Map of the Hittite Empire

Map of the Hittite Empire


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Week 5 c. Hittite Documents

The Hittites controlled a large empire east of Troy in central and south western Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age. Their capital, Boghazkoy (Hattusas), was discovered in 1834, but existence of the Hittites as a powerful empire was not recognized until the early twentieth century when the site was excavated systematically and its script deciphered. (An Oxford professor of Assyriology wanted Schliemann to excavate it in the 1880’s.) Here is another example of the contribution archaeology can make to history. Before the early twentieth century and 1915, when the Hittite script was deciphered, these people and their history were largely unknown. They were thought to be the Hatti in Egyptian documents and are occasionally mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The exact location of several Hittite sites is disputed. As you will see in Michael Wood’s conclusion given on the next pages, the state of knowledge about the Hittites is provisional and changing with new discoveries.

One estimation of the geography of the Hittite Empire, from Sir Denys Page, History and the Homeric Iliad.

Refer to the History, Archaeology and Science Resource Booklet for this map.

Over 10,000 cuneiform tablets have been found written in a variety of languages, including one which is now called Hittite. While the historical details and identifications are confusing, some of these archives have been used to support the actuality of the Trojan War, of Mycenaean Greek power and aggression, and the existence of Troy and of a Trojan Prince called Alexander (the other name for Paris in the Iliad). The arguments are based on tentative transliterations into Greek from the Hittite and a good deal of speculation and argument from probability. The key names in the Hittite documents are:

Ahhiyawa translated as Achaeans (Homer’s term for the Greeks)

Alaksandros Alexander (the other name for Paris)

Wilusa/Wilios translated as Ilios or Ilium another name for Troy in Homer

Taruisa translated as Troy

Millawanda/Miliwata translated as Miletos

Lazpa translated as Lesbos

Assuwa translated as Asia

Michael Wood pp.155-82 [esp. pp. 177-78 and p. 249] offers a tentative reconstruction of events. The Hittite empire was in control of most of western Asia Minor, ruling through puppet kings and alliances it was also being attacked on its other frontiers and clashed with Egypt as well. It was also in treaty with the Great King of Ahhiyawa. The Great King’s brother who was ruling in Miletos supported a rebel, who taking advantage of the vulnerability of the Hittites, was attacking parts of the empire or its allies on the west coast of Anatolia and the islands. In the process, the King Alaksandros of Taruisa who had remained loyal to the Hittite empire was defeated and fled into exile. The diplomatic archives are fragmentary and are difficult to date and there is no agreement on the transliteration of the names. Scholars also disagree on the geographical location of the places mentioned in the treaties and letters. There is also the question of who the Great King of Ahhiyawa was and where his kingdom was located, as well as doubt whether Ahhiyawa can be equated with Achaeans. Wood’s scenario is that Ahhiyawa is indeed Achaean and refers to a mainland Greek power (like Agamemnon), that the rebel and the king’s brother’s activities are testimony to Mycenaean aggression in western Asia Minor, and that the attack and removal of King Alaksandros could be the historical reality behind the Trojan War and the sack of Troy. [Lots of A’s!]

What the Hittite diplomatic archive can do, if translated and applied this way, is give a real context, an historical context for the Trojan War and recognition that the poetry of Homer in the Iliad was recalling some major disturbance in the Late Bronze Age. In other words, the Trojan War and sacking of Troy is possible. Rather than an aristocratic Greek attempt to retrieve an abducted woman, the Trojan War and destruction of Troy were caused by the military challenges to the declining Hittite empire.


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Abeka World History Maps (Grade 7)

World History Maps are designed for teaching and reviewing the information presented in the 7th and 10th grade Abeka texts History of the World and World History and Cultures. They are correlated with World Atlas and Geography Studies: Eastern Hemisphere and with World History and Cultures Tests/Map Projects. The daily plans for 7th and 10th grade history indicate which maps to use and when to use them (not included in this map set).

The physical, political, and historical maps may be used to point out important locations during the history lesson, to teach and review the Geography Studies, and to go over the Geography Projects. They may also be used for quizzes and review games and contests.

The physical and political maps are labeled on one side for teacher reference and unlabeled on the other for student review.

  • 1. World-Physical (split into two maps, so double the size when put together)
  • Eastern Hemisphere
  • Western Hemisphere
  • Middle East
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • North America
  • South America

    Hammurabi's Babylonian Empire, the Egyptian Empire & Hittite Empire on one side and the Assyrian Empire, New Babylonian Empire, and Persian Empire on the flip side.


