Eastland APA-163 - History

Eastland APA-163 - History


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Eastland

A county in Texas.

(APA-163: dp. 6,700, 1. 455', b. 62', dr. 24', s. 18 k.
cpl. 546; a. 1 5", cl. Haskell)

Eastland (APA-163) was launched 19 September 1944 by Oregon Shipbuilding Corp., Portland, Oreg., for the Maritime Commission, sponsored by Mrs. Allan Hunger; transferred to the Navy and commissioned 26 October 1944, Commander G. L. Harriss in command.

Eastland sailed from San Pedro, Calif., 26 December 1944, carrying 64 naval aviators to Pearl Harbor, where she arrived on New Year's Day 1945. She continued west on 17 January transporting men to Eniwetok, Kossol Roads, and Peleliu before arriving at Leyte, 9 February. After amphibious training, Eastland sailed from Leyte 21 March for Kerama Retto, the islands which proved the indispensable stepping stone and logistic base for invading and holding nearby Okinawa.

Arriving Kerama, 26 March, she landed her troops without opposition on Yakabi Shima and remained in the archipelago until 26 April. Several times during that period, Eastland fired on planes which attacked the anchorage; though not damaged herself, the transport splashed at least three enemy aircraft.

After a month at Ulithi, Eastland sailed into San Francisco Bay on 11 June 1945: She replenished her stores and embarked passengers and cargo at Eniwetok, Ulithi, San Pedro Bay and Leyte, from which she returned to the Golden Gate, 13 August.

She sailed again 24 August to carry replacement soldiers to San Pedro Bay, Leyte, arriving 14 September. After interisland. transport duty until September she put out for Hakodate, Japan, where she discharged occupation troops and their supplies from 4 to 7 October.

Eastland continued on transport duty in the western Pacific, lifting marines from Guam to Taku Bar, then reached Inchon to embark homeward-bound servicemen for Portland, arriving in the Columbia River 2 December 1945. She made another such "Magic Carpet" voyage between Seattle and Yokosuka from 17 December 1945 to 28 January 1946 Two days later, she sailed for San Francisco and Norfolk, arriving 24 February.

Eastland was decommissioned there 15 April 1946 and delivered to the War Shipping Administration the following day for disposal.

Eastland received one battle star for World War II service.


USS Eastland (APA-163)

USS Eastland (APA-163) was a Haskell-class attack transport acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II for the task of transporting troops to and from combat areas.

Eastland (APA-163) was launched 19 September 1944 by Oregon Shipbuilding Corp., Portland, Oregon, for the Maritime Commission sponsored by Mrs. Allan Hunger transferred to the Navy and commissioned 26 October 1944, Commander G. L. Harriss in command.


Eastland disaster

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Eastland disaster, capsizing of the passenger liner SS Eastland on the Chicago River in Chicago on July 24, 1915. The event, which claimed at least 844 lives, ranks as one of the worst maritime disasters in American history. It also is among the city’s deadliest catastrophes: hundreds more lives were lost in the Eastland disaster than in the Chicago fire of 1871.

Early on the morning of July 24, thousands of people gathered in the rain for the fifth annual picnic for the employees of the Western Electric Company. The retreat was scheduled to begin with a boat ride from Chicago across Lake Michigan to Michigan City, Indiana. About 6:30 am passengers began boarding the Eastland—one of five boats chartered for the excursion—at a dock in downtown Chicago. The liner, which had been built in 1902, was known as the “Speed Queen of the Great Lakes.” It also had a history of being unstable, nearly capsizing on several previous occasions.

At 6:41 am the vessel began listing to the starboard side, and the ship’s crew let water into the ship’s ballast tanks to even out the imbalance. Although righted, the Eastland soon began listing again, this time to port. At 7:10 am boarding ended as the ship reached its limit of 2,500 passengers. By about 7:25 am the Eastland had been righted several times, but it then began its fatal list. Within some two minutes it was listing to port at least 25 degrees, and water was entering the ship. As it moved away from the dock, at approximately 7:30 am , the Eastland rolled onto its side. Onlookers as well as nearby boats rushed to aid the passengers, and the police and fire departments arrived soon after. Despite such efforts, however, hundreds were crushed or drowned just a few yards from shore.

Several investigations were launched in the wake of the disaster. The crew was ultimately found not guilty of any wrongdoing, and a federal court held that the owner of the Eastland was not liable, since the liner had passed inspections and been deemed seaworthy. The cause of the Eastland’s capsizing, however, continued to be a source of speculation. It was possible that the ship’s ballast system was inadequate, and its narrow design may have contributed to its demise. Additional lifeboats and rafts that the ship was carrying—the result of a new law passed after the Titanic catastrophe three years earlier—may have made the craft top-heavy.


Eastland APA-163 - History

The Eastland Hotel was built in 1918 during the oil boom. The Princess Theater and Stanley Café occupied the first floor, and the Stanley Hotel was located on the second and third floors.

Former Navy pilots Mike and Anne Zoellick purchased the building and began renovations in 1995. The Zoellicks combined the small rooming house rooms to make eight charming and spacious rooms with private baths on the second floor, a handicap accessible room on the first floor, and three larger extended stay rooms on the third floor. They also added a beautiful swimming pool to the courtyard.

Amanda and John Bird purchased the Eastland Hotel from the Zoellicks in November of 2019. They, along with their three children—Bonnie, Lily, and Ben—live in the hotel and personally take care of all aspects of the property.


Hundreds drown in Eastland disaster

On July 24, 1915, the steamer Eastland overturns in the Chicago River, drowning between 800 and 850 of its passengers who were heading to a picnic. The disaster was caused by serious problems with the boat’s design, which were known but never remedied.

The Eastland was owned by the St. Joseph-Chicago Steamship Company and made money ferrying people from Chicago to picnic sites on the shores of Lake Michigan. When the Eastland was launched in 1903, it was designed to carry 650 passengers, but major construction and retrofitting in 1913 supposedly allowed the boat to carry 2,500 people. That same year, a naval architect presciently told officials that the boat needed work, stating unless structural defects are remedied to prevent listing, there may be a serious accident.

On July 24, employees of Western Electric Company were heading to an annual picnic. About 7,300 people arrived at 6 a.m. at the dock between LaSalle and Clark streets to be carried out to the site by five steamers. While bands played, much of the crowd—perhaps even more than the 2,500 people allowed𠅋oarded the Eastland. Some reports indicate that the crowd may also have all gathered on one side of the boat to pose for a photographer, thus creating an imbalance on the boat. In any case, engineer Joseph Erikson opened one of the ballast tanks, which holds water within the boat and stabilizes the ship, and the Eastland began tipping precariously.

Some claim that the crew of the boat jumped back to the dock when they realized what was happening. What is known for sure is that the Eastland capsized right next to the dock, trapping hundreds of people on or underneath the large ship. Rescuers quickly attempted to cut through the hull with torches, allowing them to pull out 40 people alive. More than 800 others perished. Police divers pulled up body after body, causing one diver to break down in a rage. The city sent workers out with a large net to prevent bodies from washing out into the lake. Twenty-two entire families died in the tragedy.

The Eastland was pulled up from the river, renamed the Willimette and converted into a naval vessel. It was turned into scrap following World War II. All lawsuits against the owners of the Eastland were thrown out by a court of appeals and the exact cause of the tipping and subsequent disaster has never been determined.


Eastland APA-163 - History

Organized in 1992, the Eastland County Museum immediately began to archive period photographs and other memorabilia related to the county and the surrounding area. The first floor has a very large space for county and traveling exhibits. The second floor is divided into the original small office spaces where volunteers have displayed items representing many past and present communities of the county. These offices, with their original dark woodwork and patterned glass, will be used for permanent displays of history of each community in Eastland County. The basement includes the vault, used to secure important museum archives, and a large room for archiving.

Preserving and teaching the past to the present and future

Open:
Thursdays through Saturdays
10 A.M. until 2 P.M.
114 South Seaman Street, Eastland, Texas 76448
254-631-0437
[email protected]
http://www.eastlandcountymuseum.com/

Named for the retired Chief Justice of the Texas 11th District Court of Appeals, the Austin McCloud Appellate Court Museum is the first of its kind in the State of Texas. The museum&rsquos mission is to educate the public on the appellate process in Texas by tracing its past, its present and future. Through the use of multimedia resources, both on site and to be viewed in the historic Lyric Theatre nearby, the case process can be experienced from the trial court level through mandate.

Artifacts from the court&rsquos history that are on display include an early day law office the original House Journal in which is recorded the creation of the Eleventh Court of Appeals books, records and historical oil and gas opinions from the days of the oil boom as well as other documents and items from the court&rsquos history. The museum contains a version of the original courtroom used by the Eleventh Court of Appeals.

It is believed the Museum is housed in the building that was first used for courthouse purposes after Eastland became the county seat in 1875.
.
For additional information call 254-631-0311.

Built in 1897, the old Eastland County Jail, contains many artifacts and memorabilia of Eastland County and Law Enforcement history. The jail once housed one of the infamous Santa Clause Bank Robbers in 1927 from a bloody bank heist and carvings of his name inside his cell block can still be seen. Across the street from the County Jail and on the corner, sits a stone marker telling of the timeline and events that led up to, the last public lynching in Texas.

Across the street from the County Jail and on the corner, sits a stone marker telling of the timeline and events that led up to the lynching. The museum displays the actual rope the robber was hung by.

Well spoken guided tours through the three story jailhouse museum are available by appointment, through the attached Sheriffs Office. (254) 629-1774. The jailhouse museum is located at 210 W. White St

This museum is growing and your contributions make a difference. Educational and historical artifacts & memorabilia about all law enforcement are also being sought.

Eastland's Texas Memorial commemorates historical events and people in Texas and Eastland. Located at the 'Y' of Commerce and Main Street, the park can't be missed with the six flags, that have flown over Texas, flying high:
• Spain
• France
• Mexico
• Republic of Texas
• Confederate States of America
• United States of America
Interesting facts that honor significant people and events in Texas and Eastland are displayed on marble plaques within the memorial. These plaques are part of the 35 plaques located around town that were engraved from old Connellee Hotel marble.

War Memorial - Eastland's War Memorial is positioned in the center of the Eastland cemetery and honors the fallen heroes of wars throughout the entire history of Texas.

Honoring People of Wars
• War of Texas Ind. and Republic of Texas (1836-1846)
• Mexican War (1846-1848)
• Confederate War and Civil War
• Spanish-American War (1898)
• World War I (1917-1918)
• World War II (1941-1945)
• Vietnam War • Gulf War

Inspiration Cross, located in the Eastland cemetery, stands tall (30') and can be seen blocks away while approaching the cemetery's main entrance on Valley Street. The cross is dedicated to the churches and people of faith by the Eastland Community Foundation.

The Cross was originally built in Odessa, and was first erected on the site of Eastland's Warner Memorial University in the spring of 1966. It was to memorialize the passing of the University and to celebrate the resurrection of Camp Inspiration. Today, the Cross continues to represent the sacrifice of the past and hope of the future.

The Eastland Library, located at 210 South Lamar, is a happening place. New books are arriving all the time. In the library you can find notebooks filled with history of small towns as well as the largest ones of the county. There is a genealogy department filled with history of events, places and families. There are computers for the public to use. The library depends on local volunteers for gifts of time and donations of books, magazines and money.

The Centennial Library&rsquos genealogy department attracts people from many places whose roots reach back to Eastland County. The main project is to archive as many past obituaries as possible and have them available in indexed notebooks with a Master index for all. This will be a great resource for those who come in searching for information and also a quick resource for those who give of their time to help others. Spend some time in the Eastland Centennial Memorial Library… see what an interesting place it is.

The Library is open are from 12:00 -5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. For more information call 254-629-2281.

Eastland’s Outdoor Art Museum began with an idea from former Eastland High School art teacher and artist Cathi Ball. She, along with then art teacher Norman Logan, and a host of art students and adults started with a 210 barrel oil tank that now looks like a piece of Andy Warhol’s “Pop Art.” By the end some 42 wonderful pieces of art are placed near or on businesses throughout Eastland. Each piece of art includes a story of the painter's life or interesting details about the original piece of art. The idea behind the Art Museum is to offer art history to a small community that has no permanent facility for art education. The majority of the works are 4 x 8’ sign-boards, but some are as large as 8’ x 20’. Currently (2018) the entire Outdoor Art Museum is being inventoried as several pieces are missing from their locations. Some may have been moved, damaged, or destroyed. Once the inventory is complete a new map will replace this one. Please enjoy the Eastland Outdoor Art Museum.


Eastland APA-163 - History

EASTLAND, TEXAS. Eastland, the county seat of Eastland County, is at the intersection of State highways 6 and 112, northwest of Interstate Highway 20 on the Missouri Pacific Railroad in the central part of the county. In 1875 Jacamiah S. Daugherty and Charles U. Connellee purchased land on the C. S. Betts survey and platted a townsite. County voters opted to move the county seat from Merriman to the newly platted site, as it was closer to the center of the county, and the new community was named Eastland. Connellee, Daugherty, J. B. Ammerman, and others built a stone courthouse, and the county commissioners court held its first session in the town in September of 1875. By January of 1876 the population was estimated at 250.

