned military reservations, Indian lands, and selected coal, gas, and oil fields, 1836-1946 (360 items). "Published boundary" (PB) maps, many relating to the Oklahoma-Texas boundary dispute along the Red River, 1827-1926 (29 items). Plans of federal reserves for the protection of native birds and certain national monuments, with attached copies of Presidential proclamations and Executive orders authorizing their establishment, 1903-26 (88 items). Maps relating to land classification in parts of the western states, annotated to show withdrawals of public lands, dates of proclamations authorizing the withdrawals, names of persons leasing land on grazing districts in AZ, and certain vacant lands, ca. 1916-45 (116 items). County highway maps annotated to show federally owned lands in the western states except AZ, from an inventory project begun under the National Resources Committee, 1939, and continued by the GLO, 1940-46 (1,219 items). Atlases of Alaska, showing federal land withdrawals and reservations, 1952, 1958 (120 items). Surveys of the LA coast, 1954-57 (41 items). Published Surface Management Status, Surface Minerals Management Status, and Wilderness Status maps of the public land states, printed by the Geological Survey for the BLM, 1974-89 (3,000 items). Map and legal description of the land withdrawn under the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of January 3, 1992 (PL 102-579), 1990-92 (2 items).

Aerial Photographs (700 items): LA coast, made in connection with a study of submerged lands, 1953-54.

SEE Maps UNDER 49.3.2, 49.3.4, 49.3.6, 49.3.7, 49.3.10, 49.3.14, 49.6.1, 49.6.4, 49.7.2, 49.7.5, 49.7.7, 49.7.8, 49.7.9, 49.7.11, 49.7.13, 49.8.3, 49.9.5, 49.9.12, 49.9.19, 49.9.29, 49.12, 49.13.1, 49.13.3, 49.13.7, and 49.14.2. SEE Aerial Photographs UNDER 49.13.7 and 49.14.5.

Finding Aids: Laura E. Kelsay, comp., List of Cartographic Records of the General Land Office, SL 19 (1964).

49.17 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
1956-ca. 1970
14 reels

Public Information films and spot announcements reflecting the Bureau of Land Management's protection and management of the nation's land and natural resources, 1956-ca. 1970.

49.18 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1893-1982

Photographs (12,676 images): BLM and predecessor agency activities in the western United States, including Alaska, 1893- 1982 (WLM, 12,581 images). GLO Commissioners (1814 to 1933), including photographs of paintings and engravings, 1965 (CP, 24 images). Ferry Lake, LA, ecological survey, 1914 (FL, 71 images).

Photographic Prints (626 images): Oil fields, derricks, equipment, people, and communities in CA, in albums, some taken by Frank C. Ashton, and used in a GLO investigation, 1898-1900 (KRA, 183 images). Settlers at the opening of the Cherokee Strip in OK, panel cards taken by W.A. Flowers, Guthrie, OK, and collected by Anthony Rice, Chief of the Homestead Division, 1893 (AR, 24 images). Geological formations and conditions in CA, 1916 (DC, 384 images). War Relocation Centers, Manzanar and Tule Lake, CA, 1946 (RC, 35 images).

Color Slides and Transparencies (1,000 images): BLM and predecessor agency activities in the western United States, including Alaska, 1953-63 (SWL).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.



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