Map of the Hittite Empire - History

I. Early history

a. Little known about them until archaeological discoveries of early 20 th century

b. Migrated to Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from northern Europe circa 3000 BCE

II. First Hittite Empire

b. Empire stretched from Aegean Sea to Euphrates River

III. Second Hittite Empire

b. Included Asia Minor, Palestine, and Syria

i. Continuous warfare with Egypt

ii. 1200 BCE – conquered by northern barbarians

iii. Eventually absorbed by Assyria

a. Link between Mesopotamia and western Asia

b. Had monopoly on Armenian and European metals for hundreds of years

c. Developed iron for tools and weapons

d. Wealth from trade of gold, iron, lead, and silver

e. Trade shown in numerous excavated clay tablets

b. Heavily fortified city walls

c. Written laws show Babylonian influence

b. Stone lions at city entrances

c. Carvings of animals and warriors

VII. Review questions

a. Where was the Hittite empire located?

b. What major contribution did the Hittites make to military warfare and world civilization?


Map of the Hittite Empire - History

The first suggestion of the Hittites' presence in central Anatolia during the Middle Bronze Age is the occurrence in the Kültepe tablets of Indo-European personal names in the correspondence of the Assyrian merchants and local rulers of central Anatolia (the &ldquoLand of Hatti&rdquo), whose non-Indo-European language is known as Hattian (Khattian, Hattic, or Khattic). Although it is now known that these Indo-Europeans called their language Nesite (after the city of Nesa), it is still, confusingly, called Hittite.

As can be readily ascertained: The root cause of all these problems is the "linguist" (language specialist): With all their Indo-this and Indo-that. It is also readily apparent the fact that the language was written in a so-called "Semitic" language (Akkadian), would have been a red flag for someone with pure motives. See Sumer-3 for Akkadian <<Click>>

The fact is there is no such thing as an Indo-European people: save for the Indians of northern India, who are a mix of Dravidian and Arian. The fact that people speak a similar language is no indicator of genetic or ethnic affinity. Britain is a small country, yet because of it's prior Empire, millions of people around the world speak english, all the while, having no genetic or ethnic affinity with the British.

It is also apparent that these crude artifacts: mostly unidentifiable, could have been done by anyone at any time.

Besides Nesite, two other Indo-European dialects were found in Anatolia: Luwian (Luvian), spoken by immigrants into southwest Anatolia late in the Early Bronze Age and later written with the pictographs commonly called Hittite hieroglyphs and the more obscure Palaic, spoken in the northern district known in classical times as Paphlagonia.
The first knowledge of the Hittites then, depends upon the appearance of typically Nesite names among the predominant Assyrian and Hattian names of the texts.

The problem of the origin of the Hittites has been the subject of some controversy and has not yet been conclusively resolved. On linguistic grounds, some scholars were at first disposed to bring them from lands west of the Black Sea, but it subsequently was shown that this theory conflicts with much archaeological evidence. One authority argues for their arrival in Anatolia from the northeast, basing his theory on the burning or desertion during the 20th century BC of a line of settlements representing the approaches to Cappadocia from that direction.

The evidence from the cities near the Kizil (Halys) River and Cappadocia, however, does not support this picture of an invading army, destroying settlements in its path and evicting their inhabitants. The impression is rather one of peaceful penetration, leading by degrees to a monopoly of political power. From their first appearance among the indigenous Anatolians, the Hittites seem to have mingled freely, while the more flexible Nesite language gradually replaced Hattian. It has even been argued that Anatolia was the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and that they gradually spread east and west after about 7000 BC, carrying with them not only their language but also the invention of agriculture. There are, however, good grounds for rejecting this theory.

Now to Reality:

This Hittite nonsense is an abject example of the Albinos twisting

History and Religion into pretzels to accommodate their Racist agenda.

Conventional Albino history states: that by about 2,000 - 1,500 B.C. the Hittites, supposedly the first of the Caucasian tribes of the Eurasian Plains to enter the middle-east, had established themselves in central Anatolia. Note: The term "Hittites" is first seem and is taken from: the King James Bible (first published in 1611), which is a "SUPPOSED" translation of a translation etc. of the first Bible, the long lost &ldquoGreek Septuagint&rdquo plus the Greek New Testament. The Hebrew words in question translate as the "Children of Heth". But this is a Canaanite group in the Bible. How did these people magically get transposed into the history of Anatolia?