The first public school was taught in the community in 1877, and Methodist, Baptist, and Christian churches were soon organized. The city's growth was assured when, in 1880, the Texas and Pacific Railway was given a number of town lots to build through the community. Eastland Independent School District was established in 1882, and a second courthouse of red stone was constructed in 1883.

By 1884 Eastland had three churches, a school, a flouring mill, two cotton gins, and an estimated 500 inhabitants. Among the early newspapers in the town were the Anchor and the Chronicle. Eastland was incorporated for the first time on June 6, 1891, with W. Q. Connellee as the first mayor and for the second time on April 6, 1897, with June Kimble as mayor.

The second courthouse was destroyed by fire in 1896, and a third courthouse was built the following year. A horned lizard, later to be become famous as "Old Rip," was supposedly placed in the cornerstone. When the third and final courthouse was erected in 1928, the cornerstone was opened, and the toad was found to have miraculously survived. Though many doubted the toad's authenticity, he (and eventually his remains) got quite a bit of state and even national publicity and became an important part of town and county lore.

Eastland grew slowly in the first decades of the twentieth century, reaching 596 inhabitants in 1900 and 855 in 1910. By 1914 the community had two banks, telephone service, and a public library. The local economy was heavily dependent on cotton. Eastland County experienced a dramatic oil boom from 1917 to 1922, and the city of Eastland grew rapidly, though not as rapidly as other communities in the county, notably Ranger and Desdemona. Eastland population increased four-fold between 1910 and 1920, reaching 3,368 in 1920, though some estimates claim that there were as many as 10,000 people in the town during the height of the boom in 1919.

The town's prosperity in the 1920s helped fund city improvements like the new courthouse, a new high school, and the paving of city streets. The community reached its peak census population in 1930 with 4,648 inhabitants. Thereafter the city began a slow decline, falling to 3,849 inhabitants in 1940, 3,606 in 1950, and 3,178 in 1970. The community experienced some small scale growth in the 1970s, as the number of businesses increased from 78 in 1972 to 154 in 1982, and the population increased to 3,747 in 1980. In 1990 Eastland had a population of 3,690. The local economy depended on county government, agribusiness, printing, and several manufacturing plants.


Period III - 1881 to 1904

CISCO
In 1879 (? [sic]), when there were not more than half a dozen families in this locality, Reverend C. G. Stevens established a postoffice at a passway in the hills, one mile west of town, and called it Red Gap. A floorless log school house, with one small window was built, and Mrs. Colistie Green taught school. One half mile west of Red Gap Postoffice, W. T. Caldwell had a store in which he kept dry goods and groceries.

In 1880 the Texas and Pacific Railway pushed its line on westward through Eastland County, but Red Gap continued its existence, the railroad locating its depot at Delmar. It was expected, however, that when the Texas Central reached the Texas and Pacific a town would be located at the crossing of the roads. Each day, as the iron rails led nearer and nearer to this point of crossing, saw new tents stretched, new covered wagons taking their stand, and new faces in the rapidly growing town which was called Red Gap. With the Texas Central within one mile of the junction, and the Texas and Pacific only a short distance west, many laborers and their families helped to swell the number of inhabitants, which now reached six hundred. Accommodating themselves to the only expression where it was supposed the new town would be located, which was a wagon road running east and west, the people had "squatted" on either side of this thoroughfare. In this white town were two or more stores of general merchandise, two or three grocery stores, a number of restaurants, doctors' offices, and Mrs. Haws' hotel, which stood about the middle of Broadway, between the Daniels and Broadwell homes. Dr. Vance, who arrived in Cisco April 1, 1881, officed in the hotel group of tents.

Major Bob Elgin of Houston, who had charge of the Land Department of the Houston and Texas Central Railway, assisted by Mr. Metzo, an engineer, with T. E. Johnson as chain bearer, laid off the town. A platform was put up where Mayhew & Company's feed store now stands, and Major Elgin (who is a brother-in-law of N. R. Wilson and lives in Houston), stood there for two days and cried the lots. Mr. White secured the first lot, paying $175.00 for it, and selected from the huge map of the town Major Elgin had at hand, the one now occupied by Cooper's livery stable. (Mr. R. G. Luse is the authority for the statement. I. Lamb thinks the first lot fell to Adams & Son, and was the one now occupied by Mayhew & Co.'s warehouse, the town being first built facing the Texas Central railroad.)

As soon as the town was located and laid off, the inhabitants accommodated themselves to the permanent arrangement and shifted to the most desirable positions attainable and profitable to their business.

Among the business firms in the town at that time were W. A. Stevens, general merchandise, who put up the first store building) James Caldwell, Campbell Bros., Adams & Sons, Miller & Wike, Porter (Will) & Park, (who bought out Ammerman's yard) and Cameron & Company, lumber, Taylor & Bedford (for whom William Gaultney, now banker, clerked), John Bice and Yarbrough & Martin, druggists. The front of a little ten by twelve box tore was given a coat of red paint, and the always and still popular "Red Front Drug Store" came into existence. (Dr. Vance and Dr. McNeil witnessed the contract between the members of this last firm, Yarbrough furnishing the means, and Martin the brains and time.)

Mrs. Haws began the building of her hotel, which was blown down in a furious gale but immediately replaced before the sale of lots, and managed the same until her death in 1890. The Majenta, standing near where Hall's wagon yard is, was kept by Mr. Hoddinger. Mr. W. D. Chandler had a boarding house where the Broadway now stands, and Mrs. Parker kept private boarders.

Shortly before the sale of lots took place a large number of Millet's cowboys came into town and created great consternation among the tent dwellers as they exercised great freedom in the use of their pistols, so much so, in fact, that the constables of both Cisco and Eastland City, together with the men summoned to assist, were all night long (in some safe place) devising means for their capture. They made two arrests next day, and this is no reflection on the courage of Constable Alex Simerl, either.

The first bill of lumber sold in Cisco was to Horace Donaldson, who built the first residence on the lost now occupied by Moody's blacksmith shop. About the same time W. D. Chandler, T. M. Taylor, W. A. Stevens and others were building homes, and J. K. Miller, Ed Eppler, I. Lamb, B. F. James & Son, and Mr. McCormick were the carpenters.

Some of the names of those who were here in 1881, not mentioned above, follow:

John F. Patterson, R. G. Luse, Charley Parks, Seth Ramsey (now of Cottonwood), David Redfield of Ardmore, Judge Flemming of Seattle, Henry Hilliard of St. Louis, J. E. Luse and wife, Major Preveaux and wife and sister (Mrs. R. G. Luse), J. Alexander and wife, Mr. Turknette, W. A. Rhoads, Captain Whiteside, R. B. Vaughn, T. J. Worthington, W. J. Walker, Hugh Corrigan, Frank and Lee Jordan, Dr. Mancill, J. R. Yeargin, J. R. P. Chapman (who built the old Bunnell residence), J. W. Smith and wife, Nat Noel, Ed Morehead, Traveling Auditor Perry of the Texas Central, John Collins, G. W. Graves, T. E. Larimer, W. M. Freeman of Dallas, J. R. and K. S. Fisher, John Gude, M. B. Owen, who lost his life in the cyclone of 1893, J. J. Wallace, B. L. Pate, Mr. Bunnell and family, Gomer Williams, and Miles and Quitman Eppler, George Daniels and W. A. Gude. (These names were furnished by Dr. Vance, W. D. Chandler, I. Lamb and R. G. Luse.)

A sixteen by twenty school house was put up free of charge by B. F. James and Sons and J. K. Miller. In this building a Baptist minister, J. C. Finnell, taught a day school. Here, also, a union Sunday school was conducted. Mr. Chaffin, a contractor on the Texas Central Railroad, was the Superintendent. At the weekly prayer meeting every Wednesday night, which was attended by all denominations, there was frequently not standing room, "many being turned away." This school house was used for church purposes until the different denominations erected their own buildings. From time to time additions were made to the 16 X 20 school building, until it grew to be about sixteen by one hundred and was known as the "long school house."

Mr. Frank Kynette, assisted by Miss Sallie Greer, now Mrs. Reed, were succeeded by Dr. Stout, who did so much for the school and town. Dr. Stout might properly be called the introducer and founder of the Public Schools of Cisco. He came here when educational interest was chaotic in condition, and being a man of deep learning he proved himself a Joshua, leading his people into a promised land that has since blossomed and fruited many times.

Judge Flemming, aided and encouraged by Dr. Stout, worked for a special tax for the enlarging of the school house and the incorporation of the school district, which at that time included four sections of land! He lived in the town long enough to see his desire accomplished. Hugh Corrigan was a warm supporter of this measure.

G. W. Graves was first Mayor of the town and Ed Campbell, Constable.

The first graduating class was Burette Patterson, Mamie Blake, Eva Winston and Laura Richardson. This was in 1888 while Charles T. Alexander was Superintendent.

As the Texas and Pacific pushed farther westward inland mail routes were changed. It is interesting to note the difference in conditions and times twenty years ago and now. The Government now pays from $600 to $700 for the mails to be carried from Cisco to Rising Star. In 1882 it paid W. R. Chandler $2400.00 annually for carrying the mail from Cisco to Brownwood. There was no road. W. W. Smith and Jim Tyson cut one through and the stage, which held from six to eight passengers, began its daily run each way (except Sundays). The first stand was at H. Merrill's, the second at Uncle Tommy Anderson's, where the richly promising town of Rising Star is now located, and the third at Clio, thirteen and one-half miles north of Brownwood. The horses were changed at each stand.

Travel and express being heavy, the coaches would frequently be over full, and extra hacks would be put on, the lines sometimes clearing $100.00 per day. Drivers were paid $30.00 per month and board. Mr. Chandler kept two stables, one at DeLeon and one at Cisco. Fifty-five horses were used, twenty on the Brownwood line.

During the four years Mr. Chandler held the contract the stage was robbed several times. At last, people demanded that an officer go along. A Deputy Sheriff at Brownwood accordingly climbed up on the seat by the driver. After having left Mr. Merrill's a couple of miles behind, he saw a man coming toward them. The Sheriff held his pistol cocked under the laprobe, but coming nearer and seeing that the man was a mere slip of a boy, he let the hammer down. When the careless, kind-looking boy, was even with the driver, he covered the men with his pistol and ordered "hands up." The bewildered Sheriff, however, present his gun in stead, and several shots were exchanged, as the frightened horses broke into a wild run. Mrs. Bryan's trunk on the back of the stage had four bullet holes in it, and probably saved the lives of the passengers. Dave Hickman was the driver on that trip.

Life in the new town was gay from sunrise to sunrise, but gradually the fever heat passed away and the people began to grow accustomed to each other and to the conditions and assumed a more substantial attitude.

Cisco has never been a dead town, but has had seasons of "excitement." Twice has a coal mine been worked rather extensively within three miles of D Avenue. Property has always been held at good figures. Its two railroads and eight daily trains easily give it a commercial standing superior to any other in the county. (As an evidence that coal does actually exist in paying quantities in this locality, the fact is cited that these mines have been extensively worked. Twice have two or three hundred miners been employed. The mines have never been abandoned because the supply of coal was exhausted, but for lack of funds.)

The first National Bank organized in the County was located at Cisco. J. H. Halcomb, President F. C. LeVeaux, Cashier. Directors: J. J. Winston, C. H. Fee, J. F. Patterson, A. B. Smith.

On April 28, 1893, Cisco was swept by a cyclone that left but few houses wholly intact. At the time there were only three storm houses in the town, and the people were unprepared and unwatchful. The awful storm came down upon them in all its resistless fury-tearing, ripping and making havoc of homes. It dashed and hurled man and beast, houses and trees and fences in its made rage, as it tore its way through the heart of the town, leaving in its terrible wreckage twenty-eight dead and dying bodies for the glorious moon, which came out immediately, to cast its pure light upon and dispel the darkness. For months the debris lay in the streets and on the corners, so entirely was the town wrecked. To-day, however, there is no sign of the tornado except the stunted tops of the hardy oaks which still mark its path, while the residences are more modern and the business houses are of brick or stone.

There are five churches-Baptist, Presbyterian, Christian, and Northern and Souther Methodist the Masonic Lodge, the chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and the Masonic Lodge of the Right of Adoption, who own a large corner building the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Rebekah Lodge, who are arranging to put up a building the Knights of Pythias, the Woodmen of the World, the Civic Improvement League, the XX Century and the Young Ladies' Departmental Clubs (both literary), the J. U. G. (young ladies' social club), and the W. C. T. U. the active Ladies' Societies, Sunday Schools, Senior and Junior Epworth Leagues and Endeavor Societies in all the churches and the Country Club, Park, and Cemetery Associations make an aggregate of concentrated energy along all lines of physical, mental and moral development.

