Hitch (toy)

Hitch (toy)

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3D Image

Hitch (toy), 600-550 3C J.-C., Tiryns (?), Made in Boeotia, Painted terracotta. From the Museum of Art & History (Cinquantenaire Museum) in Brussels, Belgium. Made with Zephyr3D from 3D Flow.

This group represents a figure wearing a cap standing behind two oxen with knotted horns. The set is attached to wheels. It is either the representation of a cart (the box having been omitted), or the figure of a plowman behind his plow, drawn by oxen.

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Toyota Sequoia

The Toyota Sequoia is a full-size SUV manufactured by Toyota and derived from its Tundra pickup truck.

Introduced in 2000 and manufactured at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indiana in Princeton, Indiana, the Sequoia is the first vehicle from a Japanese marque in the popular mainstream full-sized SUV class in North America, and initial planning done by first-generation Sequoia chief engineer Kaoru Hosegawa aimed the Sequoia directly at the Ford Expedition and other full-size SUVs.

The Sequoia slots in between the mid-size Toyota 4Runner and the premium Toyota Land Cruiser in the North American Toyota SUV lineup, and is the largest SUV currently being produced under the Toyota brand.

As of 2021 [update] , the Sequoia is sold in the United States, Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, and the Middle East (until 2017). It is offered in LHD only. In April 2021, Toyota announced plans to move production of the Sequoia to its San Antonio, Texas assembly in 2022 due to the Indiana facility preparing to build two new 8-seat passenger SUVs that will feature EV capabilities. [1]

The Jim Hensley Hitch Story

In 1955 Jim Hensley was stationed in Colorado, serving the US Army. Jim was granted leave to come home at the birth of his first child and he made plans to take his wife and newborn son back to Colorado with him when he returned.

He purchased a 30 foot house trailer, as they were called at that time. (Mobile homes and the modern travel trailers had not been separately identified then.) He went to the shop where he had worked, previous to being called upon by Uncle Sam, and built a hitch under his 1951 Kaiser automobile. There were a few Reese brand hitches on the market at the time, but Jim couldn’t afford to buy one.

So, instead he bought a used trailer dolly equipped with two caster wheels. Jim hooked the dolly between the tow vehicle and the trailer for carrying the tongue weight.

When the baby was just three weeks old, Jim and his wife left Centralia, IL with this rig for the 1,000 mile trip to Colorado. Grandparents were certain the baby would not survive such a journey. with two very young parents, in the month of July, and of course no air conditioning.

About 40 miles into the trip one of the dolly tires suffered a blow-out making it useless. The entire dolly was loaded into the trailer’s bedroom and they continued on the way with the nose of the car in the air and the rear end nearly dragging the ground. trailer fish-tail swaying all the way. Still to the surprise of many, Jim, his wife and their small son made it to Colorado. But, five months later, Jim was assigned to go to Korea and the family made the return trip to Illinois in the same fashion they had left. This was the beginning of the Hensley Hitch concept. Jim continually thinking on these two long trips, “There has to be a better way to tow a trailer”.

Reese was taking care of the weight distribution issues with spring bars, but these did little to help the sway problem.

Jim’s first ideas were along the lines that Pull-Rite used on their hitch much later on. Jim didn’t really like the need for all the necessary frame-work under the tow vehicle, and the cut-through when turning corners with this design. He considered a lock-unlock system in which the hitch would pivot near the rear axle of the tow vehicle until a turn was initiated. At that time, the pivot point would switch to the rear of the tow vehicle. But he became concerned about the possibility of the latch mechanism malfunctioning too easily.

The ideas on improved hitches were put on the back burner until about 1970 when Jim added sales of travel trailers to his used car sales business. That’s when he thought “We’re selling these trailers, we have to do something to make them safer and more relaxing to tow.”

In 1972 Jim built a small, simple prototype of his converging link design and it seemed to work just fine. But, this was about the time when there was a surge in travel trailer sales and there was no time for developing a new hitch concept.

About 1976, with plans to pursue his hitch idea, Jim ran a patent search and found there was nothing even close to his idea in the patent office. But, Jim’s wife, Nina, was diagnosed with cancer and she died a year later in 1977. With two children at home and a booming business there was again no time for hitch development.

Finally in the late 1980’s Jim made the decision to slow the trailer business down and make time for the Hensley hitch. It seemed he had to either go with his idea or just forget it. He completed the design idea and obtained a patent.

After no success in getting anyone else interested in manufacturing, Jim made the decision to set up, build and sell it himself. Central Innovative (CII) was incorporated for manufacturing and selling the Eliminator Towing System. The first one was sold by CII in August of 1992.

In 1993 Jim received an inquiry for information from a man in Michigan. A short time later, a second man called. He had just bought a new travel trailer. He said when he pulled into a campground a neighboring camper (the man who had asked CII for information on the Eliminator) stopped over and remarked about the second man’s nice car and new trailer. The second man’s reply was that his trailer was “for sale” as soon as he got it back home because he couldn’t stand the white-knuckle-driving caused by the swaying of the trailer. The campground neighbor said he had some information from a company that claimed its hitch would fix the sway problem, but he also said it sounded too good to be true and he wasn’t going to do anything with it because he didn’t think it could work. He passed the information packet on to the second man.

In a few days the second man called CII for additional information purchased an Eliminator. A few days later, following his towing experience with the Eliminator, the excited man called CII again saying “This thing really works”. He had called the campground neighbor who originally gave him the information packet and that man bought a hitch as well. Very shortly after that the second man wanted to know why there hadn’t been more done to promote sales, what kind of company was producing the hitch, and asked if Jim would sell his patent.

Jim told the man he was willing to license the patent, but not to sell it. And that is what happened. Jim licensed the patent to the second man, and in the first part of 1994, a new company, Hensley Mfg. Inc., was formed in Davison, Michigan for the manufacturing and sales of the hitch, now renamed the “Hensley Arrow Hitch”. CII continued to build hitches for Hensley Mfg. for a time until they got up to speed.

For the next 14 years Jim received a royalty on every hitch that was sold. During that time Jim continued to work on design improvements in hitches and brake controllers with the idea of licensing these products to Hensley Mfg., Inc. This never materialized with Hensley Mfg. and the relationship between Jim and the company named after him was severed during the middle months of 2007.

The synchronicity of the break in the Jim Hensley and Hensley Mfg. relationship couldn’t have been more perfect. At the beginning of July 2007, Sean Woodruff, the 10 year Vice President of Hensley Mfg., also ended his relationship with the company. With nowhere else to turn, and vast experience and contacts in the RV industry, Sean began working on an idea to form his own company, ProPride, Inc.

In October of 2007, Jim Hensley and Sean Woodruff began work on bringing the newly designed hitch to the market. With information from thousands of customer experiences with the old design they set out to improve it. That is what brings us to the most advanced Hensley hitch design to date… the ProPride 3P.


Being an amalgamation, IH, like General Motors, gradually evolved a brand architecture during the first half of the 20th century, when the concept was still new. IH capitalized on farmers' familiarity with its older brands stretching back to individual entrepreneurs of the earliest days of agricultural mechanization (Cyrus McCormick, William Deering), which is why legacy company brands McCormick and Deering were used. The Farmall name itself began as a model name and then evolved to encompass a model line. With the success of the Farmall, other manufacturers soon introduced similar general- to all-purpose tractors with varying success. In their early years, they often included the word "all" in the name of the product. During the first decade of Farmall sales, IH's advertising even had to emphasize the name's correlation to IH, to protect the brand name from genericization. [3] The shift to a bright, distinctive color scheme in 1936 helped to further strengthen the branding effort.

Farmall and the F-series Edit

The Fordson was the first truly mass-produced, light, affordable tractor, and thus the first to tap the market of small to medium family farms on a large scale. Its design was excellent in many respects, including design for manufacturability and the low cost that it allowed. But one task that its design had not been tailored to was cultivating the rows of young row-crop plants to kill the weeds. IH recognized motorized cultivating as an unmet need in the marketplace. It was also under intense competitive pressure to build a "Fordson beater" soon, lest the Fordson go on to dominate the entire marketplace of agricultural equipment, imperfections or no.

IH's first effort to solve this problem was a motor cultivator, a class of machine that various companies were building and selling in the late 1910s and early 1920s. As the name implies, these were self-propelled cultivators in the simplest sense—little more than a horse implement with a motor added. The IH motor cultivator and another all-purpose tractor, the Moline Plow Company's Universal, both sold several hundred units in the late 1910s. IH's machine was not particularly successful the Moline Universal was more successful, but its parent company nevertheless faced dire financial straits. Both models were soon discontinued. [4] Many farmers were content (and could afford) to keep one or two horses or mules around to do miscellaneous light work (such as cultivating).