Note: The King James Bible is the 9th. of the new Bibles of the New Albino created religion of Protestantism: a new religion to "Protest" the original Christian religion of Catholicism - then a Black Roman religion. (Hebrews, Egyptians, and Babylonians having their own religions).

See history of the Bible in Additional Material section.

Genesis 15: King James Version
15:14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.
15:15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace thou shalt be buried in a good old age.
15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.
15:17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.
15:18 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:
15:19 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites,
15:20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims,
15:21 And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.

Hittites

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with Hattians.


The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East. The Assyrians eventually emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, and along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest historically attested Indo-European language.

Hittites referred to their native language as ne&scaronili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa (Hatti in Akkadian). The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa (until the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic.

DID YOU GET THIS??
Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa (until the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic.


So the millions of Hatti magically disappeared to TEMPORARILY make way for the Hittites, who themselves soon disappear and the Hatti RETURN!

During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology also influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank ("Hittite bank"), and the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world.

WELL DID YOU GET THIS??
During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology also influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank ("Hittite bank"), and the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world.


HOW IS THIS FOR CONVENIENT, THE NEW ALBINO RULERS OF ANATOLIA (now Turkey), CREATE INTEREST IN A &ldquoFAKE&rdquo ALBINO EMPIRE IN THEIR NEW &ldquoSTOLEN FROM BLACK PEOPLE&rdquo EMPIRE.

The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt and the Middle East, the decipherment of which was also a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, and although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC at this time, gifts from the "man of Burushanda" of an iron throne and an iron sceptre to the Kaneshite king Anitta were recorded in the Anitta text inscription.

The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria, Lebanon and Israel. Lacking a continuity, their descendants are scattered and have ultimately got merged into the modern populations of the Levant, Turkey and Mesopotamia. Pure Albino nonsense.


The Lydians Conquer Greek Lands

The fall of the Hittites also gave birth to the Lydian civilization. Lydians spoke a language related to Hittite Indo-European and formed their civilization around southwestern Anatolia, but more inland than the Greeks. They formed the city of Sardis, in the modern region of Manisa. Like the Phrygians, they were weak at first, but with time they became a force to be reckoned with. The Lydians ended up conquering their Greek neighbors to the west and formed a unified kingdom with most of western Anatolia under their belt. They are also credited with the first use of minted coins.

Lydian coin, 6th century BC. Pergamon museum. Berlin. ( Public Domain )

Some historians, such as Herodotus, claim a group of Lydian colonists sailed to Italy and formed the Etruscan civilization, but the theory has its opponents and debate continues to this day. The Lydian Kingdom was at the height of its power during time of King Croesus, who was renowned for his wealth. The Persians and other civilizations used the simile, “rich as Croesus” to describe the wealth of rich people. This is the second king from Anatolia to have his legend based on money and wealth. Unlike other Anatolian kingdoms, the Lydians fell during their strongest time - at the hands of the Persian Empire.

Croesus Receiving Tribute from a Lydian Peasant (1629). ( Public Domain )


Episode 82 – Hittite 14 Suppiluliuma Irritates Egypt

In the aftermath of one of the greatest campaigns of the bronze age, Suppiluliuma’s Hittites need to consolidate control over Syria. This is complicated by matters of Egyptian and Mitanni politics, as well as the endless politicking of the tiny Syrian states, but it turns out if you have a massive army and a military genius, than many political problems have a way of simply resolving themselves. We will also see one of the strangest events in bronze age political history, and we will see how it goes sour and launches a multi-generational feud between Egypt and the Hittites.

I mentioned that the History of Egypt podcast had an extensive series on the Ammurite menace, Abdi-Asherta and his son. Part 1 is here, Part 2 is here.

Find a Suppiluliuma I map, esp with Aleppo and Carchemish

It is tough to find good Hittite empire maps that all agree, for example, this map shows pretty much all of the Kaskan lands as held, but nothing in western Anatolia. Still, this is a fair reference for the empire under Suppiluliuma I.


The Hittites—The First Ancient Empire

The Hittites’ Origins

The Hittites’ origins are shrouded in the mists of early 2 nd -millennium B.C.E. Anatolia. The empire’s real rise to power began with the so-called Old Kingdom. The founder of the Old Kingdom and the first great Hittite ruler was Hattusilis I, who came to the throne around 1650 and ruled for about 30 years.

A map showing the extent of the Hittite Empire (salmon color) and the Egyptian neighbors to the South around 1300 BC (green) (Image: By Crates/Public Domain)

This is a transcript from the video series Ancient Empires before Alexander. Watch it now, on The Great Courses.