Perhaps the one thing in which Cisco, as a town, is most interested is The Public Library, founded by Mr. Frank Vernon, in 1894, with one volume, Ben Hur, which he purchased. The town responded then to the call, many books being sent in at once. Shortly after this Mr. Vernon wrote Mr. Carnegie for a contribution and secured $250.00.

When it contained four hundred volumes, the founder, whose health had failed, turned the Library over to the XX Century Club as a precious legacy, bequeathing with the books all his love and energy for the enterprise. Right well have the ladies kept the trust, for it now contains one thousand volumes, has a furnished room, and a paid librarian.

The one thing lying closest to the hearts of the members of the XX Century Club is a Public Library Building, for which they have a gradually growing fund. The Young Ladies' Departmental Club, also working for the building, has a bank account for the same purpose. It is hoped that the town and the railway companies will join in the near future in the City Park and erect a handsome structure that shall be known as the Cisco Union Depot and Public Library Building.

THE CISCO CEMETERY ASSOCIATION was organized March 15, 1899, with ten active and a number of associate members. Mrs. J. D. Alexander was elected President Mrs. C. S. Vance, Vice President Mrs. M. T. Whiteside, Secretary L. E. Brannin, Treasurer.

A charter was applied for and granted, and the members went to work at once to raise funds to enclose the grounds. This and much more has been accomplished. Not only has a substantial fence been placed around the grounds, but a handsome iron gate swings on huge stone posts that were contributed by the owners of the Leuders Quarry, and their transportation given by the accommodating officials of the Texas Central Railway Company. The caps were contributed by Messrs. Aycock & Allen, of Cisco. All unknown graves have been marked with head and foot boards. Two hundred and fifty shade trees have been planted, and last year twenty-seven hundred and fifty feet of pipe were laid for water service.
Through the efforts of Mrs. Alexander a tract of land contiguous to the Cemetery grounds was deeded by the Texas Central Railway Company to the Association for a park, and many trees, evergreens and flowers have been planted under the supervision of the Tree Committee. The finances are reimbursed, when necessary, by a most efficient Soliciting Committee. In fact the work accomplished in the short length of time is unparalleled. The present officers are Mrs. J. D. Alexander, President Mrs. C. S. Vance, Vice President Mrs. J. H. Holcomb, Second Vice President Mrs. Augusta Mason, Secretary L. E. Brannin, Treasurer. Trustees: L. E. Brannin, C. S. Williams, J. J. Winston, J. Alexander, Mrs. M. T. Whiteside.
Under the efficient management of these excellent officers the work will progress until the Cisco Cemetery will stand abreast of any.

REBEKAH ODD FELLOWSHIP is to-day a great order symbolizing in itself strength, unity and sympathy, and the desire to help that has made woman such a factor in the organization. And this spirit, which gives force to the principles of Friendship, Love and Truth, bind together more than two hundred lives in Eastland County for the purpose of correcting the besetting sin of selfishness and for moral betterment of mankind. The Good Will Rebekah Lodge, No. 102, of Cisco, was instituted by Mrs. Cynthia A. Brown, February 27, 1892, with ten charter members. To-day there are four Rebekah Lodges in the county-Cisco, Rising Star, Gorman and Ranger-with a membership of over two hundred members. Rebekah Odd Fellowship simply means making the very best of life. "I count this thing to be grandly true, That a noble deed is a step toward God." The material for the above was furnished by Miss Alice Eddleman, Past Noble Grand of the Good Will Rebekah Lodge, No. 102, Cisco, Texas.

Odd Fellowship, as a fraternity, stands without a peer in number of members, wealth and activities for good. Its Grand Jurisdictions, Subordinate Lodges, Grand Encampments and Rebekah Lodges girdle the whole earth.

Eastland County is blessed with six Subordinate Lodges with a membership of over three hundred in line, located at Cisco, Eastland, Ranger, Carbon, Gorman and Rising Star, which are working gloriously for Friendship, Love and Truth, the grand pillars on which our order stands for the uplifting of humanity. (These paragraphs on Odd Fellowship were furnished by Rev. W. A. Mason, a pioneer Texas, and Past Grand Chaplain, now residing in Cisco.)

Cisco is a progressive and up-to-date town, with a population of three thousand people. It has an altitude of nearly seventeen hundred feet. It is lighted with electricity, has a good system of waterworks, a local and long distance telephone system, two newspapers, two wholesale grocery houses, two railroads, an oil mill, a compress, three drug stores, two gins, two mills, an ice plant, bottling works, steam laundry, a fire department, silver cornet band, one tailoring establishment, two banks, one exclusive shoe store, one jewelry store, three hotels, seven dry goods houses, two exclusive millinery establishments, ten groceries, four hardware, three restaurants, three blacksmith shops, three wagon yards, two meat markets, a second-hand store, confectionery and chili shops.

The history of the business interests that follow, together with the accompanying illustrations, fairly represent the town as it is to-day, although one or two large concerns are not included. The following is almost a complete list of the business firms:

The Cisco Oil Mill
Burton-Lingo Lumber Company.
Aycock & Shipman, Marble Works.
Hotel Hartman, N. R. Wilson, Proprietor.
J. W. Hartman & Son, Grocers.
Merchants' and Farmers' Bank, W. C. Bedford, Cashier.
Seldomridge Bros., Tailors.
St. John & Moore, Drugs.
C. H. Fee & Company, Hardware and Implements.
Davis-Garner Company, Dry Goods.
Garner-Switzer, Groceries.
Mrs. J. D. Alexander, Millinery.
Citizens' National Bank, A. H. Johnson, Cashier.
Hall & Taylor, General Merchandise.
G. B. Kelley & Co., Dry Goods.
J. J. Martin & Co., Drugs.
E. M. Brown, Exclusive Shoe Dealer.
George D. Fee & Company, Dry Goods and Groceries.
Lizenbee & Littlepage, New and Second-Hand Goods.
S. O. Love, Blacksmith and General Repair Work.
T. J. Clark, Chili Stand.
C. H. Kinsey, Staple and Fancy Groceries.
J. H. Erwin, Hardware, Implements and Machinery.
W. L. Williams, Confectioner.
T. J. Worthington, Furniture.
Ammerman & Harris, Meat Market.
Willie Walker's Barber Shop.
Slater's Chop House and Bakery.
J. W. Smith, Hardware.
J. J. Winston, Groceries.
Webster, Hill & Baker, Wholesale Grocers.
M. T. Jones Lumber Company.
Cooper's Livery Stable.
J. M. Radford, Wholesale Grocer.
Arlington Heights Hotel, C. M. Pilcher, Proprietor.
Eppler & Russell, Blacksmiths.
Mayhew & Company, Hardware, Implements and Grain.
Ward & Company, General Merchandise.
E. E. Kean, Dry Goods.
Dingle & DeSpain, Druggists.
The Texas Immigration Land Company.
Mancill Brothers Hardware Company.
A. Owen, Dentist.
Mrs. F. Vernon, Insurance.
Collie Brothers, Printers.


MR. FRANK VERNON.
The subject of this sketch, now deceased, was a most prominent factor in the development of the town from the time he came in 1891, as editor of the Round-Up, until his departure for a climate that would help him to hold the life fast ebbing away. Having made journalism a life study, he published a crisp, newsy Democratic weekly paper, and became favorably known throughout the State in editorial circles. He was a prominent member of the Texas Press Association, serving twice as its Secretary, and he was also affiliated with the National Editorial Association. There are several enterprises in Cisco as evidences of his energy and capabilities, the most distinguished of which is the Public Library, the most practical the telephone exchange and first long distance system in the County. Since he went to his reward, his wife, who has lived here with their three children, and his mother, has done an insurance business, which is steadily growing. Mrs. Vernon is one of four women in the State who handles insurance.


THE BURTON-LINGO COMPANY.
Being a branch yard of the well-known Burton-Lingo Lumber Company of Fort Worth, has been located in Cisco for the past five years. They carry a large supply of everything in the building line, and having their own mills are enabled to meet all competition. This company also carried the most complete and best grade of lumber in West Texas. Mr. J. T. Berry is local manager.

J. W. HARTMAN & SON.
Wholesale and retail grocers. Established 1883. When Cisco was a very new town Mr. Hartman first became a citizen and has always identified himself with every forward move. During the twenty years he has resided in the town, he has been engaged in the grocery business. In the handsome Hartman-Owen block is situated the Hotel Hartman, and the building where the above firm retails groceries. Mr. Hartman's home life is complete with a wife and three children-two daughters, and a son who is interested in the business with his father. One daughter is married and lives in Cisco. The other, the pet of the household, is still in school.

C. H. FEE & CO.
The hardware, furniture and implement house of C. H. Fee & Co. stands without a peer in the County. In August, 1883, Mr. Fee located in Cisco and established the business which has grown to such magnitude as to require the use of three large buildings. Mr. Fee was born in Oxford, Mississippi, and educated at the State University located there. He is of Scotch-Irish descent and comes of a high-toned and godly ancestry. He has been an important factor in the development of Cisco, and has been identified with every enterprise for the advancement of its interests.
Mr. H. C. Rominger, who has been a resident of the town for many years, is a member of this popular firm.

THE TEXAS IMMIGRATION BUREAU
Has been organized to help build up Texas, and especially the counties of Eastland, Shackelford, Stephens and Young. The object of the Bureau is to induce people living in the Northern States to move to Texas-an empire within itself. A man is kept continually on the road looking up people who wish to locate in this great State. The following agents represent the company:
H. B. Faris, Breckenridge, Stephens County.
Webb & Hill and Matthews & Blanton, Albany, Shackelford County.
Judge R. F. Arnold, Graham, Young County.
H. L. Winchell, who is Vice President and General Manager of the organization, maintains headquarters at Cisco, and is agent for this County. He also makes loans and writes insurance.

The officers of the Bureau are:
H. F. Faris, Clinton, Mo., President.
H. L. Winchell, Cisco, Vice President and General Manager.
F. J. Faris, Cisco, Secretary and Treasurer.
W. M. Godwin, Clinton, Mo., Traveling Commissioner.
This organization will not only help build up Eastland and these other counties, but the town of Cisco, being headquarters, will be greatly benefitted.

COTTON SEED OIL MILL.
This plant was established in 1896 by Reynolds Brothers with a capital stock of $100,000.00. William D. Reynolds, President George T. Reynolds, Vice President D. C. Campbell, Secretary and Treasurer P. W. Reynolds, Resident Manager. All the product of the mill, except the oil, is utilized in the feeding of three to five thousand cattle each season. The men representing this business were pioneer settlers of Stephens County and have had hair-breadth escapes in many an Indian raid. Mr. George Reynolds, who now lives in Fort Worth, has a silver bridle that once belonged to an Indian Chief whom he killed in battle, and who gave him an arrow-head in memory of the occasion, which he wore embedded in the muscles of his back for more than seventeen years.


THE ARLINGTON HEIGHTS HOTEL
This hotel is situated on the hill, and hence justifies Mr. Pilcher's claim that it is "Sixty feet nearer heaven than any other in the city." From the accompanying cut one observes that there is a home-like look about the place. Some of the prerogatives of this hotel are the "family style of serving meals, the home-made butter and milk, the biscuits like mother used to make, and the large, shady yard." Mr. Pilcher is a member of the Sovereign W. O. W. Cisco Camp, No. 500, and has served the town several times as Marshal.


CITIZENS' NATIONAL BANK
President, Dr. J. P. Webster Vice President, J. J. Butts Cashier, A. H. Johnson Assistant Cashier, M. S. Stamps. Directors: J. P. Webster, J. J. Butts, J. J. Winston, A. L. Mayhew, A. H. Johnson and W. D. Davis. This institution, organized in February, 1902, the only National bank in the county, is strictly a home enterprise, those who are interested being identified with Cisco and Eastland County. The business, which is constantly growing, has been from the first both satisfactory and profitable to the shareholders. The management of the Citizens' National Bank is always conservative.


THE MERCHANTS' AND FARMERS' BANK
Was established in 1898 by W. H. Eddleman and opened ready for business on March 16th, with W. C. Bedford as Cashier, and W. J. Eddleman as Assistant Cashier. Through the careful management of Mr. Bedford and his able assistant the bank has been a paying institution from the beginning, growing steadily from year to year, and is to-day the largest banking interest in the County. Mr. W. C. Bedford, who was born in Georgia, and reared in Alabama, came to Texas in 1876. With the exception of five years spent in successful mining operations in Arizona, he has been continuously in Eastland County, having twice served the County as Clerk, 1890-1894. W. J. Eddleman was born, reared and educated in Weatherford, Texas, and has had exceptional advantages in learning the banking business. He is the only son of Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Eddleman. Mr. Wesley Tebbs is the efficient Collector of this bank. President, W. H. Eddleman Vice President, George P. Levy Cashier, W. C. Bedford Assistant Cashier, W. J. Eddleman.