Around 1920, as IH's motor cultivator died, a team of IH engineers was experimenting with an all-purpose tractor, replacing the horse in every job including cultivating. [5] By 1923, [3] [6] they settled on a configuration, and their informal name for the project, the "Farmall", was selected as the product's official name. [3] As IH management was concerned that the new high-riding, tricycle design—a rather spindly-looking thing to eyes of the early 1920s—might turn off customers, the Farmall was initially released only in Texas, in order to minimize potential embarrassment if the design proved to be unsuccessful. [7] However, the new tractor did its many jobs well and hence sold well, and by 1926, IH was ready for large-scale production at its new Farmall Works plant in Rock Island, Illinois. [2] [8] Although the Farmall never reached the per-year production numbers of the Fordson during the 1920s, it was the tractor that prevented the Fordson from completely owning the market on small, lightweight, mass-produced, affordable tractors for the small or medium family farm. Its narrow-front tricycle design, high ground clearance to clear crop plants while cultivating (helped by a portal axle [drop gearset]), power take-off (a feature on which IH was an early leader [9] ), and standard mounting points for cultivators and other implements on the tractor's frame (a Farmall first [10] ) gave it some competitive advantages over the Fordson, especially for row crops, and it became the favorite row-crop tractor of America, outselling all other competitors (such as John Deere's). [7]

In 1931 came the first variation of the original Farmall. The F-30 was bigger, heavier, and more powerful. The original Farmall became known by the retronym Regular. (It may never have been an official name for branding, but it was common among farmers.) In 1932, IH updated the Farmall Regular with a more powerful engine, and renamed it F-20. At this time, IH also added another model, the F-12, a smaller, lighter version of the original. It had no portal axle at the rear, deriving its ride height instead from larger-diameter wheels. Thus, beginning in 1932, the Farmall brand had grown from a single model to a model line, which became known as the F-series. In 1938, the F-12 was replaced by the F-14, almost identical [11] to the F-12 except for an updated steering column and a higher-revving engine (whose higher rev limit, 1650 rpm instead of 1400, [11] made it more powerful at peak output).

Color schemes Edit

All Farmall tractors were painted a deep blue-grey until mid-1936 (around July through September). The color has often been mistaken for battleship grey, but it was actually bluer. The wheels were most often red. In mid-1936, a decision was made to change the entire tractor (frame, sheet metal, engine, and wheels) to a new color, 'Farmall Red'. It was around this time many tractor manufacturers began using bright, distinctive colors for branding (e.g., Allis-Chalmers orange). A farmer could look out across the fields and see his neighbor's tractor from a great distance and know what make it was this provided a sort of advertising in the intensely competitive tractor market.

The Letter Series and the Golden Years of IH Edit

The F-series tractors lasted until 1939. In late 1939, the famous Letter series of Farmall tractors was introduced. The model name letters were A, B, BN, C (which replaced the B and BN in 1948), H, M, and MD(M diesel). IH commissioned an industrial designer, Raymond Loewy, to give the new Farmall general-purpose tractors a sleek new streamlined look. Designed for small-to-medium size American farms, IH's new machines offered a wider variety of capabilities, engines, and equipment options. The smallest of the line, the 'A', utilized the company's Culti-Vision offset engine/front end design, along with a wide front wheel track and dropped axles. The 'B' was the same as the 'A' with the exceptions that it used a narrow, tricycle type front end, and the engine/driveline were placed along the centerline of the tractor. On the larger models, the 'tricycle' type, narrow-spaced front wheel design was retained, as it provided quick steering and a considerable improvement in maneuverability over competing tractors such as the Ford 9N.

IH took care to produce a model for almost every farm and every need. The Farmall A, B, BN and the later C offered compact size the H and M series provided extra plowing capability and power, while the Model H proved most popular with customers. The 'MD' Farmall offered a diesel engine, which actually started on gasoline, then was switched over to diesel when thoroughly warmed up. Sales took off, and letter-series production did not end until 1954. Overall, the Farmall 'letter' series, well built and affordable, became not only a defining product line in IH history, but an iconic symbol of the prototypical American small-farm tractor. Many machines (especially the two largest models, the H and M) are still in operation on farms today.

In 1947, the smallest tractor in the Farmall line was introduced, the Cub. With a 60 cu. in. four-cylinder engine and a 69-inch wheelbase, the Cub was aimed at small farms such as truck farms, horse farms, and other small acreages that had previously continued to rely on horse-drawn equipment. Like the various John Deere L/LA/LI models, one of the "mechanization-resistant" markets it hoped to penetrate was the small, poor, one-mule family farms of the rural American Deep South. But the Cub also sold to owners of larger farms who required a second tractor. Production of the Cub commenced at the newly acquired Farmall Works-Louisville plant (formerly the wartime Curtiss-Wright Aircraft factory in Louisville, Kentucky) which was expanded, remodeled and re-equipped. Selling for $545.00 in 1947, the Cub proved extremely popular, and the original design continued in production without significant alteration until 1979.

The Letter series tractors were updated to the Super series beginning in 1947 with the Super A, 1951 for the Super C, 1952 for the Super M and 1953 for the Super H, the B and BN models having been dropped from production and replaced with the C in 1948, which combined the attributes of both models into one tractor, while moving the operator position on top of the tractor in a more traditional layout like the H and M. Though the "Super series" received improvements, these tractors largely followed the design of their predecessors, and like them, were built to last.

Letters to Numbers Edit

In 1954, the numbered or so-called Hundred series tractors appeared. The Hundred series models used numbers instead of letters to identify the model. The new models were given slightly different looks and a few new features, but were still essentially the famed Letter series tractors. The Farmall Cub continued unchanged, but in 1955 a new 'low-boy' version was added, featuring a shortened 62.5-inch wheelbase and a frame eight inches lower than the regular Cub tractor, which improved the machine's center of gravity. 1956 saw the introduction of the IH Model 350, which offered engines using a variety of commonly available fuels: gasoline, diesel, or LP-gas. The diesel engine version had a direct-start feature, and could be started and run using only diesel fuel. [12] In 1957, IH again gave the tractor lineup an overhaul. Although the basic design was still not changed to any significant degree, new white paint was added to the front grille and sides, new engines were introduced, and new number designations were added. Along with these additions, the Torque Amplifier was added to the Model 300 and all larger models. This provided on-the-go shifting to suit varied needs the operator was offered ten forward gears and two reverse, instead of the usual five and one. Another addition to these tractors was the independent ("live") power take-off (PTO), which meant that the farmer could run the PTO even when the clutch was disengaged (clutch pedal pushed down). Although the new tractors did improve sales, IH's innate conservatism and reluctance to update their tractor line in response to changing times was becoming apparent. [13]

60 Series Recall and Later Production Edit

At the Hinsdale, Illinois Testing Farm in July 1958, IH entertained over 12,000 dealers from over 25 countries. IH showed off their new 60 series of tractors: including the first of their kind, large six-cylinder 460 and 560 models. But the excitement caused by the new introduction was short-lived. The following June, IH recalled the 460, 560, and 660 tractors after reports of mechanical breakdown in the field. IH, who wanted to be the first big-power tractor manufacturer, had inexplicably failed to substantially enlarge or re-engineer critical drive components on the new six-cylinder tractors. The tractors' final drives, which were essentially made up of unaltered Letter Series components, (the 460 carried over from the model H, the 560 did the same from the model M), failed rapidly under the stress of the more powerful 60 series tractor engines. IH's competitors took advantage of the recall, and IH lost customers in the ensuing months. [13]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, IH introduced new tractors and new methods of marketing, but conservative management, an unwieldy corporate organization, and a policy of in-house promotions tended to stifle new ideas and technical innovation at the company. [14] As tractor production was a mainstay of the company, IH realized they would have to modernize and re-engineer their tractor line, lowering costs where possible in order to remain competitive. The massive boilerplate frame and iron housings of the old IH tractors were slowly phased out for lighter, less-expensive components. The streamlined exterior of the earlier tractors was replaced by straighter, more angular lines, updating the look and requiring less-complicated equipment to manufacture. The new machines also became vastly more complex, though easier to operate. Bowing to inevitable sales pressure and bitter price competition from other manufacturers, IH tractors, while still well-made, could no longer be relied upon to last indefinitely.

Standard, Industrial, Utility, and Other Models Edit

Many Farmall tractor models have one or more mechanically similar models under another IH brand designed for other uses, such as industrial, utility, orchard, or wheatland use. These models have lower ground clearance and a wider front axle. During the Letter series era, these alternate models were sold under the McCormick-Deering brand later models were badged with the International brand. Some examples include:

    —McCormick-Deering W-4 Standard—McCormick-Deering I-4 Industrial
  • Farmall 300—International 300 Utility
  • Farmall 450—International W450 Wheatland
  • Farmall 656—International 656 Row-Crop—International 656 Utility

The International 544 and 656 Row-Crop tractors were a bit of an anomaly until International dropped the Farmall brand, in that they combined some of the customary features of a Farmall (such as an adjustable wheel width) with a utility tractor.

End of an era Edit

By 1973, IH had officially dropped the 'Farmall' name from its new tractor models, ending an era that began with the first Farmall Regular back in 1924. However, the Farmall nameplate continued to appear on new 1974 and 1975 tractors until the factories exhausted their inventory of obsolete name badges. [15] On February 1, 1974, at 9:00 A.M., the 5,000,000th IH tractor came off the assembly line at the Farmall Works plant in Rock Island, Illinois. IH was the first tractor manufacturer to officially accomplish this production threshold [13]

Generally tractors were marketed by the number of 16" width plows they could pull in average soil to indicate their power. Here is a list of plow ratings (see footnotes) for all Farmall tractors produced for North America:

  • 1-plow: Cub (12" width or less), A, Super A, B, BN, 100, 130
  • 2-plow (14"): F-12, F-14, C, Super C, 140, 200, 230, 240, 404
  • 2-plow (16"): Regular, F-20, H, Super H, 300, 340,
  • 3-plow: F-30, M, W-6, MD, super MD, Super M, Super M-TA, 350, 400, 450,
  • 4 plow and up: W-9, 504, 544, 460, 560, 656, 666, 70 Hydro, 706, 756, 766, 786, 806, 826, 856, 966, 1026, 1066, 100 Hydro, 1206, 1256, 1456, 1466, 1468, 1566, 1568.
  • 1. Plow ratings are general plowing abilities dependent upon soil conditions.
  • 2. Depending on the plow width used and the type of soil, a three-plow tractor could handle a four- or five-bottom plow.
  • 3. Engine size was sometimes upgradeable. For example, in the 1950s and 60s it was very popular to upgrade the Super M-TA and 400 model 264 cid engine to 281 cid. An economical cylinder sleeve and piston change was all that was needed. This brought the power level up to that of the 450 model.