Like Anitta, the founder of the Hittite kingdom, he was prince of the city of Kussara, and he had ambitions—so he conquered Hattusas and moved his capital there. Hattusas had attractions: It was located on a well-defended hilltop and was strategically sited within the great bend of the Halys River, in north-central Anatolia.

The Warrior-King’s Campaigns

Rock relief of Hattusili III the warrior-king (Image: By Krähenstein/Public Domain)

Hattusilis was a warrior-king. He left us an account of his exploits in the so-called “Political Testament of Hattusilis.” He says that he launched his very first campaign to the north, destroying the coastal town of Zalpa and planting garrisons, providing the troops with lands and sheep for their subsistence.

He aimed his second campaign against northern Syria. There he destroyed the important town of Alalah, as well as a number of other places, hauling away mountains of booty. The way he puts it was, “I filled my house to the top with their goods.”

In his third campaign, he raided the land of Arzawa in southwest Anatolia, plundering it of cattle and sheep, but while he was engaged there, he says: “Behind my back the enemy came from Mitanni into my country. Then all the lands became hostile to me, and the city of Hattusas alone remained.” But his patron deity came to the rescue:

The sun-goddess of Arina set me upon her lap and she took me by the hand and went before me in the battle. I went to do battle with Nenassa, and when the people of Nenassa beheld me they opened their gates. But after that I went to do battle in the country of Ulma, and the people of Ulma opposed me twice in battle and twice I fought against them, and I destroyed Ulma and in its place I sowed cress, and its seven gods I brought to the temple of the sun-goddess of Arina.

In subsequent campaigns, he reports ravaging northern Syria several more times, fighting against the Prince of Aleppo and even leading a Hittite army across the Euphrates. He meticulously catalogs the loads of plunder he brought back from Syria to Hattusas, including silver stags, tables made of gold and of silver, and a ship with a silver-covered bow. He boasts that he carried away the population of slaves from northern Syria and dedicated them to his patron, the sun-goddess, along with rich gifts that he had made of the precious metals he had seized.

“Attack, Destroy, Withdraw”

In a moment that speaks volumes about the way in which conquerors like Hattusilis saw themselves standing in the shadow of those who had gone before them, he says:

I, the Great King Labarna, crossed the Euphrates with my own feet. Only Sargon had crossed it before me. Against the troops of the city of Hahha he had fought, but he had not done anything to the city of Hahha, had not burnt it down with fire and had not shown its smoke to the weather-god of heaven. I, the Great King Labarna, destroyed Hahha and gave it over totally to fire, and its smoke I showed to the weather-god of heaven.

He then yoked the King of Hahha to a wagon loaded with the goods looted from his city and forced him to drag the wagon through the gates into Hattusas. The tablet bears the simple title: “The Manly Deeds of Hattusilis.” The purpose behind Hattusilis’s manly deeds isn’t clear. The principalities of northern Syria posed no direct military threat to Anatolia, and he seems to have made no effort to annex the area.

“Attack, destroy, withdraw” is the way one scholar has characterized Hattusilis’s campaigns. In a strategic sense, the campaigns may even have been counterproductive, for two reasons: First, taking the army so far afield risked making the Hittite heartland vulnerable to attack from enemies closer by. Second, although the principalities of northern Syria had posed no threat to Hatti or its possessions before, in the wake of Hattusilis’s campaigns they were likely to view Hatti as a hostile neighbor and unlikely to favor its interests in the future, except under compulsion.

Some scholars have suggested an economic motive—that Hattusilis sought access to and control over the important trade routes that ran through northern Syria, linking Mesopotamia with the port cities of the Levant. They speculate that the tin necessary for making bronze came from Elam in southwestern Iran, and that the end of the Assyrian merchant colonies and their network had crippled bronze production in Hatti—so Hattusilis’s aim, therefore, was to restore the tin routes between Anatolia and Elam.

Hatti’s Heroic Values

But it’s also worth remembering that this was a society that placed a high premium on what we today call “heroic values.” We see that in the fact that royal ideologies throughout the ancient Near East emphasize above all else the king as warrior. A successful warrior-king provides for his people by bringing home and distributing booty. So what does Hattusilis say—and what does he not say—in his account of his expeditions?

He doesn’t boast of strengthening Hatti’s frontiers in Anatolia—he boasts of the mountains of booty that he brought back from his campaigns along those frontiers. When he turns to his Syrian forays, he doesn’t talk about restoring access to tin—he talks about his achievements being even greater than those of Sargon himself and then boasts about how he had vanquished kings haul wagons laden with plunder through the gates of his capital. In other words, what Hattusilis was doing was being a warrior-king—and a pretty good one at that.