DAVIS-GARNER COMPANY
Nineteen years ago the senior partner of the above firm came to Cisco. An indomitable energy and a determination to succeed were his only capital. He embarked in the dry goods business with Col. J. H. Holcomb, buying and entire half interest on a credit. In 1893 he bought out his partner and was sole owner of the business until March, 1903, when he sold a half interest to J. H. Garner. Mr. Davis is "All the way from Pike," (having been born in Pike County, Missouri, 48 years ago). He was reared on a farm and received his education in subscription schools and in William Jewell College. In 1875 he came to Texas, crossing Red River the day he was twenty-one. Mr. Davis is a Missionary Baptist, believes in and supports church work and charitable institutions. His family consists of one good wife and four children.
Mr. Garner, the junior partner, is a young man and has been remarkably successful in business. He was just out of Howard College, Tennessee, when he came to Texas eight years ago. It is no less his own personality than his push and energy hat has greatly increased the business of the firm since he became a member. He is a working member of the Methodist church. His wife is a daughter of Rev. S. W. Turner.
This firm is a success in every sense of the word, due largely to the fact that it pays cash for every bill of goods received.


HOTEL HARTMAN
This first-class hostelry is kept by Mr. N. R. Wilson and his estimable wife, and is the only "$2.00-a-day" hotel in the town. Being experienced in the hotel business they are able to cater successfully to the public. Mr. N. R. Wilson, "Uncle Nat," as he is familiarly known, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1824. Having emigrated to Houston, Texas, when only fifteen years old, he was a citizen of the Republic of Texas, an honor not to be lightly esteemed. In 1858, while merchandising in Weatherford, Parker County, Texas, he married Miss Katherine Smith, daughter and twelfth child of Saul Smith, who was one of the early Commissioners of that county. Having returned to Houston, he lost his wife there of yellow fever. She left three children, Warner, Charles and Helen. Mr. Wilson is an Episcopalian. His present wife a Virginian by birth, is a member of the Presbyterian church.


WEBSTER, HILL & BAKER
This wholesale house was established by Cameron, Hill & Baker in 1897, and was successfully run under that management until January 1, 1902, when Cameron and others were succeeded by Dr. J. P. Webster. This house carries a complete, up-to-date wholesale stock of groceries, and no firm is more favorably known in this section of the country. The President, Dr. Webster, lives in Weatherford, but superintends the business in person. In his absence his place is filled by his son, J. G. Webster, a resident of Cisco.


EPPLER & RUSSELL
Nineteen years ago, when there were only two farms between Cisco and Rising Star, and all the cow-boys for twenty to thirty miles around came here to get their horses shod, Mr. Sol. Eppler came to Cisco, bought an interest in the blacksmith shop owned by Mr. T. W. Plummer, and has since been working at the same stand and at the same prices. Business has rarely been so dull that he did not have a partner-usually enough to give both more than they could do. The firm has three forges well equipped, owns a 60 X 24 foot building, and is capable of meeting all calls.
Mr. Eppler, who has been in Texas fifty years, has a wife and three children. Mr. M. B. Russell was born in Georgia, and came to Texas in 1894, locating here two years ago. He is an energetic young man, a member of the Presbyterian church and has a wife and two children, and possesses a pleasantly situated home.

MAYHEW & COMPANY, HARDWARE
This rapidly growing business was established in 1900, and carries a full line of implements and grain, both for the retail and wholesale trade.
They handle the famous Blue Ribbon line of buggies, the old reliable Fish Bros. and Peter Schuttler wagons, and the Moline and Bradley lines of implements. Having their own corn mill, they are enabled to offer for sale only the very best grain products the market affords. They carry a full stock of all kinds of field seeds, and are extensive pecan dealers, having shipped eleven carloads from Cisco the fall of 1902. In addition to their grain and implement business, they deal extensively in live stock, and always have mules and horses to sell, either for cash, trade or on time. The senior member of the firm, Aaron L. Mayhew, has charge of the implement and livestock department. Avner L. Mayhew of the grain department. Both are Mississippians, the junior member unmarried. These gentlemen are courteous and willing to extend any favors in keeping with conservative business. The firm enjoys the patronage of Eastland and adjoining Counties.


GEORGE D. FEE & COMPANY
This firm was established in 1898 in its own new double-brick building, and carries dry goods and groceries. Be it said to the credit of this firm that the old stock is disposed of at the end of the season at an enormous discount and new and up-to-date goods are always on the counters. The clerks are experienced and courteous. Mr. George Dawson Fee, the head of the firm, though quite a young man, is thoroughly conversant with his business in all departments. He was educated at Oxford University, Mississippi, and later took a business course at Atlanta, Georgia, coming to Cisco in 1889. Mr. Fee is a member of the Methodist church and has a wife and three children.

MRS. J. D. ALEXANDER
Mrs. Julia D. Knowlton-Alexander, born in Farmington, Maine, June 21, 1858, came from the original family of Knowltons, whose ancestry can be traced back to those of Cheswick, Kent County, England. She is a lineal descendant of Col. Thomas Knowlton, a hero of the Revolutionary War, whose bronze statue was erected on the grounds of the State Capitol, Hartford, Conn., on the 15th day of November, 1895, at which time the Knowlton Association of America, of which Mrs. Alexander is a member, was formed. It holds its annual meetings in connection with the Bunker Hill Association. The family is a distinguished one, and has held prominent positions for many years. Mrs. Alexander, who came to the South twenty-five years ago, has been an active business woman in Cisco for twenty-three years, and brought the first stock of millinery and fancy goods to the town. She is ever ready to extend a helping hand to the needy, and no woman in the county holds so many prominent positions in fraternal and other organizations. She is serving her seventh year as Secretary of the State Rebekah Assembly, I. O. O. F. She was the first lady in the State to receive the Decoration of Chivalry, the highest compliment that can be paid to woman by the Patriarch Militant of the State, for meritorious work done in promoting the interests of the order. She was the first woman ever appointed State Organizer of the Lodge of Adoption of the Scottish Rite Masons of the thirty-second degree. She is State Treasurer of the Texas Woman's Press Association, although a member of only three years' standing, and a member of the League of American Pen Women of Washington, D. C. In 1893 Mrs. Alexander was appointed a Commissioner from this County to the World's Fair held in Chicago, and is Lady Chairman of Eastland to the St. Louis Exposition. She organized the first Civic Improvement League in Cisco and devised the plan of work. In the home Lodges Mrs. Alexander is Admirable Mistress of the Lodge of Adoption, Past Matron of the Eastern Star Chapter, A. F. & A. M., and Past Protector of the Knights and Ladies of Honor. She served two years as Noble Grand in the Rebekah Lodge and four as Chaplain. She has recently been appointed by the National Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, Regent for Cisco. Mr. Alexander, who came to this county in 1881, was for a long while in the dry goods business. He is now an extensive cotton buyer and insurance agent. Mr. and Mrs. Alexander are earnest supporters of any move that will advance the interests of the town.


MRS. WILL KLEINER
Has 240 acres of land under fence one miles north of Cisco. Twenty-five acres of this plot has been put in an orchard and vineyard. There are 1200 trees-apple, pear, peach, plum and apricot, all of which grow and bear well. Seven thousand blackberry and dewberry vines furnish Mrs. Kleiner with more berries than the town of Cisco can consume, and the surplus is put into jam and cordial, which she dispenses to those who want it. In this vineyard three thousand grape vines thrive and yield enormous quantities. The owner expects to put up 100 gallons of grape juice next season for sacramental purposes. This property is valued at more than $6000.00.


THE RED FRONT DRUG STORE
This popular drug store was established by Mr. Yarbrough soon after the sale of lots in 1881, and has only changed hands twice, Mr. St. John having bought it from the Hon. O. T. Maxwell. The present proprietor came to Texas in 1877 and followed the profession of teaching until fourteen years ago, since which time he has been in the drug business. In 1902 he was elected Mayor of Cisco and has proven himself a most efficient officer. To his indefatigable efforts is due the formation of the Country Club and other important measures. At present his energies are directed towards securing from the railway companies a more commodious Union Depot, with flattering prospects of ultimate success. Mr. St. John is a prominent member of the Baptist Church, has a most excellent wife and seven children.


DR. A. OWEN
Born in Tennessee, Dr. Owen received his literary education at Athens College in that State. He came to Eastland County, Texas, twenty years ago, and engaged in teaching. The next year he went back to his native State for an helpmate, and together they began to lay by the large property they enjoy to-day. The plan pursued was to put the salary received for teaching into land and cattle, and at that time the price of both were low as compared to the present. Dr. Owen has diplomas from the Dental Department of the State University of Iowa, and from the celebrated Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Baltimore, Md., and enjoys a large practice. His conversion fifteen years ago at Bedford Chapel, he considers the most important event of his life. His religion is his business-he lives it. While engaged in the drug business in the town of Eastland he was received into the Methodist Church and baptized by the Rev. Jno. Lane. Thirteen years ago he moved to Cisco and has since been prominently identified with the forward move of the town.


M. T. JONES LUMBER CO
This Company, which does a wholesale business extending over many States and Territories, maintains headquarters at Houston, Texas. Its large mills are located at Orange, Texas, from which place an extensive trade has been carried on with Europe and Mexico. The M. T. Jones Lumber Co. is one of the large concerns that has kept pace with the moving frontier line of Texas, having always had in operation a number of retail yards in the State. The Cisco yard, which has done a continuous business since its establishment in 1881, carries a large stock of all material usually found in a lumber yard. A number of men have had charge at different times, but the present manager, H. L. Broadwell, has been stationed here for nearly thirteen years. All those who have business with this firm will be welcome callers at the Cisco office. Since the above was written this yard has been bought by Rockwell Bros. & Co., and is now The Cisco Lumber Company, with Mr. Broadwell as local manager.


J. M. RADFORD GROCERY COMPANY
Wholesale grocers. Established 1883. Capital stock, $200,000.00 Surplus, $300,000.00
The Radford Grocery Company is one of the largest distributors of staple and fancy groceries in Texas and has houses at Cisco, Abilene, Stamford and Sweetwater. The house began business in a very modest way in Abilene in 1883, and has grown until it is one of the largest jobbing houses in the State.
The members of this firm know personally all their customers and the majority of people living in their trade territory. They are broad in their views, are hustlers for business and stand ready to give good service and extend all favors that are in line with conservative demands and good judgment. If you desire to start in business, consult them. The officers of this company are J. M. Radford, President J. F. Handy, Treasurer E. A. Batjer, Secretary.


JOHN J. WINSTON
Mr. Winston, son of Col. Samuel and Isabella Winston, was born in Rutherford County, Tennessee. Coming to Cisco in 1883, he has greatly aided in the development of the town and County. He was for several years a director of the First National Bank of Cisco, and was one of the organizers of the water company. He is a large owner of bank stock, farm lands, business and residence property, and by his fair and courteous treatment and close attention, he has built up an extensive mercantile business. He is a director in the Citizens' National Bank, has much faith in Eastland, and all of his investments are here. Mr. Winston, who married Miss Ella Barlow, of Bourbon County, Kentucky, has one child, Barlow, a boy of eight summers. Mr. and Mrs. Winston give many elegant receptions in their spacious home, which is always open to their friends. The Christian Church, in which Mr. Winston has served as Elder for seventeen years, finds in him a liberal supporter, a zealous worker and a true friend to the needy. Mr. Winston's successful business career has been founded on a true Christian character.


THE CISCO APERT
In 1892 Mr. Warner L. Wilson established a new paper in the town of Cisco and gave it the unique name above. The Apert, which has always been Democratic, is the oldest printing establishment in the County under one management. The editor, Mr. Wilson, is a native Texan and Houston is his birthplace. While he is a staunch Democrat, he entertains liberal views and is generous toward those who differ with him.


THE CISCO ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY
Cisco was born in darkness and remained so until Wood McSpadden and Mayhew & Company decreed there was to be light. The mandate went forth in the Summer time of 1903 and down at the power house of the Cisco Electric Light Company is generated the spark that glows over pulpit and office desk that flashes across the gleams afar down the dark streets that makes the beautiful homes more beautiful and accentuates the spoken word in church and hall. The promoters of this enterprise are men who are ready to further large undertakings. Mr. McSpadden, who at one time was owner of the telephone exchange and materially enlarged and strengthened that service, set up the light plant, wired the buildings, and, pressing the buttons, turned on the light. Wood McSpadden is a very young man, was born in Tyler, Texas, and displays much energy and business acumen. He was married in 1899 to Miss Hines Mitchell and has one child. Mayhew & Company are thoroughly abreast of the advance interests of the town, and prominently identified with several enterprises.