There were also some Farmall models unique to the European market: DF-25 (comparable to the H), DGD4 (comparable to the Super H), BMD (British MD) and B-450 (British 450). These models all utilized direct-start diesel engines. [15] Also there is a model BM (British M) with a gasoline engine. This model was built from 1949 until 1954.

Detailed tables of model names, years, engine displacements, horsepower ratings, production quantities, serial number ranges, and other statistics are available in reference books on the subject. [16]

The Farmall Cub, A, B, 100, 130, and 140 models had the seat offset from the engine, allowing the operator to look directly at the ground under the tractor. This feature was called Culti-Vision because it was created to give the operator an excellent view of the cultivator teeth as they cultivated the vegetable row. (Cultivating in this context refers to breaking up the soil next to the vegetable row, which kills weeds by uprooting them and/or burying their leaves).

The Farmall A, B, and C used a sliding-gear four-speed transmission, while the larger, more powerful Farmall H and M were fitted with a five-speed transmission. The extra gears of the Farmall tractors helped maximize the engine's power band and road speed, giving a sales advantage over the competition. The A, B, and C all used essentially the same engine but the C ran at a higher RPM and so yielded higher horsepower.

IH Farmall Red became the standard Farmall tractor color after 1936, and was used through the 1970s. The only factory color variations known are Highway Yellow (generally used for municipalities), Demonstrator White, used for dealer demo models during the 1950s, and Demonstrator Gold—actually a red-and-gold color scheme used only during the International Demonstrator program in 1970. Farmalls in other shades are known to exist these were most likely custom ordered from the factory. For large orders, any color scheme could be accommodated at the factory.

Although IHC's very first diesel-engine tractor was a "Standard" model WD-40 built from 1935 to 1940, the very first "Farmall" diesel tractor was the model MD released in 1941. Like many agricultural and construction/industrial diesel engines of the time, the early IHC diesels were not direct-start the operator started the engine on gasoline, then manually switched it to diesel fuel after warming up the entire engine. This two-in-one engine design, also known as a "gas-diesel", was unique to IHC agricultural products from 1935 to 1958 and IHC construction/industrial products from 1935 to the early 1960s. Other companies used different yet elaborate means to crank and warm their diesels, such as a pony motor, compressed air, hot bulb, or black powder, among other things. The Farmall Super MD, Super M-TA Diesel, 400 Diesel, and 450 Diesel used the same IHC gasoline-start engine design as the MD, but with larger displacement (more cubic inches). The first Farmall tractor with a direct-start diesel was the model 350, which appeared in 1956. The 350 could also be ordered with a gasoline or LP-gas engine. The 350's direct-start diesel engine was built by Continental Motors. IH subsequently developed their own line of new direct-start diesel engines for the 460 and 560 tractors starting in 1958. Large competitors such as Deere and Caterpillar lagged at least two years behind IH in offering direct-start diesel products.

The Torque Amplifier (TA) was first introduced on the "improved" Super M of 1954, called the Super M-TA. An auxiliary planetary gearset provided a double-reduction (low) gear ratio for each transmission gear (comparable in function to the two-speed rear axle on a commercial truck) that allowed for a quick downshift via hand lever, without using the clutch, to gain torque at the drive wheels. The popular TA attachment was seen upon most of the new 300 and 400 Farmalls that first appeared in 1955, and on the 350 and 450 produced 1956–1958, and on later models through the 1960s. Although the TA was appreciated on the Farmalls, IH also offered the TAs on the "Standard", "Utility", and "Industrial" tractor lines as well.

The Fast Hitch was IH's answer to the three-point hitch developed years earlier by Harry Ferguson, and featured on Ford-Ferguson tractors. [17] The Fast Hitch was first offered as an option on the Super C. Fast Hitch was then an option on the 100, 200, 300, and 400 and some later models. However, even the Fast Hitch had three incompatible variants (100—single prong 200—two small prongs 300/400—two large prongs). IH discontinued the Fast Hitch in the 1960s after the three-point hitch was standardized and adopted by all manufacturers. There are kits available from a variety of sources that will either convert a Fast Hitch to a three-point, or add a three-point hitch to tractors that originally only had a fixed drawbar.

International Harvester was one of the earliest manufacturers to provide a stepless transmission in a row crop tractor. Introduced first as an option on 656 and 544 tractors, the hydrostatic transmission would become a defining feature of the 70 Hydro and 100 Hydro models.

Hitch (toy) - History

Allis-Chalmers Tractors

Allis-Chalmers was a tractor manufacturer with a history going back to 1847, but it entered the 50s behind the leaders, International Harvester, John Deere and Massey-Harris. Throughout the 50s and 60s, they worked to keep pace in the battle for horsepower dominance and market share.

  • Model "U." The "U" was A-C's answer to the Ford's Fordson tractor and was first produced in 1929 in partnership with the United Tractor Company. It was popular enough that it stayed in the A-C line until 1952. It weighed 4,000 pounds and produced up to 30 HP, particularly later in its production run. The "U" also had the distinction of being the first farm tractor equipped by the manufacturer with low-pressure rubber tires.
  • Model "B." For many small farmers, the Model "B" was a revolution and was in production from 1937-57. It was the first "modern" tractor that sold for under $500 – with rubber tires when a set of rubber could add $150 to the price. At that time A-C's popular "WC" sold for $825. The "B" helped bring an end to farming with horses particularly when comparable models were produced by other manufacturers. By the 50s, the price of a "B" had risen because of inflation, more horsepower and better options. By 1957, the published price was $1,440. Over the course of its production, the "B" sold around 120,000 units, compared with the more powerful "WC" that sold 178,000 units between 1933-48.
  • Model "G." The "B" was not A-C's smallest tractor. In 1948, a strange-looking machine dubbed the "G" was introduced with just over nine horsepower. It was unique because the four-cylinder engine was mounted in the back and a curved tubular frame allowed for implements to mounted in front of the operator. Because it allowed the operator to closely watch where the cultivator or fertilizer was going gave the "G" unmatched precision for planting, seeding, and cultivation of vegetables, seedlings and berries. About 30,000 units were sold between 1948-55.
  • The "WD." When the "WC" ended production in 1948, the "WD" succeeded it. The new model looked like its predecessor, but there were so many new features and improvements on the "WD" that the sales force had to learn a whole new set of terms for the tractor. Two-clutch power control, single hitch-point implements, traction-booster, and power-shift wheels were all new features. The two-clutch feature allowed the operator to stop the drive wheels while power continued to the PTO (power take off) operating implements like combines and balers. The power shift rear wheels allowed the "WD" to move its rear wheels away from or closer to the tractor for different row widths without jacking the tractor up off the ground. Power shift worked by engaging spiral rails on the axel and was a big hit with farmers. The "WD's" 24-30 horsepower allowed it to pull three plows. Over its six years of production, the "WD" sold over 145,000 units.
  • The "WD45." By 1953, John Deere and IH were coming out with tractors that had over 40 horsepower, and Allis-Chalmers had to respond. So, they introduced the "WD45" with 30-39 HP on the drawbar. The increase in power took it into the four-plow class, and the tractor sold well. The new "Snap-Coupler" hitch system allowed the farmer to back up over an implement until a tongue snapped into the hitch, something the three-point hitch couldn't do for several years. The WD45 was also the first A-C tractor to offer a diesel engine and power steering. Between 1953-57, Allis sold over 90,000 "WD45s" – 83,500 with gas engines and 6,500 with diesel engines. That was half again more than the comparable John Deere Model "60" that sold 61,000 tractors between '52-57. However, the WD45 was Allis-Chalmers' highest-powered tractor at 39 HP by the end of its production. In that same time, IH offered the "400" with 48 HP and John Deere topped out with the Model "80" at 62 HP.
  • The "CA." By 1950, the venerable Model "B" was nearing the end of its production run, and competitors were offering more modern tractors in the 20 HP range like the John Deere "M" and the IH "Super C." So, A-C introduced the Model "CA" with 20 HP in 1950. It had the power shift wheels and two-clutch system of the "WD" and a four-speed transmission.
  • The first "D" series. In 1957, the "D14" and the "D17" introduced more power, larger diesel engines, new styling and a better ride for the operator to the A-C line. The "D14" had 30 HP and was produced until 1960. The "D17" went through four different "Series" upgrades between 1957 and '67 and produced 46-49 HP. Both models featured a new position for the operator that was in front of the rear wheels. This was important because it reduced the "catapult" effect – if the drivers seat is behind the rear wheels, any big bump gets multiplied and will catapult the driver high into the air. By the early 60s, there were over 50 different configurations of "D-Series" tractors available, including various engine styles, orchard models with fairings to protect the trees, high clearance models and various fuel options.
  • Models "D10" & "D12." In 1959, the lower end of the lineup was filled by the "D10" and "D12" both with 24 HP. The only difference between the two models was the width that the tires were set apart. The D12 could cultivate wider rows. The models were successful and went through three series updates. By the end of production in 1968, the tractors were producing 30 HP. But by the late 60s, customers were demanding diesel engines, and Allis-Chalmers could not produce one at this price point.
  • The "D15." In 1960, the "D15" replaced the "D14" in the 33-38 HP range. The tractor had a larger four-cylinder engine that produced about 18 percent more power. By this time, the industry and their customers had pretty much settled on the three-point hitch as the standard for coupling implements. So, Allis-Chalmers began manufacturing three-point as well as their on-point Snap-Coupler implements. The "D15" was the first in the line to have the three-point system.
  • The "D19." By 1961, other manufacturers were offering higher horsepower than A-C with 50, 60 and even 70 HP models common. John Deere even had their experimental 150 HP Model 8010 out. So, Allis-Chalmers responded by introducing the Model "D19" with 58 HP. They achieved the extra power by adding a turbo charger system to their diesel engine – the first model with a factory-installed turbo charger as standard equipment. By the end of its run in 1964, the tractor was producing 64 HP.
  • The "D21" was the first A-C model to break the 100 HP barrier with 103 horses on the PTO and 93 on the drawbar. That was enough power to pull a seven-bottom plow allowing the tractor to ride on level ground instead of having to put one set of wheels in the previous furrow. It boasted a number of firsts. First A-C model with a direct-injection diesel engine. First with independent power take-off. First with hydrostatic power steering and a tilt steering wheel and instrument panel. All new power train and transmission. The "D21" was produced between 1963 and '65 when it was replaced by the "D21 Series II" with 116 HP on the drawbar. The extra power came from a turbo charge system added to the existing engine.
  • The "Hundred Series." In 1964, Allis-Chalmers began selling what would become their new model line with the "One-Ninety." For some reason, the model numbers were always spelled out until 1971. What distinguished the line was high horsepower, new squared-off styling and refinements in operation, transmission and the implement hitch system. The Traction Booster Drawbar would transfer weight from implement to the rear wheels under increased load and would allow the tractor wheels to "dig in" and produce better traction. The "One-Ninety" was also the first A-C tractor to offer factory air conditions in 1965.
    The "One-Ninety" gasoline version was produced from 1964 to '68 and produced 63 HP. The diesel version of the model continued until 1973. In 1965, the "One-Ninety XT" tractor was introduced with gasoline, diesel and LP (liquefied petroleum gas) engines. The "XT" models produced between 72 and 80 HP depending on engine type. In 1967, the series was rounded out with the introduction of the "One-Seventy" with 47 HP and the "One-Eighty" with around 55 HP.
  • The "Two-Twenty Landhandler." By 1969, changes in agricultural technology and best practices had called into question the premise that more horsepower was always best. Conservation tillage techniques had reduced the number of farmers using large plow units. Large combine harvesters were now self-propelled rather than pulled by a tractor. And many of the remaining farm tasks did not require a lot of power. So, Allis-Chalmers and other manufacturers emphasized efficiency – the ability to pull the same implement faster rather than larger and larger implements. The 1969 Model "Two-Twenty Landhandler" had the same 117 horsepower as the "D21 Series II" that it replaced, but it had a beefed up transmission and heavier rear end to handle heavier pulls.