Do we really need to look any further for a motive?

Common Questions About the Hittites

It is largely unknown who the descendents of the Hittites are today as they were eradicated .

The Hittites formed a strong culture around 1700 BCE which grew into the first massive ancient empire that even threatened Egypt’s established nationhood.

The Hittites did have slaves as their society was feudal and agrarian, which meant most were peasants working the farms.

The Hittites worshiped many gods including Arinnitti , the sun goddess, who was at the apex of their religious structure.


Examples of Hittite Empire in the following topics:

The Hittites

  • The HittiteEmpire reached its height during the mid-fourteenth century BCE under Suppiluliuma I.
  • The Hittite kingdom is conventionally divided into three periods, the Old Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1750–1500 BCE), the Middle Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1500–1430 BCE) and the New Hittite Kingdom (the HittiteEmpire proper, 1430–1180 BCE).
  • By 1160 BCE, the Empire had collapsed.
  • "Neo-Hittite" post-Empire states, petty kingdoms under Assyrian rule, may have lingered on until ca. 700 BCE.
  • The HittiteEmpire is shown in Blue, ca. eighteenth century BCE–ca. 1178 BCE.

The Hittites

  • The HittiteEmpire reached its height during the mid-14th century BCE under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.
  • The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites, according to 19th century archaeology.
  • The Hittites are thereby counted among the Canaanites.
  • The HittiteEmpire at its greatest extent under Suppiluliuma I (c. 1350–1322 BCE) and Mursili II (c. 1321–1295 BCE)
  • The approximate extent of the maximum area of the Hittite rule (light green) and the Hittite rule c. 1350-1300 BCE (green line).

The New Kingdom

  • The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between 1550-1070 BCE, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt.
  • New Kingdom Egypt would reach the height of its power under Seti I and Ramesses II, who fought against the Libyans and Hittites.
  • Eventually, the Egyptians and Hittites signed a lasting peace treaty.
  • The heavy cost of warfare slowly drained Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia.
  • This map shows the Egyptian (green) and Hittite (red) Empires around 1274 BCE.

The Assyrians

  • The Assyrian Empire was a major Semitic kingdom, and often empire, of the Ancient Near East.
  • Following the fall of the Akkadian Empire, c. 2154 BCE, and the short-lived succeeding Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, which ruled southern Assyria, Assyria regained full independence.
  • However, a shift in the Assyrian's dominance occurred with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365 BCE-1056 BCE).
  • Additionally, during this period, Assyria overthrew Mitanni and eclipsed both the HittiteEmpire and Egyptian Empire in the Near East.
  • It overthrew the Twenty-Fifth dynasty of Egypt, and conquered a number of other notable civilizations, including Babylonia, Elam, Media, Persia, Phoenicia/Canaan, Aramea (Syria), Arabia, Israel, and the Neo-Hittites.

Babylon

  • Following the sack of Babylon by the Hittites, the Kassites invaded and took over Babylon, ushering in a dynasty that was to last for 435 years until 1160 BCE.
  • Throughout the duration of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-608 BCE) Babylonia was under Assyrian domination or direct control.
  • Babylon thus became the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
  • By 141 BCE, when the Parthian Empire took over the region again, Babylon was in complete desolation and obscurity.
  • Under the Parthian, and later, Sassanid Persians, Babylon remained a province of the Persian Empire for nine centuries.

The Phoenicians

  • Although Egyptian seafaring expeditions had already been made to Byblos to bring back "cedars of Lebanon" as early as the 3rd millennium BCE, continuous contact only occurred in the Egyptian New Empire period.
  • During the early Iron Age, around 1200 BCE, Sea Peoples appeared in the area from the north, which weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and Hittites, respectively.

The Empire Style

The German Empire

The Brazilian Empire

Naming of the Byzantine Empire

  • While the Western Roman Empire fell, the Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the Byzantine Empire, thrived.
  • The Byzantine Empire, sometimes referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, originally founded as Byzantium).
  • Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire and thought of themselves as Romans.
  • Over time, the culture of the Eastern Roman Empire transformed.
  • Just as the Byzantine Empire represented the political continuation of the Roman Empire, Byzantine art and culture developed directly out of the art of the Roman Empire, which was itself profoundly influenced by ancient Greek art.
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Watch the video: Who were the Hittites? The history of the Hittite Empire explained in 10 minutes


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