J. L. G. ADAMS-EYE SPECIALIST
"Seeing is believing." and from the truth of this proverb many testify to the ability of Dr. Adams, who was partly raised in this County. After having graduated from the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery in 1895 he located in Cisco. He usually maintains four or five different offices in as many different places, associating himself with a leading physician. Since 1895 he has taken Post Graduate courses in the following institutions: Illinois College of Medicine and Surgery and the College of Ophthalmology and Otology, St. Louis. Some of the cures Dr. Adams has effected are little short of the miraculous-reading vision after twenty years darkness, because of scarred eyes, after continued terms in the Blind Asylum, or after treatment at various well known hospitals. Dr. Adams is a skilled surgeon, and has straightened many hundreds of eyes. Leading physicians everywhere testify gladly to his ability as an oculist. His practice is limited to diseases and deformities of the eye that are curable, which are about ninety-five percent. He has references from many who have been pronounced hopelessly blind and were led to his office, but who received sight after having received his treatment. Dr. Adams is associated with Dr. B. F. Jones and offices over the Merchants' and Farmers' Bank.

CHAPTER II -- RISING STAR.
The year 1875 had passed into history, yet no hunter nor early settler, with his ax, his gun and his dog, disturbed the pudder of the wild turkey mothering her young, the feeding of the prairie chicken in the high sage grass that abounded, nor the gambols of the deer that sported on the banks of the streams. But in the dawn of 1876 a star of promise began to shed its radiance, and in the light of its dawning six families from Gregg County wended their way to the valley, over which it settled and made their homes there. These fortunate pioneers were W. W. Smith, Dave McKinley, Isaac Agnew, Fletcher Fields, Allie Smith and Andy Agnew. Finding good soil, abundance of wild game, and water, they decided to remain permanently, and began the improvement of their claims. Fort Worth was the nearest railroad station, and from this town and Waco the people bought their supplies and marketed their products.
In these early days, 1876-1879, the mail was brought once a week from Sipe Springs on horse back. Mr. Osborne, who lived tow miles east of where Rising Star is now located, was the postmaster. It may or may not have been this postmaster who could not read and whose wife carried the mail in her pocket. When a call was made she handed the letters to the party and he, taking out his own, returned the rest. She carried one for the postmaster a week. When application was made for a postoffice, Osborne was suggested as a name, but the authorities sent Rising Star instead. (It is said that Mr. Anderson, a son-in-law of Mr. Agnew, suggested the name of Rising Star.)

In the Fall of 1879 Uncle Tommy Anderson bought from Dave McKinley the tract of land on which the town has been built. In the Spring of 1880 he moved the postoffice to his home and put up a small storehouse. Here he kept the postoffice, groceries and farm supplies. In 1883 a larger store was built near by since which time the town has grown steadily, and now numbers about seven hundred souls.

The people early evinced a strong enlightenment by raising a 10 X 12 log school house and electing a Mr. Bill Welch as teacher. Mr. Welch was thoroughly in harmony with his environments, often teaching under the branches of the trees, and not infrequently going to school barefooted. This small, floorless, log school house stood one and one-half miles east of the present town. A few years later a better and a larger log house was built near the cemetery, and here many of the substantial citizens of this County were educated. Mr. James Irby, who came here in 1877, was one of the pioneer teachers.

The business interests of the town are represented by loyal citizens. There are several large dry goods and grocery firms, drug stores, hardware, a bank, hotel, and the usual number of smaller shops and eating houses. There are two newspapers, five church buildings with as many organizations, and a handsome school building with seven teachers and three hundred and fifty pupils.

The town is supported by a very rich farming and truck growing district of fifteen miles radius. The soil is a light sand with a red clay subsoil and is especially adapted to the drouthy climate. Corn, cotton, maize, cane and oatagrow luxuriantly berries, apples, peaches, plums, apricots, grapes and all kinds of fruits are easy and prolific producers. As a truck growing section it has no superior. Cabbages, without irrigation, have produced heads weighing thirteen and a half pounds, beets have weighed twenty-five pounds, onions two tomatoes, and potatoes of both varieties, grow easily and are heavy bearers.

The nearest railroad point is about twenty miles. Carloads of fruit and vegetables rot on the ground for lack of convenient shipping points.

In 1903 forty-five hundred bales of cotton were marketed and forty-two hundred were ginned by the two plants here. This same year eighteen thousand bales were ginned at the ten plants within the neighborhood of the Star country.

This section of the county is especially free from grasshoppers, boll weevil and all crop and garden pests.

THE X-RAY
Albert Tyson is the founder and proprietor of this original paper. If one wants truths frankly told if when one is hit, one prefers the blow to come straight from the shoulders, one would do well to read Mr. Tyson's paper. The illustration on the opposite page represents Mr. J. M. Tyson-the editor's father-gathering apples from a six year old Early Harvest apple tree. He moved to Eastland in 1878, and has a thirty-acre apple orchard two miles north of Rising Star. At the Farmer's Institute held in Eastland City November, 1903, he was awarded a prize on the apples he exhibited.


THE RISING STAR RECORD
The Rising Star Record came into existence April 4, 1903. George T. Barnes, with T. B. Staton, undertook the establishment of the paper. Without a single subscriber the first issue was brought out, but the third issue was distributed to three hundred regular subscribers. January 1, 1904, the subscription list was five hundred. January 1, 1904, the Record Company began the publication of the May Enterprise. Both papers have a circulation of over nine hundred. The Record, while not given strictly to politics, stands for Democratic principles, for the upbuilding of the Sandy Belt-the garden spot of Texas-and for the dissemination of local and general news among the people. George T. Barnes and C. A. and Sidney W. Smith are the proprietors of the Record Printing Company.


W. A. BUCY AND BROTHER
Fifteen years ago W. P. Bucy opened a stock of furniture and did well, but soon discovered that to be able to accommodate the patronage he had he must keep farming implements. The business proved so successful that Mr. Bucy's oldest son, William A., became a partner in 1895, and the supply was increased. Seven years later, January 1, 1902, this son bought the entire stock, and three months later sold it to H. E. Anderson. That Mr. Bucy is never so happy as when trading is evidenced by the following figures: On September 23, 1902, he bought out the J. H. Montgomery drug business and sold it January 1, 1903, to Levi McCullum and Minnix, and took in exchange their stock of general merchandise, which he increased. On January 1, 1904, Ed Bucy bought an interest, and the store is now the second largest in town. The floor space is being enlarged and will cover, when completed, 5,610 square feet. Bucy Brothers expect to do a $50,000 business the year of 1904. Rising Star is fortunate to have such energetic men as citizens.


H. E. ANDERSON
Has the largest store in Texas in an inland town, and it contains everything except drugs. Long years ago Uncle Tommy Anderson sold one acre of ground to J. V. Hulse, and stipulated that if intoxicants were ever sold on the land it would revert to the original owners. In 1883, H. E. Anderson, son of Uncle Tommy, bought out Mr. Hulse's stock of general merchandise, but soon sold out to Rev. J. K. Miller and Mr. Sayles. Then he built a new and larger store, and has since carried a stock of general merchandise, employing from eight to fifteen clerks. There are few men who have the courage of their convictions in a more marked degree than Mr. Anderson. In 1885 and 1886, when conditions were vastly different from the present time, a big barbecue and dance was twice given by the Rising Star community to influence people to become citizens. Twice did Mr. Anderson refuse to contribute to this entertainment because of the last feature of it-the dance. He was converted at sixteen years of age, made steward in the Methodist church at eighteen, was the first Sunday School Superintendent in the town, and had lived what he professed. The stand he took on this occasion had great effect. Mr. Andrews is the present Sunday School Superintendent in the Methodist Church, and his wife is a daughter of Major Munn of Nimrod.

CHAPTER III -- GORMAN
A thriving little city of twelve hundred population, is situated on the Texas Central Railroad, twenty-five miles southeast of Cisco. The town was surveyed in 1891 by the railroad people and began its existence in the virgin forest-the Oliver Chill Plow having forced the stockmen westward. The era, thus inaugurated by the arrival of the railroad, made of this section a very attractive portion of the State by the development of the superior advantages of this immediate locality.
Fruits and vegetables, together with a thoroughly diversified agricultural product, offered strong inducements to the emigrant from the East, and year by year the town has grown, developing rare commercial possibilities, and has attained a prosperous and established position.
It is the proud boast of this people that they are surrounded by the most productive soil that can be found west of the Brazos river, and with a thoroughly up to date lot of business men the little city is gradually but surely forging its way to the front.
All lines of business are well represented-from the bank and the big department stores down to the chili joint, and employ a capital of $500,000. Kimble & Crume, druggist J. R. Huckabee, general merchandise Low & Troxell, general merchandise Mr. Winters' gin, the largest and best in West Texas Mrs. Yates' hotel. The May Drug Company, T. L. Gates Lumber Yard, the weekly newspaper, a canning factory in active and successful operation, are some of the stores and shops and business interests of the town. These numerous interests enable German to handle her own immense agricultural products to the very best advantage.
The town is incorporated for municipal and school purposes. The splendid churches, together with organized lodges, chartered clubs and business men's organizations, foster and keep in close touch the religious and social life with the commercial advancements.
Everything considered, the town stands without a rival in many respects in this section of the State, and offers special inducements to the home seeker.

F. B. WINTERS
The accompanying illustration represents the gin plant built by Mr. Winters in 1899. From the stand-point of modern machinery and up-to-date equipment it has no superior in the State. One hundred and fifty horse power boiler and engines are used, and it has a capacity of one hundred and twenty bales daily. Mr. Winters uses the Munger system. The gin is lighted by electricity and runs day and night.

THE BANK OF GORMAN
This bank was established in 1900, with W. H. Eddleman, president W. A. Waldrop, cashier R. R. Waldrop, assistant cashier. The responsibility is $500,000.00 Large and small accounts are desired, and Mr. Waldrop and his assistant will make it both pleasant and profitable to all those who do business with them.

T. L. GATES, LUMBER
This lumber yard was established in Gorman in the summer of 1899 and has steadily grown in popularity, both from the completeness and grade of stock carried and from the courteous treatment accorded to all customers. It is now one of the strong financial interests of the promising town. The founder and sole owner of this business, T. L. Gates, is a significant factor in the community. He came to Texas from Mississippi in 1893, and was for five years Superintendent of the De Leon Schools, and then served as cashier of the bank at that place for two years. He is at present chairman of the County Democratic Committee. Mr. Gates is a member of the Methodist church and superintendent of the Sunday School. He is known in church circles as an enthusiastic Sunday School worker and a most efficient layman.

CHAPTER IV -- CARBON
In 1881 the first lot in Carbon, a town on the Texas Central Railway, between Gorman and Cisco, was sold to N. S. Haynes, who put up a small business house. An attempt to move the town three miles east having failed, J. F. White established a lumber yard, Mr. Fowler and son put up a cotton gin, and Mr. Train taught school. From the number of business houses in this little town, shops, hotels and gins, a good weekly newspaper, with a hustling editor its bank soon to open in its own brick building its Baptist and Methodist churches, Masonic hall and neat two-story school building, Carbon bids fair to rival some of her more pretentious sister towns. When to this is added the fertile soil (a sandy loam), which produces corn, cotton and a very great variety of vegetables of enormous sizes also fruit, as apples, peaches, pears, apricots and plums, as well as the grape and berries of all kinds, one is not surprised that the country round about Carbon is being cultivated by thrifty farmers in rapidly increasing numbers. Among the enterprising business people of Carbon are Finley Bros., dry goods T. J. Morris, general merchandise Puett & Son, dry goods W. A. Seastrunk, hotel, and many others. There are about six hundred inhabitants. Near this place Mr. J. H. Bransford, who has been in the county many years, successfully irrigates a truck patch.

THE HERALD
Published Friday, W. T. Curtis, editor and proprietor. The Herald, the local paper for Eastland County, pleases its readers and pays its advertisers, and is strictly a local and county newspaper. Although not published at the County Town, it brings all court news of importance to the general public. It has a good circulation and is increasing rapidly. Only clean advertising from clean people is inserted.

THE BANK OF CARBON
Responsibility, $500,000.00
W. H. Eddleman, president W. A. Waldrop, vice president J. E. Spencer, cashier.
That so able a financier as W. H. Eddleman is connected with this bank insures its solidarity. That J. E. Spencer, who has been in the banking business for several years, is its cashier, speaks for its popularity, while Mr. Waldrop, the efficient cashier of the Bank of Gorman, only emphasizes the strength of the organization. The Carbon Bank occupies its own two-story brick building.

FINLEY BROS.
W. P. Finley. S. P. Finley.
The members of this firm were born in Tennessee and emigrated to Texas with their parents and the other brothers in 1867. They located in Eastland in the memorable year of 1876, and engaged in farming. Later some of the family lived at Jewell, and in the early ྌ's W. P. Finley and Mr. Duke (now of Dallas) merchandised at Cisco. This firm established itself here in a general merchandise business in 1895 and enjoys a long and growing trade. The Finleys are substantial and progressive citizens and foster every interest of the promising town. Mr. S. P. Finley is the able President of the Board of Trustees.