By 1970, Allis-Chalmers Persian Orange machines were well respected and the company was poised to take advantage of the booming market for machinery during the decade. But they would not survive the recession of the 1980s.

Written by Bill Ganzel, the Ganzel Group. First published in 2006. A partial bibliography of sources is here.

Dain all-wheel drive Edit

The Dain all-wheel drive was the first tractor produced by John Deere, and had only a single rear wheel. In 1911, Deere purchased the Dain Manufacturing Company of Ottumwa, Iowa. The next year, Deere decided to design its own tractor, and Dain founder, Joseph Dain Sr., was directed to design that tractor. After several prototypes, the design was finalized in 1917, and 100 production units were ordered. By 1919 when that production run was complete, Deere had purchased the Waterloo Boy Company. Although the Dain AWD was ahead of its time, with features such as a shift-on-the-fly transmission, Deere halted production in late 1919, partly because the cost of the Dain tractor was double that of the Waterloo Boy, and partly because of the death of Dain Sr.

Waterloo Boy Edit

The predecessor of the Waterloo Boy came about in 1892. It was made by thresher-man John Froelich. It is called the "Froelich tractor". Model company Scale Models of Dyersville, Iowa, [1] made a 1/16 scale model of this tractor. In March 1918, Deere & Company decided to continue its foray into the tractor business by purchasing the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company which manufactured the popular Waterloo Boy tractor at its facilities in Waterloo, Iowa.

Deere & Company continued to sell tractors under the Waterloo Boy name until 1923.

Model D (Spoker Model D) Edit

Despite a rather severe farm economy depression at the time, Deere & Company management decided to build the Model D prototype in 1923, designed by Muir L. Frey (father of Ford Mustang designer Donald N. Frey). [2] The Deere Model D was produced from March 1, 1923 to July 3, 1953, the longest production span of all the two-cylinder John Deere tractors. Over 160,000 were made. [3]

The first Model D rode on steel wheels with a 6.5 by 7 inches (16.5 by 17.8 centimetres) (later 6.75 by 7 inches (17.1 by 17.8 centimetres)) two-cylinder hand-cranked engine rated 15 to 27 horsepower (11 to 20 kilowatts). [3] It was not, however, the first tractor to bear the Deere name as a number of Deere experimental tractors, and the John Deere Dain all-wheel drive tractor (of which approximately 100 were produced during 1918 and 1919) had all carried the Deere name before the Model D.

By 1925, Deere & Company realized the standard Model D did not meet customers' needs for industrial applications. Steel wheels were not suitable for hard surfaces, and the gearing was too slow for safe road speeds. Solid rubber tires were added, and engineers fitted a 28 tooth sprocket to the final drive, giving a road speed of 4 miles per hour (6.4 kilometres per hour). The company replaced the 465 cubic inches (7.62 litres) two-cylinder engine with a 501 cubic inches (8.21 litres). In 1926, Deere & Company advertised the model as the "John Deere industrial tractor", with 40 by 8 inches (101.6 by 20.3 centimetres) rear wheels and 24 by 3.5 inches (61.0 by 8.9 centimetres) fronts with solid tires. This became known as the "DI". Options also included wheel weights. [4]

GP tractor Edit

On June 20, 1928, the model designation was changed from "C" to "GP", to avoid confusion with the "D" when dealers were phoning in orders to the factory. "GP" stands for "general purpose". This new model GP had the same horsepower, engine displacement, weight, and three-speed transmission as the model C. The GP's first serial number was 200211. In 1930, the GP was updated with a 25 horsepower (19 kilowatts), 339 cubic inches (5.56 litres) engine.

The John Deere model GP was built in five distinct versions through the course of its production:

  • The standard-front GP, or John Deere standard, built from March 1928 to February 1935
  • The John Deere two-wheel tricycle-front GP, or GP-tricycle, of which twenty-three units were built between August 1928 and April 1929
  • The John Deere GP wide-tread, or GPWT, built from November 1929 to November 1933
  • The John Deere GP wide-tread Series P, a GPWT with narrowed rear tread width designed to suit potato rows, built between January and August 1930
  • The John Deere general purpose orchard tractor, or "GPO", from April 1931 to April 1935. This tractor had specialized shielding for groves and orchards and around low-hanging branches. Some GPOs were fitted with crawler undercarriages from the Lindeman Brothers in Yakima, Washington. These are commonly known as "GPO Lindemans".

The John Deere Model A came off the assembly line in April 1934. The tractor was 25 horsepower (19 kilowatts), was 309 cubic inches (5.06 litres), and had a four-speed transmission. There were eight different model A variations. Some of these were tricycle, hi-crop, orchard, single front tire, and industrial models. The tricycle wheel design, patterned after that of the Farmall tractor, reduced steering effort, and greatly increased maneuverability. The Model B was introduced in June 1934. This tractor had a shorter frame than the Model A, but it was eventually lengthened so it could use some of the same equipment that the larger models A and G used. There were also eight different Model B tractor variations, the same as the larger Model A.

The much larger G model arrived in 1937. It was fitted with a 36 horsepower (27 kilowatts), 425 cubic inches (6.96 litres) engine, and a four-speed transmission. Deere & Company publicized the G as a three-plow tractor, and it was built until 1941, when the GM (G, modernized) replaced it. The GM model was made from 1942 to 1947. The drawbar power increased to 38 horsepower (28 kilowatts), and a new six-speed transmission was also added. The G model got a restyled front at this point, as did the other John Deere tractor models. The GM had electric starting and lighting added to its options. During its production time, the G tractor was available as a hi-crop, single front wheel, and styled.

Un-styled row crop tractors Edit

The Deere & Company very nearly went bankrupt in the Great Depression. Only a large order of tractors for the Soviet Union kept the company going.

Streamlined look Edit

In 1937, John Deere hired well known industrial designer Henry Dreyfuss from New York City to re-style Deere & Company's agricultural equipment, especially its tractors. In the fall of 1937, a John Deere tractor engineer was sent to New York to ask Dreyfuss to redesign the tractors. Legend has it that Dreyfuss was so intrigued by the project, that he took a train to Waterloo that very night. Dreyfuss learned to operate the tractors, and worked with them in the field to gain firsthand knowledge of the changes that needed to be made. The first two letter series tractors (the A and B) were the first to receive the new modern styling, and other models were added later. The Dreyfuss styling was intended to help Deere & Company compete with the forthcoming Farmall "letter series" of tractors, which, along with the Ford-Ferguson, were John Deere's largest competition at this time. Dreyfuss and the Waterloo engineers perfected the styled design that was used on all John Deere tractors, with only minor changes through to 1959.

The 1930s and 1940s saw a large number of different John Deere models emerge, as small farmers emerging from their Depression troubles increasingly turned from horses to tractors. Deere & Company's GM model was introduced in 1942, and was made until 1947. Engine power was increased to 38 horsepower (28 kilowatts), and a new six-speed transmission was also added. The G model got a restyled front at this point, as did the other John Deere tractors models. The GM had electric start and lights added to its options. During its production time, the G tractor was available in hi-crop and single front wheel versions. The G was restyled in 1941, but did not start to roll off the assembly line until early 1942. Like the smaller A and B tractors, the G model had the six-speed transmission added to it. In 1946, the 1946 model "D" had a 501 cubic inches (8.21 litres) engine, which was enormous for the day. Two new additions to the tractor line, the M and R models, were also added.