A. C. POE, M. D.
Dr. Poe was born in Magnolia, Arkansas, and came to Carbon, Texas, in 1896.
He received his education in the public schools of his native State, and took his degree from the Memphis Hospital Medical College. Dr. Poe is the senior member of the firm of Poe & Moore, Druggists. This firm is one of the three State agents in this county for the supply of school books adopted by the Board of Examiners. It is such men as Dr. Poe that make a town grow. He believes in the future prosperity of the town, backed by its richly promising agricultural possibilities, and upon this belief he makes his investments. With C. B. Poe as a partner, the Doctor is interested in a lumber yard, which does a large business and carries a complete and up-to-date stock. Besides his various business interests this enterprising citizen does an extensive practice. As an evidence of the prosperity of the people of this section, and of their integrity as well, they pay on an average 95 per cent of their physician's accounts.

T. J. MORRIS, MERCHANT
On January 14, 1893, with a small stock of "Racket goods," Mr. Morris began business in Carbon. Two years later he erected and moved into a building in the center of the town, where he is still located. Few men have had more marked success than Mr. Morris. From the small beginning, made a little more than one decade ago, his business has grown until now he handles everything in a general merchandise line. Besides dry goods and groceries, hardware and every conceivable kind of farming implement, he handles furniture and undertaker's goods. Mr. Morris' energy and ingenuity does not stop here. He is interested in the two gins of Morris Bros. and Fowler at Carbon and Hooker's Spur. His latest venture is stocking his fine ranch near town with goats, some of which are thoroughbreds. It is plainly evident that Mr. Morris invests strictly in Carbon "futures."

CHAPTER V -- RANGER
Ninety-five miles west of Fort Worth the historic little town of Ranger stands. Many, many years ago, before the valleys of Eastland had ever felt the thrill and jar of rumbling cars, or her hills had echoed the shrill cry of an engine, the Indians found and utilized a magnificent rendezvous a few miles east of Ranger, where now the Texas and Pacific Railway bridges the deepest canon in Texas. After one of their usual raids the Indians fled to this canon, now so famous for its rugged beauty, and were followed by the Texas Rangers, than whom no class of men have done more for Texas. These poorly fed and poorly paid guardians of life and property on the frontier drove the Indians on this occasion from their lair. On emerging from the deep and ragged gorge the Rangers found themselves in a beautiful, level valley of richest soil and luxuriant grasses, but did not loiter, as they pushed hard on after the Indians, overtaking them at what is known as "One Hundred Mile Mountain." Here a battle was fought and the victorious Rangers struck tent in the luxurious valley, where the Watson Ranch is now situated. ("One hundred miles" from where could not be learned, but the mountain stands out clear-cut and runs down into the valley near the railroad.) The exact date of this battle could not be learned, but it is thought Captain Whiteside, who lost his life in the cyclone at Cisco, was in command of the Rangers.
Twenty-five years ago the valley was dotted with tents. One year later A. J. Sims and a Mr. Griffin formed a partnership and carried a stock of general merchandise in a tent store. Mr. Griffin did a thriving hotel business, also in a tent, prior to forming this partnership. There were tent schools and tent churches. Tom Cooper, brother of one of Rangers' most popular teachers, was the first boy born in the town. A little girl made her advent one day before Tom's arrival. In the Ranger valley some two hundred or three hundred people lived in tents until the railroad came, when houses went up as if by magic. Ranger was built a couple of miles west of where the tent town had had its existence. The oldest settler living in Ranger today is John Bryant, who came in 1881.
Ranger has three good church buildings, Methodist, Baptist and Cumberland Presbyterian, with leagues and young people's societies a High School, which is correlated with the State University, a phone system and water works, bank, five doctors and the usual number of stores, eating houses, etc. In the tent town there were saloons and gambling dens, in the Ranger of today there are no houses of vice of any kind.
Ranger has a population of about seven hundred and fifty.
The Ranger ༿ Club-a woman's literary club-has founded a public library and is gradually increasing the number of volumes.

C. E. FROST, M. D. A. B. A. M.
Dr. C. E. Frost, the oldest resident physician of Ranger, was born in Tennessee. His father, J. B. Frost, fell heir to sixty-two negroes in 1859 and 1860, but set them free at once. As a result of this philanthropy the boy Cyrus had to work out his own destiny. He cut wood for two fireplaces and a stove, fed ten horses, twenty cows, a drove of hogs and a flock of sheep for his board, and worked Saturdays for his clothes. He took his literary degree at the Northern Illinois Normal University. He attended the Nashville Medical College, where later at the Missouri Medical College, he graduated in 1878 with first honors. Mrs. Frost is a daughter of Dr. O. D. Tankersly of Arkansas. Dr. Frost located at Ranger in 1892 and has practiced his profession night and day continuously since that time with the most marked success, never having suffered from an accident of any kind, nor had a diagnosis changed. He is a scholarly, scientific, up-to-date physician and surgeon, a consistent, Christian Methodist citizen, and is held in high esteem by the profession and his patrons.


CHAPTER VI -- SCRANTON
Scranton, a town of about one hundred and fifty inhabitants, is situated in a thickly settled, agricultural community, which lies twelve miles southwest of Cisco, near the line of Callahan County. The first man who settled in this locality was D. C. Lane, who came in 1875, and was followed by H. B. Lane, Mr. Huff, Aaron Brown, Uncle Joe Brown and Nat Hendrickson. These, together with Messrs. Sprawls, Ray, Gattis, Clement, Rutherford and many others, have made a progressive and substantial community. In 188- Mr. Snoddy taught a school here. The interest in education has gradually increased until Scranton now boasts of an incorporated school district, and one of the best schools in the county. There is a commodious, two-story building, with a separate music room on the campus.
The Methodist and Baptist churches were organized here in 1893, the former by Rev. M. M. Smith, the later by Rev. J. R. Kelly. Both churches have good buildings and are served at present by Rev. J. L. Mills, Methodist, and Rev. G. W. Parks, Baptist.

The Post Office was established in 1892, with Mr. Reydon as Postmaster. Mr. Reydon also put up the first gin in 188--. The present fine gin is owned by a stock company of farmers. J. M. Williamson of Cisco was the pioneer merchant. Among the present progressive business firms are E. E. Chunn, dry goods, groceries and hardware I. E. Cook & Bro., dry goods, and W. L. Gattis & Son, druggists.


ROMNEY
This prosperous and enterprising community was first settled by A. J. Fembling and Mr. Ballard. These were soon followed by E. J. Arnold, Dr. J. N. White and Mr. Green, all from West Virginia.
During the disastrous drouth of 1886-1887 emigration stopped, but the natural advantages of the locality held the first settlers, and even in the most trying period brought Mr. P. N. B. Ghormerly.
The Freeman and Bashan brothers, J. C. McCoy, T. D. Freeman, E. J. Arnold, T. J. Finn, W. R. and C. C. Bashan and Dr. J. W. White organized the school community and a school house was put up at once. T. D. Freeman was the first teacher, and A. J. Tyson, editor of the X-Ray, published at Rising Star, followed him.
The Romney Postoffice were established August 15, 1890, T. D. Freeman, Postmaster. The country has developed rapidly. All agricultural products, fruits and vegetables grow well, making this one of the most progressive communities in the County.
Mr. W. P. Grubbs of Arkansas established the first store, then sold to H. D. Holbrook. At present T. D. Freeman, who has charge of the long-distance telephone and is Postmaster, has the only store in the village, which also contains a blacksmith shop, a gin and a good school.
The Baptist, Disciples of Christ and Methodists have organizations and worship at the school house.
The citizenship of this locality represents a moral and progressive people, who welcome all who come among them.


CHAPTER VII - DESDEMONA
William and Ben Funderburg pre-empted the land on which Desdemona is built. The Funderburgs (who later sold their pre-emption to Bill Brown), Lewis Ellison and Uncle Johnny Caruth were the first settlers of Hogtown. (Desdemona was named in honor of the daughter of Squire Wynn.)

Mr. Frank Roach, the first merchant of Desdemona, put up a 12 X 16 store building, the boys lending a hand, which was dedicated with a dance the night of the first wedding in the new, old town. Mr. Willie Matthews and Miss Ella Parm, who were the contracting parties, were married at Tom Prather's home, Mary Caruth and Mr. ----- "standing up" with them. After the ceremony the crowd, chaperoned by Lewis Ellison and wife, repaired to Mr. Roach's new store and danced all night.
The first school house, eighteen by twenty feet, was built of hewed logs, with a log cut out at one end for a window. The benches were made by splitting trees in two-one of these with longer legs in front was put up by the window for a writing desk. Mr. Johnny Caruth and Charlie Mitchell were paid $80.00 to put up the house.
On the second Sunday in June, 1872, the Rev. Johnnie R. Northcutt, a Baptist minister, preached under the large Spanish oaks shading the picturesque bridge which now spans the historic Hog Creek, at Desdemona, and kept up the appointments until September. He was then allowed the privilege of the log school house and organized Rockdale Church, with nine members , John Caruth, wife and daughter-Mrs. Mary N. Jasper, Aunt Sallie Robinson, Nancy Ellison, Jim Ellison and wife, John Cowen and Mrs. Sallie Ivy.
Pleas Jones lives in the Hogtown community in a single log cabin, 10 X 12. For some unknown reason the floor of the cabin was the naked bosom of mother earth. A wagon board lay from the door to the hearthstone.
One night a young man hunting a locality where he might secure a school, stopped, as night had overtaken him, and asked for lodging. "All right, pard," assented Jones. "Git down and come in. You'll have ter laret out yer nag, 'cause I hain't got no feed fer her." The fare given to the man was in keeping with the rest of the surroundings, and his mind was relieved of wondering who would sit up when a buffalo hide was thrown down on the wagon board, with a pillow, and he was told his bed was ready! Imagine his surprise when he asked next morning how much he was indebted for his and his mare's lodging and was told, "Well, seein' its you, I'll only charge yer a dollar!" The young man, who was none other than Judge Hammons of Eastland City, rode on and secured and taught the school.
The town is beautifully located on rising ground, sloping east from Hog Creek. The community is incorporated for school purposes, and expects to erect a large, handsome building.
There are five dry goods and grocery establishments, the most prominent among them are Captain A. J. O'Rear, staple and fancy groceries, and Dr. Snodgrass, drugs and general merchandise, who is also a stockholder in the fine gin stand and a successful practicing physician.

DR. COPELAND, who has studied in Missouri Medical College, in St. Louis, and graduated from Fort Worth Medical College, is a physician of growing popularity and prominence. That the doctors collect 95 per cent of their bills speaks well for the community, as it does for the soil which makes it possible. A good school is maintained at Desdemona. The Baptist and Methodist churches have buildings and good organizations. The Christian Church building is in want of repairs.


CHAPTER VIII -- THE METHODIST CHURCH

The first church organized in the county, of which there is anything known, was in the Allen neighborhood and was effected by Rev. William Monk, a pioneer preacher, who attended his first Texas Annual Conference at Tyler, in 1854. In 1865 Mr. Monk was on the Palo Pinto Mission, which included Eastland County. With a few members he organized a Methodist church on the Allen and Davidson ranch. The members were Peter Davidson, wife and four children, Robert Newberry and Uncle Bobbie Martin, with their families.
Mr. Monk writes: "In 1872 I was Presiding Elder on the Stephenville District. In 1873 I attended a Quarterly Conference at McGough's Springs. Rev. Levi F. Collins was the missionary and had organized a little church there, which I suppose was the second organization in the county. The county was infested by Indians. WE all went to church with our guns, not knowing what moment we would be attacked. Two nights before I went to McGough Springs the Indians sole my horse at Picketville in Stephens County. I made my way down there on borrowed horses, and from there to Comanche I went on a wagon, where I secured another horse."
The following letter is self-explanatory and will be interesting to many old settlers:

"Iredell, Texas, October 13, 1903-Dear Sister Langston: You want to know what territory was included in the Palo Pinto Mission when I was pastor in 1865 and 1866. It included all of Palo Pinto County, all of Erath east of Stephenville and all of Johnson west of the Brazos River. Hood County was not organized then. I also had two appointments in Parker County, Big Valley, where your father then lived, and Kickapoo. I made the round on my work every four weeks, preaching under trees, in private houses, under brush arbors and in little school houses. Our congregations would be from twenty to one hundred people. We had some great revivals. I organized the first church at Big Valley and held a great meeting. When I traveled the Stephenville District in 1872, ྅ and ྆, it included all the territory west of the Brazos River from Waco to Fort Belknap, Fort Griffin, San Angelo, Camp Colorado and Fort Mason. These were the outside settlements, but all the territory to New Mexico belonged to the district. I made the round every three months on horseback, with my Winchester rifle hanging to the horn of my saddle, and my wardrobe in a pair of saddle bags. These were the happiest years of my life. I believe all the preachers that were associated with me then have passed away, except Levi Collins and Brother Smith of Stephenville. If I could see you I could tell you many things of interest, but can write but little now. Wishing you success with your book, I am yours, W. MONK."

Today there are about 2,000 Methodists in this County. Histories of a few of the individual churches follow:

RISING STAR CHURCH.-This charge first belonged to the Pecan Circuit and was served by L. S. Chamberlain in 1877. In 1879 this same preacher was returned to the work and then organized the class at Rising Star with eight members, James Irby, Sallie J. Irby, Andrew Agnew, N. S. Agnew, I. P. Agnew, Sarah Agnew, Dennis Bond and Sarah Tannerhill. Out of the eight members only James Irby and wife remain with the church today. It was at a night appointment this organization was made in a little 10 X 12 log school house with a dirt floor, and was the first church organized in this part of the County.

The Rising Star Mission was created some time later with two appointments (Jewell being the other), and had an appropriation of one hundred dollars from the missionary board. It was included in the Breckinridge District, with A. K. Miller as Presiding Elder and G. F. Fair pastor, 1883-1885.

By and by a new school house was built near where the cemetery now lies, and served for church purposes. The class continued to gather strength to its membership were added those of Uncle Tommie Anderson and his family. Mrs. L. S. Anderson still retains her membership. She is the aged mother of H. E. Anderson.

In 1881 the first Sunday school was organized in the school house. A Methodist Sunday School in a school house did not prosper, so under the leadership of the indefatigable R. R. Raymond a church was built and later a parsonage. They are valued at $2,000. On a beautiful, grass-covered lawn this church has put up a tabernacle at a cost of $300.00.

In 1902, under the pastorate of J. H. Chambliss, assisted by J. C. Watkins, a most wonderful revival took place, resulting in such an increased membership that the church had to be enlarged. This was done at a cost of $500, making a total of $2,800 of church property. With a membership of nearly three hundred, a fine Sunday school, both Senior and Junior Epworth Leagues and an active Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, the church is doing well.

Rev. D. A. McGuire is the present pastor.

THE CHURCH AT RANGER was organized by Rev. Hightower in a tent in 1881. The membership has grown to ninety-two with church property valued at $1,500.00, which includes a house of worship and parsonage. The present pastor is Rev. B. R. Wagner.

THE CISCO METHODIST CHURCH had its beginning in the fertile brain of a pioneer "circuit rider," Rev. Lamb Trimble. On the quiet hunt for any one who wore the name of Methodist, where he might find a kindred spirit, shelter and something to eat, he discovered M. V. Mitchell and wife (in a log hut 10 X 12 feet) running a sheep ranch. The tired preacher was not long in accepting a large hospitality in small quarters. The dirt floor to the little room had been overlaid with grass and on this was spread a carpet. The cubby-hole, (or shed room) and a bed of skins was the only place for the preacher, while plenty of blankets for cover and a good case of religion made him happy.

In 1880 this preacher organized the first church, and when that roll was called the only names were M. V. Mitchell and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Walton. Mr. Mitchell was elected steward. This church was begun in a little log school house, located where now lies the beautiful cemetery. Rev. Andrews was the next circuit rider, and John Lane steward. In 1881 Cisco was founded at the junction of the railroads, and everybody moved to town, the school, post office and church following the people.

Rev. Mills was the next pastor. He and Rev. R. B. Vaughan canvassed the new town for Methodists and found about twenty. The people were all living in tents. A school house was soon built by popular contributions, and this sufficed as a place for the monthly preaching.

Two or three years later, during the pastorate of Rev. John A. Wallace, a small church, costing six or seven hundred dollars, was erected on the lot where the present building now stands.

During the pastorate of Rev. T. C. Ragsdale the house was enlarged to meet the growing demands of the congregation. This was swept away by the cyclone in 1893, and a beautiful and commodious house was erected at a cost of about $6,000. The church has a parsonage valued at $1,200, and a membership of three hundred and thirty members. During the past year under the pastorate of S. J. Vaughn there was a net gain in membership of eighty, and about $800 were expended in improvements on the church and parsonage. The church is doing fine work in all departments. The building is lighted by electricity.

THE CARBON CHURCH was first organized in 1890 by I. N. Reeves, with about twenty members. There was no building other than Thurman's store, which was utilized, the counters serving, in part, for pews. As the preacher stood with his back to the door he could not understand, during this first sermon at 11 o'clock Sunday morning, why a row of girls directly in front of him were so intensely amused. They caused so much confusion that he stopped shortly after he began and dismissed the audience. Afterwards he learned that a man out on the street in front of the door, with a woman's sunbonnet on his head, was "making a monkey of himself."

At night the audience gathered early. The counters were filled with boys, who wore clanking spurs. The preacher had barely reached his "secondly" when one of the boys on the counter noisily left the room, brushing right by the minister, who stood near the entrance. In a very few minutes another boy was rattling his spurs in his rush to get outside with the one who started what was evidently meant to include all who sat with them. At this juncture Dr. Jules Trader rose to his feet and with an impetuous oath exclaimed, Parson, I don't want to interfere, but if you'll knock the next boy down who tries to pass you, I'll stand by you." The sermon continued without further interruption.

I. N. Neel, agent of the railroad, organized and taught a Sunday School in the station house where he lived. Later, the railroad gave the town an acre of ground on which to build a school house. When this was completed the Sunday School went there, and at the end of Mr. Reeves' second year there were eighty-seven members. The church building was erected during the pastorate of Rev. Maxwell. The present pastor is Rev. J. H. Walker.


CHAPTER IX.
THE BAPTIST CHURCH-This church organization might be truthfully compared to a mighty oak, whose roots dig down deep through the soil, drink in and transmit the food to the trunk, limbs, branches and leaves, and forage for the minerals that help color the foliage and make it a thing of joy and beauty, as well as a protection from the sun's fierce rays and the storm's beating rain. Nor is this all, it affords the songsters of the forest a sheltering place for their young. As this mighty oak has grown from a tiny acorn and is now able to withstand the terrible wrenching of storm and tornado, so the Baptist Churches have grown in Eastland County.
Away back many years ago-Mr. McGough does not remember the date-under a brush arbor, the Rev. W. H. Brashears organized the first Baptist Church in Eastland with seven members. C. Brashears, J. R. Higgins, Enoch Dawson, Amanda Dawson, W. C. McGough and wife and a preacher. This was known as Providence Baptist Church, and was one of four in the county when the Rev. C. G. Stevens of sainted memory projected and accomplished the organization of that wonderful body known as the Red Gap Baptist Association, which not only included the churches in this County, but finally embraced all the territory to El Paso and New Mexico.
There now exists a Cisco Baptist Association which includes all the organizations in the County with two or three exceptions. The locations, names of pastor and present membership follow:
Carbon-W. B. Cobb, 83.
Cisco-G. W. Sherman, 239.
Corinth-E. M. Hunt, 67.
Curtis-G. P. May, 46.
Eastland-J. L. Mayes, 115.
Elm Creek-J. H. Vinson, 78.
Gorman-J. H. Vinson, 182.
Harmony-J. L. Mayes, 48.
Jewell-W. L. Ayers, 59.
Liberty Hill-S. C. Steel, 34.
Long Branch-E. M. Hunt, 114.
Meriman-J. L. Mayes, 59.
Midway-J. J. McCord, 91.
Monroe-D. G. Wells, 113.
Mount Olive-J. J. McCord, 49.
New Hope-E. M. Hunt, 35.
Pleasant Hill, No. 1-George W. Parks, 56.
Pleasant Valley-E. M. Hunt, 68.
Ranger-Z. H. Reagan, 41.
Rich-I. Lamb, 10.
Rising Star-D. G. Wells, 29.
Round Mountain-G. W. Parks, 61.
Union-G. P. May, 41.
Union Grove-D. G. Wells, 29.

There is an organization at Desdemona, one near Pioneer and one at Ellison's Springs. Rev. C. Brashears is pastor of the last named.
One interesting feature of the work of this association is that keeps a missionary continually in the field. Rev. I. D. Hull, the present Associational Missionary, has served several years. Last year the amount reported paid to missions-home and foreign-was $875.31. This did not include the $295.18 paid to the Buckner Orphans' Home, $52 for ministerial education, nor $29.30 for the poor.
Rev. J. M. Reynolds, one of the Missionary Evangelists appointed by the State Board of the Baptist Convention, lives in Cisco.


CHAPTER X -- OTHER CHURCHES
THE RISING STAR CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH was organized by Rev. D. A. Knox in July, 1885, with fourteen members. Conspicuous in the early history of the church appear the names of L. M. Marshall, J. T. Winfield, H. W. Joyce, Maxwell brothers and Uncle George and Miles Wood. Services were held in the public school building and in the Methodist Church until 1893, when a house which is well situated in the northern part of town, was built. A comfortable manse is situated on the adjoining lots. The church is well offered by a board of six elders and one deacon, and has a Sabbath school under the efficient management of Prof. G. C. Barnes. The contributions for the different enterprises for the year 1903 exceeded all amounts for previous years together. No public collections are taken. The present pastor is Rev. Z. T. Blanton. Perfect harmony prevails and it is hoped that this body may occupy its place as a persistent factor in the spiritual uplifting of Rising Star and the surrounding country.

SABANNO CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.-This church was organized about 1886 by the Rev. D. A. Knox. For several years the congregation worshipped in the school house, holding its revival meetings under a brush arbor. In the summer of 1896 a house was built, and since then a tent has been provided for revivals, which are held annually. C. C. Bullock is the present pastor, with Messrs. W. A. Erwin, B. F. Shell and J. S. Erwin elders and W. P. Porter and J. Robert Kincaid deacons.

LIBERTY CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.-This congregation was organized in 1898 with ten members as the result of a revival meeting conducted by the Rev. W. E. Green. As a church organization would not be allowed to occupy the school house, Messrs. S. A. Fleming (Cumberland), Sam Webb (Baptist) and W. T. Boyd (Methodist) met and decided to build a union house for these denominations. This was done. Several revivals have been held, these denominations always co-operating. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church now has about forty members. Messrs. B. L. Marshall, Louis Marshall, G. B. Kelley, S. A. Flemings and John D. Walker are the present elders, with Rev. C. C. Bullock as pastor.

THE RANGER CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Rev. J. A. Williams, pastor, is in a thriving condition, with a fine Sunday School and an active Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. The organization has its own church building. In Cisco the Presbyterian have an excellent church building, well furnished.

THE DISCIPLES OF CHRIST have several organizations and church buildings in the County. Rev. McKnight is the pastor of the Cisco congregation. R. C. Maddox is pastor of the congregation at Rising Star. Mrs. Mc D. Hunter is pastor of the Holiness Church at Rising Star.