After the models A and B got new styling, both tractors were given six-speed transmissions in late 1940. The A was 29 horsepower (22 kilowatts) out of a 321 cubic inches (5.26 litres) engine, while the smaller B was both 18 and 23 horsepower (13 and 17 kilowatts), reflecting the earlier and later updates between 1938 and 1946. The 14.84 Model H was given the Dreyfuss look from the time it was introduced in 1938. The H broke a fuel economy record when it was tested in Nebraska. This tractor also had three variations that came out in 1940-1941. The H tractor was 14.84 horsepower (11.07 kilowatts) out of a 90 cubic inches (1.5 litres) engine, and had a three-speed transmission.

In 1939, the restyled Model D appeared. The D was a 42 horsepower (31 kilowatts) tractor, and weighed 5,300 pounds (2,400 kilograms). Options available on this tractor included electric lighting and starting. In August 1940, Deere & Company introduced the new model LA which was followed by the model LI. The LA had a 77 cubic inches (1.26 litres) engine with 14 belt horsepower. The John Deere G tractor was restyled in 1941, but did not start to roll off the assembly line until early 1942. Like the smaller A and B tractors, the G model also had the six-speed transmission, but also featured electric lights and electric start.

In 1947, Deere & Company opened a new tractor factory in Dubuque, Iowa, built to produce the John Deere Model M. The M was created to address the increasing demand for small tractors, and compete with the increasingly popular Ford, and the smaller Farmall tractor models. The M was the first John Deere tractor to use a vertical two-cylinder engine, with a square bore to stroke ratio of 4.0 by 4.0 inches (10.2 by 10.2 centimetres) 100.5 cubic inches (1,647 cubic centimetres) with a high row crop.

After years of testing, Deere & Company released its first proper diesel engined tractor in 1949, the Model R. The R was also the first John Deere tractor with a live independent power take-off (PTO) equipped with its own clutch. The R also incorporated live hydraulics. PowrTrol, as it was known, provided the operator the ability to lift equipment by the pull of a lever. A pump powered by the PTO clutch provided 1,800 pounds per square inch (120 bars) of hydraulic pressure to a lever controlled valve. At 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) at the drawbar and 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts) at the belt, it was the most fuel-efficient tractor available at the time, and this combination of features resulted in over 21,000 being built. The Model R had a shipping weight of 7,670 pounds (3,480 kilograms). The R was equipped with two engines. The main engine is a two-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally-aspirated 416 cubic inches (6.82 litres) (5.75 by 8.00 inches (14.6 by 20.3 centimetres) bore and stroke), direct injected diesel engine, with a 16:1 compression ratio. The starting engine is also a John Deere two-cylinder, 26 cubic inches (426 cubic centimetres) horizontally opposed gasoline engine. The starting or "pony" engine is electrically started by a six-volt electrical system, and is used to crank the main diesel engine. Testing results with various electrical starting systems for the diesel engine proved to be too bulky, requiring a 24- or 32-volt system. The design of the pony starter Model Rs allowed for hot exhaust gasses to preheat the intake air for the diesel engine, and a common liquid cooling system allowed the pony engine to warm the diesel engine block and head. This provided sufficient cold weather starting aids for the diesel engine that it would reliably run in sub-zero [ clarification needed ] conditions. The R did have several teething problems, as this was Deere & Company's first production diesel engined tractor. Available as a standard tractor only, it did not have an adjustable front axle, nor did it have a three-point hitch. The engine was mainly an up-scaled gasoline engine from the Model D. The use of a thermosiphon cooling system, and the lack of a three-point bearing crankshaft proved inadequate for diesel engine compression ratios. The R was prone to overheating, and cracking the cylinder head. The lack of a center main bearing in the crankshaft allowed the crankshaft to flex when used as a stationary power-plant on the belt this would lead to its failure. The live PTO was directed through two 45° bevel gears that proved too small to durably transmit the full torque of the engine. The tractor was fully serviceable at pulling larger equipment efficiently on large acre wheat-land farms.

During the 1950s, the R saw a series of upgrades in the models 80, 820, and 830. The 80 was produced for two years, and 3,500 were produced. It had new features, including power steering and dual hydraulics. It developed 68 horsepower (51 kilowatts) and weighed 8,100 pounds (3,700 kilograms). The 80 also corrected the other design flaws within the R, such as using a water pump and radiator pressure cap, and the addition of a center crankshaft main bearing.

The 820 and 830 were similar overall, but also differed in their sheet metal exteriors, fuel tank designs, and color schemes. The 820, a larger version of the 720 and the 720, was basically the same as the 70, except for the model number, and that the sides of the hood are painted John Deere yellow. The 720 was upgraded to the 730 for 1959. The 730 featured more contoured bodywork than the 720, and came with more ergonomic features for the operator. Although the 730 had a short production run, it became one of Deere & Company's most popular models. The 730 also featured power steering and 24-volt electric starter motor, instead of the V4 pony starter engine. The 730 was available in diesel, gasoline, and LPG, as well as in row crop tricycle, row crop wide front, standard tread, and hi crop wide front formats. The 730 is very popular with tractor pulling enthusiasts, because of its weight, power, and slow speed. The 730 was a 59 horsepower (44 kilowatts) tractor at the belt and 54 horsepower (40 kilowatts) at the drawbar.

After making more than one and a quarter (1 ¼) million two-cylinder tractors, Deere & Company switched to four- and six-cylinder engines. Announcement of the change came after seven years of development, and forty million dollars in retooling.

In October 1959, the company showcased a new large 215 horsepower (160 kilowatts) four-wheel drive (4WD), called the 8010, on the Robert Ottilie Seed Farm north of Marshalltown, Iowa. It was shown during the largest farming field days event held in Iowa up to that time. Only one-hundred 8010s were built, and 99 of those were rebuilt at the factory, and re-released as 8020s in 1960.

To introduce its New Generation tractors to all of its dealers in a single day, Deere & Company chartered aeroplanes to fly more than 5,000 people to Dallas, Texas, on August 30, 1961. Deere & Company put their new tractors on display outside the Cotton Bowl, and inside Neiman Marcus. The day would mark the release of a revolutionary line of farm tractors, with sleek new styling by Henry Dreyfuss, that would soon become the standard all other farm tractors would be measured by. [5] These tractors were the 1010, 2010, 3010 and 4010.

These were soon followed by the model 5010 standard introduced in 1962. The 5010 was the first two-wheel drive to exceed 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) at the PTO and drawbar. Designed for the western wheat-lands, the 5010 was never available as a row crop model. In 1963, the 3010 and 4010 were replaced by the 3020 and 4020. The 4020 is one of the most popular tractors Deere & Company has ever made. The year 1965 brought the 5020 standard, which was the industry's most powerful two-wheel-drive model, along with the 1020, 2020, and 54 horsepower (40 kilowatts) model 2510. By 1966, sales of the 4020 accounted for 48% of all John Deere tractor sales. [6] Also that year, the row crop version of the 5020 was introduced.

In the late 1960s, Deere & Company pioneered the roll-over protection structure to protect the driver from injury in the event of a tractor roll-over. John Deere invited the competition to view a demonstration of its new Roll-Guard. Deere recommended that all tractors include this safety feature, and offered to share its design and test data with its competitors. Deere & Company also encouraged farmers to retro-fit their tractors with this safety feature, and offered Roll Guards at cost to farmers who wished to install them on their older New Generation tractors.

In 1968, nine new models appeared: the 820, 920, 1120, 1520, 2520, 4000, 4520, WA-14, and WA-17. The WA-14 and WA-17 were articulated four-wheel-drive tractors. The 4520 was Deere & Company's first turbocharged tractor. The 3020 and 4020 were updated with new features, and the 5020 model had a drawbar power increase to an industry leading 141 horsepower (105 kilowatts). The 4000 was a high horsepower-to-weight tractor, designed to be a "runner" rather than a "lugger". The 4000 used the same engine as the popular 4020, but weighed almost 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms) less. According to Deere & Company, the 4000 could, in the same amount of time, pull a four-bottom plow fast enough to cover the same acreage as a 4020 pulling a five-bottom plow. The John Deere 4000 was also an economy tractor, providing the same horsepower as the 4020, with fewer features and smaller rear axles.

During the 1970s, Deere & Company introduced 36 new models. In 1972, John Deere introduced the Generation II tractors. Generation II was characterized by the optional Sound Guard body, which was the first truly successful integrated tractor cab. This innovative cab was isolated from the tractor by large rubber bushings, which dampened vibrations, and the interior was insulated with foam to reduce noise, and protect the operator from extreme temperatures outside. A foam pad on the firewall and sheets of lead under the dash greatly reduced engine noise inside the cab. The Sound Guard body also featured a rounded front windshield with an integrated door. The door post was in line with the exhaust and air intake pipes, which route through the hood for the best forward visibility possible. Fully integrated heating and air conditioning was standard equipment, and it also featured windshield wipers, a dome light, a red interior lamp to illuminate the gear shift levers and hydraulic controls during nighttime operation, and speakers for an optional AM/FM radio, which many farmers added because they found the cab so quiet they could actually hear it. When it was introduced, it was the quietest tractor cab in the industry, and a vast improvement over the aftermarket cabs that Deere & Company had previously retrofitted to its tractors.

The Generation II tractors also offered other innovative features not available on previous John Deere models, such as a Quad Range transmission that improved on Deere's proven Synchro Range transmission, by adding a high and low gears in each range, and Deere's new Perma-Clutch a wet clutch that would last much longer, virtually the life of the tractor.

  • 1970, the 116 horsepower (87 kilowatts) 4320, the 135 horsepower (101 kilowatts) 4620, and 146 horsepower (109 kilowatts) 7020 were introduced
  • 1970 in Argentina, introduced the local-made 20 series, with the 1420, [7] 2420, [8] 3420, [9] and 4420 [10]
  • 1971, the 60 horsepower (45 kilowatts) 2030, the 175 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 6030, and 7520 (also at 175 horsepower (130 kilowatts)) were added
  • 1972, on Saturday August 19, John Deere dealers held an open house to usher in their 'Generation II' tractors. The four new tractors were the 80 horsepower (60 kilowatts) 4030, 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 4230, 125 horsepower (93 kilowatts) 4430 and 150 horsepower (110 kilowatts) 4630 there were billed as "Sound Idea" tractors because of their innovative Sound Guard Body operators enclosure
  • 1973 would see the final New Generation utility tractors launched the 35 horsepower (26 kilowatts) 830, 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 1530, and 70 horsepower (52 kilowatts) 2630
  • 1974, the first two models in the Generation IIfour-wheel drive range appeared in 1974 in the 215 horsepower (160 kilowatts) 8430 and 275 horsepower (205 kilowatts) 8630
  • 1975 in Argentina, the 30 series was launched with the 2330, [11] 2530, [12] 2730, [13] 3330, [14] 3530, [15] and 4530 [16]
  • 1975, the initial Generation II utility tractors were introduced these were the 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts) 2040, 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts) 2240, 60 horsepower (45 kilowatts) 2440, and 70 horsepower (52 kilowatts) 2640
  • In late 1976, a new 80 horsepower (60 kilowatts) addition as the 2840
  • 1977 saw what came to be known as "Seven in '77" Deere & Company's first compact diesels, the John Deere "Task Master" tractors, were introduced in the 22 horsepower (16 kilowatts) 850 and 27 horsepower (20 kilowatts) 950 other than that, the big news was what Deere & Company called "The New Iron Horses", with more horses and more iron these were the 90 horsepower (67 kilowatts) 4040, 110 horsepower (82 kilowatts) 4240, 130 horsepower (97 kilowatts) 4440, 156 horsepower (116 kilowatts) 4640, and the 180 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 4840, which replaced the 6030. The "Iron Horses" featured an improved Sound Guard Body with more sound proofing, hydraulic seat suspension, and Deere's Personal Posture seat as standard equipment. The 4240, 4440, 4640, and 4840 featured a new engine
  • 1978 brought the 215 horsepower (160 kilowatts) 8440 and 275 horsepower (205 kilowatts) 8640 articulated four wheel drive tractors
  • 1979, late in the year, a third diesel compact was added, the 33 horsepower (25 kilowatts) 1050 it had a turbo diesel engine which was unique in its class. Five new utility tractors were added at the same time, the 41 horsepower (31 kilowatts) 2040, 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts) 2240, 60 horsepower (45 kilowatts) 2440, 70 horsepower (52 kilowatts) 2640, and 81 horsepower (60 kilowatts) 2940 these five new models had a black and yellow "tiger stripe" on both sides of the hood
  • 1979 was the first year for the 40 series in Argentina, because the first model are the John Deere 3440, [17] and continues in the 1980s with the 2140, [18] 3140 / 3140 DT, [19] 3540. [20]

Deere & Company introduced at least 38 new tractors during the 1980s, during a time when at least three other competitors merged, were sold, or went out of business altogether:

  • Two new small compact diesel tractors were added in 1981 these were the PTO 14.5 horsepower (10.8 kilowatts) 650 and PTO 18 horsepower (13 kilowatts) 750. Three new 4WDs came to market in the fall of 1981 these were the 225 horsepower (168 kilowatts) 8450, 290 horsepower (220 kilowatts) 8650, and big 370 horsepower (280 kilowatts) 8850 the 8850 came with the company's biggest engine, the 955 cubic inches (15.65 litres) V8 engine
  • Besides the 8850, the John Deere 844 wheel loader and 990 hydraulic excavator were the only other John Deere products to get this V8 engine also according to Wayne Broehl's 1984 book, about the John Deere's Company, a larger 4WD tractor than the 8850 was supposed to appear but never did
  • In 1982, eleven new 50 series tractors from 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts) up to 192.99 horsepower (143.91 kilowatts) debuted. The 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts) 1250, 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 2150, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 2350, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 2550, 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 2750, 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 2950, 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 4050, 120 horsepower (89 kilowatts) 4250, 140 horsepower (100 kilowatts) 4450, 165 horsepower (123 kilowatts) 4650, and 192.99 horsepower (143.91 kilowatts) 4850. From the 2150 to the 4850 got another industry leading innovation, in the use of castor action mechanical front-wheel drive, which provided 20 percent more pulling power. Like the front tires of a motor grader, this castor action Mechanical Front Wheel Drive (MFWD) had the front tires lean to give a shorter turning radius. John Deere's 50 Series tractors also offered a new power shift transmission, with 15 operating speeds. When tested in Nebraska, the 4850 was the most fuel efficient tractor ever tested over 60 horsepower (45 kilowatts).
  • The following year, 1983 brought in the final two 50 Series tractors namely the 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts) 1450 and 60 horsepower (45 kilowatts) 1650. When tested in Nebraska, the 1650 proved to be the most fuel efficient tractor ever tested. A 4020 shadow, namely the 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 3150 came about in 1985. This was the first John Deere row crop tractor to have MFWD as standard equipment.
  • Three new diesel compacts came to light in 1986 these were the 16 horsepower (12 kilowatts) 655, 20 horsepower (15 kilowatts) 755, 24 horsepower (18 kilowatts) 855 and 900HC. The 900HC was offset like the 2-cylinder M, and was for niche markets. The 655, 755, and 855 all had a hydrostatic drive transmission. The 2355, 2555, 2755, and 2955 were featured as price fighter (economy) tractors in 1986 with less features.
  • The following year, 1987 Deere & Company brought out six new models in the 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 2155, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 2355, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 2555, 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 2755, 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 2955, and 96 horsepower (72 kilowatts) 3155
  • In October 1988, at the dealer meeting in Denver, Colorado, the new 235 horsepower (175 kilowatts) 8560, 300 horsepower (220 kilowatts) 8760, and 370 horsepower (280 kilowatts) 8960 were introduced
  • In early 1989, in Palm Springs, California, six new 55 Series tractors were shown to dealers these were the 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts) 4055, 120 horsepower (89 kilowatts) 4255, 140 horsepower (100 kilowatts) 4455, 156 horsepower (116 kilowatts) 4555, 177 horsepower (132 kilowatts) 4755, and 202 horsepower (151 kilowatts) 4955 the 4555 was an entirely new model which was the same size as the 4640
  • This year also brought the 70 Series gear driven compact diesels these were the 18 horsepower (13 kilowatts) 670, 24 horsepower (18 kilowatts) 770, 28 horsepower (21 kilowatts) 870, 33 horsepower (25 kilowatts) 970, and 38 horsepower (28 kilowatts) 1070.
  • In 1990, Deere & Company introduced a new hydrostatic compact utility tractor: the 955 with a 33 horsepower (25 kilowatts) three-cylinder diesel engine.

5000 series Edit

In what some industry watchers were calling Generation III, the year 1991 brought a glimpse of what Deere & Company tractors of the 1990s would be like. Eight new John Deere tractors were introduced in 1991, starting with the three 5000 Series tractors. These were the 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts) 5200, 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts) 5300, and 60 horsepower (45 kilowatts) 5400. Two new models, the 92 horsepower (69 kilowatts) 3055, and 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 3255 followed.

Deere & Company is manufacturing 5000 Series of tractors at Sanaswadi, Pune, in India the range of products from India are listed below. Additionally, the paint schemes changed in 2007. In 2007, Deere & Company made some horsepower rating changes in otherwise unchanged machines. The 5103 came with a black engine and driveline prior to 2007, when they began painting the engine area all green. These are referred to as black belly's or green belly's. The black belly 5103 was rated at 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts), while as is listed below the green belly 5103 was rated at 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts).

  • 5036C – 35 horsepower (26 kilowatts)
  • 5041C – 41 horsepower (31 kilowatts)
  • 5103 Economy – 35 horsepower (26 kilowatts)
  • 5038D – 38 horsepower (28 kilowatts)
  • 5103 – 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts)
  • 5103S – 42 horsepower (31 kilowatts)
  • 5104 – 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts)
  • 5203S – 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts)
  • 5204 – 50 horsepower (37 kilowatts)
  • 5210 – 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts)
  • 5310 – 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts)
  • 5310 MFWD – 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts)
  • 5410 – 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts)
  • 5510 MFWD – 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts)

60 series Edit

For 1992 model year, Deere & Company introduced the 160 horsepower (120 kilowatts) 4560, the 175 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 4760, and 202 horsepower (151 kilowatts) 4960. They were nearly identical to the 4555, 4755, and 4955 they replaced, with the improvements being improved lighting and safety, [21] hood free of the air intake and exhaust pipe, which was moved to the right corner post of the cab on the 60 Series tractors, and an improved cab entry step with handrail.