SCHOOL DIRECTORY OF THE COUNTY
School District No. 1-Yellow Mount, J. H. Jace Bedford, F. M. Anthony Dark Hollow, R. B. Evans Pleasant Valley, D. H. Stoddard. Trustees: R. T. White, J. H. Harbin, J. H. Robbins.
School District No. 1 A-Central, J. F. Dean, teacher. Trustees: J. B. Short, W. M. Eppler, W. C. Hazel.
School District No. 2-Freedon, T. E. Payne Union, Lillian Hatten Lone Cedar, Sam Poe. Trustees: L. J. Spann, J. R. Higgins, H. Brashears.
School District No. 3-Pleasant Valley, Maude Murphy High Point, E. Lafoon Grapevine, E. C. Murphy Flat Woods, L. D. Harlin. Trustees: D. H. Collins, J. H. Bransford, J. W. Robinson.
School District No. 4-Conner, Myrtle Medearis Owen, J. A. Brashears Cross Roads, C. P. Webb Merriman, W. C. Higgins Colony, H. C. Pelphrey. Trustees: W. A. Hise, Floyd Brewer, Charles Barker.
School District No. 5-Triumph, Mattie Gatewood, Trustees: S. D. Shugart, Z. Z. Butler, W. A. Davis.
School District No. 6-Rush Creek, J. R. Ervin. Trustees: W. D. Messimer, A. P. Barton, J. F. Myers.
School District No. 7-Tuder, J. W. Harmon. Trustees: O. W. Pollard, D. A. Harris, S. H. Boggus.
School District No. 8-Lone Star, Emma Mahan. Trustees: Ed Parker, J. T. Jobe, H. F. Thomas.
School District No. 9-Nash Creek, J. B. Jordan Nash Creek, Mrs. Jessie Sawell. Trustees: R. N. Echols, J. T. Earnest, E. A. McDonald.
School District No. 10-Alemeda, R. E. Boucher Young Springs, Fannie Koonce. Trustees: A. J. Williams A. S. Chauncey, Joe Jones.
School District No. 11-Rogers, F. R. King, Pearl Brabbin. Trustees: E. P. Nix, A. T. Lowe, Hue Guy.
School District No. 12-Jewell, H. M. Hayes, Pearl Mayes. Trustees: R. F. Simms, W. M. Mane, W. J. Newell.
School District No. 13-High Knot, Pearl Chastain, Hall Mark, J. R. Lanier Center Point, Mamie Lovett. Trustees: T. J. Hilton, J. T. Brown, Will Greer.
School District No. 14-Rockwell, W. J. Justice Bluff Branch, W. P. Caldwell Sandy, Bessie Gray Liberty Hill, H. W. Gotcher. Trustees, J. W. Stamps, James Caradine, Robert Cove.
School District No. 15-Wood, H. C. Overby Reich, Miss Ulala Howard Cozart, W. D. Hazel. Trustees: J. P. Montgomery, J. P. Leverage, J. H. Ward.
School District No. 15 A-Nimrod, Adelle Keith Mitchell, Dora Stewart Hobart, Alice Davidson. Trustees: B. B. Hogan, R. C. Pass, S. L. Yeage.
School District No. 16-Cook, W. Bashabranner Curtis, Will Allen Ballard, P. P. Holbrook. Trustees: A. J. Woodyke, E. H. Pearce, J. F. Nichols.
School District No. 17-Long Branch, N. F. Britton Romney, W. J. Moreland Pleasant Hill, R. P. Moreland Griggs, Charles Parker. Trustees: Henry Milligan, W. L. Brayden, W. L. Barnett.
School District No. 18-Hickman, Eva Crume. Trustees: G. B. Mullings, W. H. Hughs, S. W. H. Bushee.
School District No. 18 A-Macedonia, Ola Little. Trustees: E. C. Lane, H. B. Anderson, J. A. Haynes.
School District No. 19-Pioneer, F. W. Mullins, Julia Mullins. Trustees: S. P. Stovall, F. C. McBride, W. R. W. Smith.
School District No. 20-Wheat, Mrs. May Harrison. Trustees, J. W. Adams, J. A. Porterfield, F. M. Hutton.
School District No. 21-Bumley, M. D. Mullings Sabano, W. F. Walker. Trustees: W. T. Boyd, J. T. Blackewell, J. S. Erwin.
School District No. 22-Mountain, Ollin Kinnison. Trustees: C. H. Gunoway, R. S. Hoon, J. L. Fonville.
School District No. 23-Howard, Bascomb Morton. Trustees: W. S. Prater, J. B. Kizer, J. H. Little.
School District No. 24-Leon, J. T. Singleton. Trustees: W. E. Vaught, J. W. Blair, J. W. Watson, J. W. Pitman.
School District No. 25-Elm, J. S. Purdy. Trustees: W. P. Orr, R. M. Gaun, J. H. Prichard, W. H. Mancill.
School District No. 26-Grigsby, James H. Batman Jett, O. A. Fleming. Trustees: J. G. Burgess, D. P. Taylor, Gus Payne.
School District No. 27-Grand View, C. P. Jones, Mrs. Lassie Jones. Trustees: W. H. Westmoreland, J. D. Barton, J. W. Carter.
School District No. 28-Peak, J. B. McEntire. Trustees: Bill Dill, J. O. Harris, J. R. Tune.
School District No. 29-Desdemona, J. H. Hankins, Mrs. J. H. Harkins. Trustees: J. R. Brown, J. A. Copeland, F. E. Terry.
School District No. 30-Okra, J. O. Bashaw. Trustees: D. M. Jacobs, H. E. Shiley, W. H. Mimms.
School District No. 31-Union, Gypson Crossland, Miss Lillian Hatton. Trustees: S. H. Code, J. L. Brown, H. D. Marshall.
School District No. 32-Salem, W. T. Skinner. Trustees: W. N. Hickey, G. R. Hamilton, J. M. Moore.
School District No. 33-New Hope, M. H. Perkins. Trustees: J. L. Brown, W. S. Martin, W. D. Kinnison.
School District No. 34-Delmer, J. S. Bond. Trustees: Will Conn, J. E. Duneway, J. H. Kyle.
School District No. 35-Bullock, J. A. Sanderford. Trustees: J. S. Williams, L. M. Cook, A. J. Allison, C. L. Hodges.
School District No. 36-Oak Grive, H. C. Poe. Trustees: J. R. Lanier, I. N. Poe.
School District No. 37-Yellow Branch, R. E. Sprawls. Trustees: A. G. Vannoy, M. M. Doyle, Eli Gentry, M. G. Robertson.
School District No. 38-Britton, Annie Brooks, Mamie Brooks. Trustees: A. C. Brown, H. B. Bue, R. L. Rowe, F. M. Stone.


INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICTS
Cisco-Superintendent, R. L. Abbott A. V. Britton, W. T. Bachelor, R. Jung, Miss Bettie Harbison, Miss Anna Lee Fisher, Miss Annie Laurie Brown, Miss Frederic Mosley, Miss Sadie Yarnell-Miss Martha Conner Green, Primary. Trustees: L. E. Brannin, President W. L. Armstrong, Vice President Dr. W. P. Lee, Secretary Arthur Grist, Treasurer J. M. Williamson, Judge D. K. Scott, T. J. Worthington.

Gorman-Superintendent. A. C. Ferguson A. H. King, Alex Allen, Mrs. Tranquil McDaniel, Miss Claire Rush Art, Miss Bailey. Trustees: J. Q. Eppler, President T. L. Gates, Secretary and Treasurer W. S. Wood, J. A. Jones, W. L. Terry, W. F. Burleson, R. F. Nelson.

Carbon-J. Speed Carroll, Superintendent W. J. Allison, Binkley Drake, Miss Rebecca White, Miss Johnnie Reed. Trustees: S. P. Finley, President E .H. Boyett, Secretary J. F. Edmondson, Treasurer R. L. Littleton, T. L. Tucker, J. R. Foster, A. Boston.

Scranton-O. C. Britton, Superintendent C. C. Bullock, Mrs. J. S. Bond Miss Lillian Bell, Music. Trustees: A. M. Sprawls, President F. G. Boyd, Secretary W. T. Rutherford, Treasurer W. T. Gattis, Assessor and Collector W. D. Clinton, J. J. Ray, J. R. Sprawls.

Ranger-C. D. Judd, J. E. Peters, Co-Principals Miss Ira Maxwell, Miss Jessie Cooper. Trustees: F. W. Melvin, President B. P. Davenport, Secretary W. R. Hodges, Treasurer R. L. Page, J. H. Harrison, H. W. Hilliard, J. M. Rice.

Rising Star-E. H. Jones, Geo. F. Barnes, Principals Miss Osie Hickman, Miss Minnie Brewer, Miss Erie Rich J. E. Wells, Music Miss Harmon Barber, Elocution. Trustees: H. E. Anderson, President A. I. Rhone, Secretary W. S. Michael, Treasurer F. B. Weaver, Collector W. C. White, J. A. Terrel, R. Garner.

Eastland-W. A. Bynum, Superintendent Miss Josie Garner, Mrs. Julia Mayes, Miss Minnie mood. Trustees: C. U. Connellee, President E. Roper, Secretary M. Hill, Treasurer J. R. Frost, J. J. Morgan, S. J. Day, J. T. Morton.

OFFICIAL DIRECTORY
COUNTY JUDGES
J. H. Calhoun, April, 1876 resigned October, 1877
A. Lawrence, 1877-78.
J. T. Hammons, 1878-1882.
R. M. Black, 1882-86.
J. T. Hammons, 1886-88.
D. K. Scott, 1888-1892.
W. G. Davenport, 1892-94.
G. W. Dakan, 1894-96.
B. F. Chastain, 1896-98.
G. W. Dakan, 1898-1900.
J. R. Stubblefield, 1900- 1902.


PRESENT COUNTY OFFICERS
S. A. Bryant, Judge
Ed. T. Cox, Clerk
G. W. Redford, Sheriff
George Davenport, County Attorney
D. E. Jones, Tax Collector
W. C. Moore, Tax Assessor
Walter Clegg, Treasurer
J. H. Calhoun, District Judge
Mr. Cunningham, District Attorney
R. L. Davenport, District Clerk
Homer P. Brelsford, Representative
Mr. Sebastian, Breckenridge, Senator
Judge W. R. Smith, Colorado, Congressional Representative


GEOLOGY OF EASTLAND COUNTY
BY PROF. W. F. CUMMINS
The geology of Eastland County is very simple, as the strata belong to only two of the great geological series, the carboniferous and cretaceous. The cretaceous is found only along the southern border of the County. This formation forms no very great nor conspicuous area in the County, and consists principally of "sand roughs." The areas were once covered by beds of limestone, which has long since been eroded and the sands are the remnants of a once continuous bed that covered the whole country to the foot of the mountains west of the Pecos River. The beds along the Trinity sand formation, and forms a part of the catchment area that supplies with water the great artesian water belt lying to the southeastward. This area was originally covered with a dense growth of dwarf oaks. The surface is generally level, very few of the hills being prominent. The term rolling is very applicable to this phase of topography. A friable sand of variable thickness deposited upon a hard floor of Paleozoic rocks, and subjected to the action of the prevailing atmospheric agencies, has given this character of topography.
The remainder of the County belongs to the carboniferous period. In describing the carboniferous in Texas I divided the strata into these divisions:

5. Cisco. 4. Canyon. 3. Strawn. 2. Millsap. 1. Bend.

The Cisco division is the highest and most recent of the divisions. One traveling westward along the Texas and Pacific Railroad goes off the cretaceous on to the Millsap division of the carboniferous about two miles east of Millsap. He would go off to the carboniferous about half way between Baird and Putnam. The Bend Division does not occur at the surface anywhere in this part of the State, but has been found in deep wells at Thurber and Fort Worth.

The following sketch will show the relative position of the divisions as they occur in this part of the State: [sketch omitted]

It is unnecessary to give a description of any of the divisions except that of the Canyon and Cisco. The Canyon division occurs in the eastern part of the County, and was so named from the prominence with which some of the strata are seen at Canyon, in the western part of Palo Pinto County, along the line of the Texas and Pacific Railway. This division is composed very largely of massive limestone, and may be easily recognized by this fact, the limestone in the other divisions being much thinner bedded.

The beds of the Cisco division are well exposed in the vicinity of Cisco, and the division was so named for this reason. The strata are mostly composed of conglomerates, sandstones, clays and shales. This division extends from northeast to southwest through the entire county. It is distinguished by its stratigraphic position below, it being found always in the heavy beds of the Canyon division.

The strata of the cretaceous dip to the southeast, while the strata of the carboniferous dip to the northwest, in an exactly opposite direction. The dip of the carboniferous is at the rate of about sixty feet to the mile. This fact will prelude the notion that flowing artesian water can be found at Cisco or vicinity, the recurving area being lower than any point to the westward, and water will not rise higher than its source.

There are nine coal seams in the carboniferous formation in Texas. When I made my report on the coal fields of Texas, the first section of the coal measures ever published in Texas, I numbered these beds from one to nine inclusive. Only two of these seams are thick enough to be of any commercial value. These are numbers two and seven. Number two is found at Thurber, Rock Creek and Bridgeport. Number seven is found in Eastland, Young, Jack and Montague Counties. Some attempts have been made to develop the coal in the vicinity of Cisco, in Eastland County, but without any very great success. The outcrops of this seam in the northern portion of this County are numerous. The seam is twenty inches thick, with a band of slate above it, followed by a seam of coal four inches thick. The band of slate is from four to ten inches thick between the coal seams. At another place where I examined this seam are nine inches of coal and twenty inches of bituminous shale. This shale will burn when put on the fire, but loses none of its bulk in burning, and is absolutely worthless as a fuel. The difficulty in working this seam of coal in this vicinity is the fact of the thinness of the seam, and the further fact that if both seams are mined the stratum of bituminous shale will have to be taken out of the mine, for it is so highly impregnated with sulphuret of iron that when the material is exposed to the atmosphere and it slacks, the sulphuric acid escaping will set the whole mass on fire.

There are no other minerals in this County of any economical value. Gold and silver have been reported at several places, but the amount has always been so small that it would not pay to develop. Iron occurs at many places in several forms, but it is always of too small a percentage of metallic iron to be of any commercial value.


Bland sailed for Japan on 25 September with elements of the Army's 77th Division embarked, as part of TG 34.8, and arrived off Hokkaidō on the 5th. She reached Otaru that day and began disembarking troops and discharging cargo lifted from the Philippines. Hers was part of the 10,000 men from the 77th Division and IX Corps put ashore to occupy Hokkaidō. Her part in the operation completed, Bland then sailed for Okinawa on the 7th.

After being rerouted once because of a typhoon, Bland reached Hagushi beach, Okinawa, on the 14th and, over the next few days, loaded stores. She then proceeded to an anchorage off Naga Wan, Okinawa, where she embarked men and cargo of the 1st Marine Division bound for the occupation of North China between 16 and 21 October. Underway on 21 October, Bland sailed for Tientsin and arrived off Taku Bar on the 24th. She commenced disembarking her marines the following day, but did not start discharging cargo until the 29th. She completed the entire process by 1 November and then began her "Operation Magic Carpet" duties by embarking men to be returned to the United States.


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Watch the video: 20 - Eastland Disaster


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