6000 and 7000 series Edit

In the fall of 1992, six totally new 6000 and 7000 Series tractors were introduced by Deere & Company [22] the 62 horsepower (46 kilowatts) 6200, 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 6300, 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 6400, 110 horsepower (82 kilowatts) 7600, 125 horsepower (93 kilowatts) 7700, and 146 horsepower (109 kilowatts) 7800. Also the cabs were completely redesigned for better visibility and operator comfort John Deere's new cabs were a significant improvement over the Sound Guard body which had set the industry standard for two decades.

70 series Edit

The spring of 1993, Deere & Company introduced the four new 70 Series Power Plus 4WD models these were the 250 horsepower (190 kilowatts) 8570, 300 horsepower (220 kilowatts) 8770, and a new model, the 350 horsepower (260 kilowatts) 8870. And the first 400 horsepower (300 kilowatts) tractor, the 8970. These tractors were equipped with an electronic power bulge that would kick in when tough field conditions were encountered. Later in the summer, the 3055 and 3255 were replaced with the 92 horsepower (69 kilowatts) 7200 and 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 7400.

8000 series Edit

1994 was a red letter year in tractor development for Deere & Company, because that year brought about the most revolutionary row crop tractors the industry had seen up to then. 1994 was the last year of the Sound Guard body from John Deere, with the last one built being a 2WD 4760 model. It was manufactured on 1994 May 25. This ended a 22 year run for Sound Guard tractors, that were widely regarded as the most successful tractors ever built.

  • The new 8000 Series tractors were introduced with state-of-the-art features the 160 horsepower (120 kilowatts) 8100, 180 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 8200, 200 horsepower (150 kilowatts) 8300, and 225 horsepower (168 kilowatts) 8400. One lone utility tractor, the 73 horsepower (54 kilowatts) 5500 was added in the fall of 1995.

TEN series upgrades Edit

1996 saw thirteen (13) new tractors debuted at a big John Deere dealer meeting in New Mexico.

  • First, all of the 7000 Series tractors were replaced the five 7000 TEN series tractors these were the 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 7210, 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts) 7410, 115 horsepower (86 kilowatts) 7610, 130 horsepower (97 kilowatts) 7710, and 150 horsepower (110 kilowatts) 7810
  • But the big news came with the 8000T Series rubber belted track tractors there were the 8100T, 8200T, 8300T, and 8400T these built upon the 8000 Series wheeled tractors
  • The 70 Series tractors were replaced by the four 9000 Series tractors, at 260 horsepower (190 kilowatts), 310 horsepower (230 kilowatts), 360 horsepower (270 kilowatts), and 425 horsepower (317 kilowatts) these were the 9100, 9200, 9300, and 9400
  • 1997 brought seven new tractors, three in the Advantage Series, and four in the 5000 TEN series models. The three Advantage models were the 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 6405, 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 6605, and 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts) 7405. The 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 5210, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 5310, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 5410, and 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 5510 represent the 5000 TEN series tractors.
  • The spring of 1998 revealed the four 6000 TEN tractors [22] the 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 6110, 72 horsepower (54 kilowatts) 6210, 80 horsepower (60 kilowatts) 6310, and 90 horsepower (67 kilowatts) 6410. Another new addition to the long green range in 1998 was the six 4000 Series compact diesel engined tractors these were the 20 horsepower (15 kilowatts) 4100, 21.5 horsepower (16.0 kilowatts) 4200, 32 horsepower (24 kilowatts) 4300, 36 horsepower (27 kilowatts) 4400, 39 horsepower (29 kilowatts) 4500, and 43 horsepower (32 kilowatts) 4600. An Advantage Series 30 horsepower (22 kilowatts) 790 compact diesel engined tractor was also added.

T tracked versions Edit

During the fall of 1998, Deere & Company had a 360 horsepower (270 kilowatts) prototype 9300T track tractor at at least three farm shows. During August 1999, the company had another dealer meeting in Moline, Illinois. It was here that the 360 horsepower (270 kilowatts) 9300T, and 425 horsepower (317 kilowatts) 9400T were revealed to their John Deere dealers. A 115 horsepower (86 kilowatts) 7510 with full four-wheel drive was added. As a result, the 7610 was uprated to 120 horsepower (89 kilowatts), and 7710 up to 135 horsepower (101 kilowatts). The 8000/8000T Series tractors were replaced with the 165 horsepower (123 kilowatts) 8110/8110T, 185 horsepower (138 kilowatts) 8210/8210T, 205 horsepower (153 kilowatts) 8310/8310T, and 235 horsepower (175 kilowatts) 8410/8410T.

  • In the Compact utility sector, the John Deere 790 at 27 horsepower (20 kilowatts), similar to the previous 770, and the 990 at 41 horsepower (31 kilowatts) were introduced by Deere & Company. The 990 was a combination of the old 1050 and the previous 970. They would last until 2007, at which time John Deere re-badged them. They exist in 2012 as the 3005 (790) and the 4005 (990). In the compact and now subcompact segment, these are all that is left that is not hydrostatic.
  • The year 2000 was not an active year for new Deere & Company tractor launches, but did yield the 48 horsepower (36 kilowatts) 4700. But the year 2001 produced thirty-two (32) new green-and-yellow tractors. Starting with the 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts) 990 Advantage Series compact diesel tractor, this was only the beginning. Two new 5005 Series Advantage were also added these were the 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 5105 and 53 horsepower (40 kilowatts) 5205.
  • Early in 2001, Deere & Company introduced the 5020 Series utility tractors these were the 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 5220, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 5320, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 5420, and 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 5520. But the big news for Deere & Company came in August 2001, in a John Deere dealer meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where twenty-four (24) new tractors from 65 to 450 horsepower (48 to 336 kilowatts) were introduced specifically, these were the 6003, 6020, 8020/8020T, 9020, and 9020T Series tractors.
  • These were the 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 6403, 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 6603, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 6120, 72 horsepower (54 kilowatts) 6220, 80 horsepower (60 kilowatts) 6320, 90 horsepower (67 kilowatts) 6420, in the smaller 6000 Series tractors
  • In the row crop tractor, the ten models were the 170 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 8120/8120T, 190 horsepower (140 kilowatts) 8220/8220T, 215 horsepower (160 kilowatts) 8320/8320T, 235 horsepower (175 kilowatts) 8420/8420T, and 256 horsepower (191 kilowatts) 8520/8520T. As has been the case since 1996, Deere & Company has been the only company to offer row crop tractors in both wheel and rubber tracks.
  • Deere & Company replaced the 9000 Series 4WD with the 280 horsepower (210 kilowatts) 9120, 325 horsepower (242 kilowatts) 9220, 375 horsepower (280 kilowatts) 9320/9320T, 425 horsepower (317 kilowatts) 9420/9420T, and the largest John Deere tractor in history up to that point, the 450 horsepower (340 kilowatts) 9520/9520T. The 8020/9020 tractors got features like independent link suspension and ActiveSeat, to give the driver a more comfortable and productive day in the field.

4000 TEN upgrade Edit

  • 2002, Deere & Company introduced nine new 4000 TEN Series tractors
    • 1st quarter, the 20 horsepower (15 kilowatts) 4110, 18 horsepower (13 kilowatts) 4010, 20 horsepower (15 kilowatts) 4115, 28 horsepower (21 kilowatts) 4210, 32 horsepower (24 kilowatts) 4310, 35 horsepower (26 kilowatts) 4410, 39 horsepower (29 kilowatts) 4510, 44 horsepower (33 kilowatts) 4610, and 48 horsepower (36 kilowatts) 4710
    • 3rd quarter, the smaller 7020 Series tractors debuted these went from 95 to 125 horsepower (71 to 93 kilowatts), and were the 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 7220, 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts) 7320, 115 horsepower (86 kilowatts) 7420, and 125 horsepower (93 kilowatts) 7520. Also added were the 6015 Series, which were the 72 horsepower (54 kilowatts) 6215, 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 6415, 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 6615, and 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts) 6715.

    500 hp models arrive Edit

    One thing the John Deere dealers in attendance at Columbus saw that did not appear at 'Deere.com' until March 2004 was the new 500 horsepower (370 kilowatts) 9620. The 9620 came after two of Deere & Company competitors introduced 500 horsepower (370 kilowatts) 4WDs.

    7×20 series Edit

    In Columbus, Ohio, Deere & Company announced the replacement of the three larger 7000 TEN tractors namely the 140 horsepower (100 kilowatts) 7720, 155 horsepower (116 kilowatts) 7820, and the new 170 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 7920 the 7610 was discontinued.

    • 2004 brought the 36 horsepower (27 kilowatts) 4120, 40 horsepower (30 kilowatts) 4320, 47 horsepower (35 kilowatts) 4520, and 52 horsepower (39 kilowatts) 4720. October had the 5025 Series utility tractor introduced these were the 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 5225, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 5325, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 5425, and 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 5525.
    • In 2005, Deere & Company introduced fifteen (15) new tractors the first models were the 3020 Series tractors the 29.5 horsepower (22.0 kilowatts) 3120, 32.5 horsepower (24.2 kilowatts) 3320, 37 horsepower (28 kilowatts) 3520, and 41 horsepower (31 kilowatts) 3720 also added was the PTO 18 horsepower (13 kilowatts) 2305
    • In the late summer, the 9320, 9420 and 9520 were made into scraper specials to meet a niche market. The annual dealer convention was held in Fort Worth, Texas in August 2005, where the company brought out the 8030/8030T Series row crop tractors there were five wheeled models and three tracked models.
    • The following were introduced the 180 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 8130, 200 horsepower (150 kilowatts) 8230, 225 horsepower (168 kilowatts) 8330, 250 horsepower (190 kilowatts) 8430, 277 horsepower (207 kilowatts) 8530, 200 horsepower (150 kilowatts) 8230T, 235 horsepower (175 kilowatts) 8330T, and 255 horsepower (190 kilowatts) 8430T when tested in Nebraska the 8430 was tested as the most fuel efficient row crop tractor ever tested. [citation needed]

    2006 Edit

    The Deere & Company annual dealer meeting was held in Omaha, Nebraska the launches included:

    • The 32 horsepower (24 kilowatts) 3203, and 74 horsepower (55 kilowatts) 5403
    • The Omaha get together produced the smaller 6030 Premium, and the larger 7030 Series tractors
      • 6030 Series of the 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 6230, 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 6330, and 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 6430
      • 7030 Series of the 140 horsepower (100 kilowatts) 7630, 152 horsepower (113 kilowatts) 7730, 165 horsepower (123 kilowatts) 7830, and 180 horsepower (130 kilowatts) 7930.

      2007 Edit

      In 2007, Deere & Company released thirty-two (32) new tractor models the year began with the introduction of the 5603 and 5625, both these are 82 horsepower (61 kilowatts), and are a further extension of the 5003 and 5025 Series tractors.

      • A new series of 5003 tractors launched in the summer, consisting of the 38 horsepower (28 kilowatts) 5103, 47 horsepower (35 kilowatts) 5203, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 5303, and 64 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 5403.

      The Deere & Company big meeting was held in August 2007 in Cincinnati, Ohio the John Deere dealers saw four new nursery and greenhouse tractors, which would not appear on the 'Deere.com' website until February 5, 2008 these would be the:

      • 21 horsepower (16 kilowatts) 20A, 76 horsepower (57 kilowatts) 76F, 83 horsepower (62 kilowatts) 85F, and 96 horsepower (72 kilowatts) 100F PTO horsepower on these four tractors are 17 horsepower (13 kilowatts), 66 horsepower (49 kilowatts), 73 horsepower (54 kilowatts), and 83 horsepower (62 kilowatts) respectively.

      At the Cincinnati dealer meeting, the dealers also saw the regular 6030 / 7030, and the Premium 6030 Series tractors:

      • The 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 6230, 85 horsepower (63 kilowatts) 6330, 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts) 6430, 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 7130, 110 horsepower (82 kilowatts) 7230, and 125 horsepower (93 kilowatts) 7330 the only difference between the two series was that the Premium Series had the 140 horsepower (100 kilowatts) 7430
      • But the biggest tractors seen in this Cincinnati meeting were the 9030 Series 4WD tractors between 325 to 530 horsepower (242 to 395 kilowatts): the 325 horsepower (242 kilowatts) 9230, 375 horsepower (280 kilowatts) 9330, 425 horsepower (317 kilowatts) 9430/9430T, 475 horsepower (354 kilowatts) 9530/9530T, and 530 horsepower (400 kilowatts) 9630/9630T
      • The 280 horsepower (210 kilowatts) 9120 was discontinued
      • The 9430, 9530, and 9630 were also available as scraper tractor models
      • The new compact 40.4 horsepower (30.1 kilowatts) 4105 was in John Deere dealer lots in late December 2007.

      2008 Edit

      In early 2008, Deere & Company introduced another compact diesel engined tractor, the 27 horsepower (20 kilowatts) 3005, which is essentially an updated John Deere 870. Followed by the new 31 engine PTO 23.5 horsepower (17.5 kilowatts) 2720 later in the year.

      On the back of the John Deere publication The Furrow (Summer 2008) is a signup [ clarification needed ] for new equipment. Deere & Company had another dealer meeting in late July 2008, to introduce many new utility tractors. But the real announcement came with John Deere introducing a new worldwide numbering scheme for the entire range of compact and agricultural tractors.

      Power ratings / model numbers Edit

      From the 2008 model year range, Deere & Company nomenclature on the engine horsepower output for individual models will now be advertised in official literature and online using the metric system per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 97/68/EC standard for determining net rated engine drawbar power output the metric horsepower value will be used in the model name.

      • The first digit will state size [clarification needed]
      • The next three will state rated engine output in metric horsepower
      • A new letter will be added (currently D, E, or M) to state specification level:
        • R being a high specification machine (like the Premium series in the 6000 and 7000 series)
        • M to denote a mid specification
        • E/D to denote a low-specification, or "value specification", (like the 03 and 05 series in the 6000 and 5000 respectively)

        For example, the new 3032E tractor will be a 3000 with 32 horsepower (24 kilowatts) rated engine the E is low-specification. This tractor represents the 2007 model year 3203 for its specification, not to be mistaken for the 3320 which has the same horsepower but more features and at a higher price. Over the next few years, all tractors will get this scheme. The issue is that Deere is using rated engine horsepower in the name, not PTO horsepower, which is usually less.

        2008 models (new nomenclature) Edit

        In 2008, the first John Deere tractors to get the new naming scheme were the 5D, 5E, 5E Limited edition, and the 6D Series tractors. These tractors were introduced at the annual Deere & Company dealer meeting this year's event was held in Denver, Colorado.

        • 5D – range of the 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 5045D, and 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 5055D the PTO horsepower ratings are 37 horsepower (28 kilowatts) and 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) respectively the 5D tractors are only available in two-wheel drive
        • 5E – range of the 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts) 5045E, 55 horsepower (41 kilowatts) 5055E, 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts) 5065E, and 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts) 5075E the PTO horsepower ratings are the 37 horsepower (28 kilowatts), 45 horsepower (34 kilowatts), 53 horsepower (40 kilowatts), and 61 horsepower (45 kilowatts) respectively the 5E Limited come with MFWD-mechanical front-wheel drive
        • 5E Limited tractors – which are the 83 horsepower (62 kilowatts) 5083E, 93 horsepower (69 kilowatts) 5093E, and 101 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 5101E the PTO horsepower ratings are 65 horsepower (48 kilowatts), 75 horsepower (56 kilowatts), and 82 horsepower (61 kilowatts) respectively the 5E tractor are available in both two-wheel drive and MFWD versions.

        The biggest John Deere tractors in the new range were the 100 to 140 horsepower (75 to 104 kilowatts) 6D models.

        • 6D – range of the 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) 6100D, 115 horsepower (86 kilowatts) 6115D, 130 horsepower (97 kilowatts) 6130D, and 140 horsepower (100 kilowatts) 6140D PTO horsepower for the four models are 82 horsepower (61 kilowatts), 95 horsepower (71 kilowatts), 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts), and 115 horsepower (86 kilowatts) respectively the 6D is offered in two-wheel drive and MFWD versions.

        According to the 'Deere.com' website, Deere & Company introduced two new diesel engined 3E Series tractors. This pair of new 3E Series tractors is on page two of The Furrow, December 2008 edition. Both new 3E models would appear in early October 2008. These would be the 31 / 25 horsepower (23 / 19 kilowatts) 3032E and 37 / 30 horsepower (28 / 22 kilowatts) 3038E. The 3032E is powered by a 97 cubic inches (1,590 cubic centimetres), while a 91 cubic inches (1,491 cubic centimetres) supply's the power on the 3038E. ProMagazine.com reports that this pair is for house owners who want a tractor that could take on everyday jobs, some features are: diesel engine, twin touch pedals, hydrostatic transmission, standard 4WD, optional cruise control, power steering, a power take-off (PTO) that is electronically engaged.

        2009 models Edit

        On March 17, 2009, Deere.com announced the new 152 horsepower (113 kilowatts) 7530 Premium tractor.

        During the week of August 13, 2009, the company had another big dealer meeting in Omaha, Nebraska, to introduce the new 8R/8RT row crop and track tractors to their dealers. On August 20, 2009, at Deere.com, a news release was posted on the 8R, 8RT, and two new 5105M specialty tractors. Six new green-and-yellow 8R row crop tractors 225 horsepower (168 kilowatts) 8225R, 245 horsepower (183 kilowatts) 8245R, 270 horsepower (200 kilowatts) 8270R, 295 horsepower (220 kilowatts) 8295R, 320 horsepower (240 kilowatts) 8320R, and the 345 horsepower (257 kilowatts) 8345R. PTO ratings are 181 horsepower (135 kilowatts), 198 horsepower (148 kilowatts), 220 horsepower (160 kilowatts), 242 horsepower (180 kilowatts), 263 horsepower (196 kilowatts), and 284 horsepower (212 kilowatts) respectively. The 8225R is the only one available as a two-wheel-drive model. Optional IVT or Powershift transmissions. In John Deere nomenclature, the first number equals size, the next three numbers are the engine horsepower, and the letter at the end stands for capability. The six tractors range from 225 to 345 horsepower (168 to 257 kilowatts), with the 8345R being the most powerful row crop model on the market. Also shown to the dealers were the new 8RT rubber track tractor models. These three models are the 295 horsepower (220 kilowatts) 8295RT, 320 horsepower (240 kilowatts) 8320RT, and the 345 horsepower (257 kilowatts) 8345RT. The T at the end stands for tracks other than that, the numbers in the 8RT Series are the same in their 8R counterparts. PTO horsepower for the three 8RT tractors are 239 horsepower (178 kilowatts), 260 horsepower (190 kilowatts), and 281 horsepower (210 kilowatts) respectively.

        The 8RT models had their fuel capacity to 200 US gallons (760 litres 170 imperial gallons), and can come with track width up to 160 inches (410 centimetres). All nine 8R/8RT tractors are powered by the company's 548 cubic inches (8.98 litres) PowerTech Plus six-cylinder diesel engine. Two other lesser known tractors were also introduced by the company are the 5105ML orchard and poultry tractors. The horsepower is 105 horsepower (78 kilowatts) engine and PTO 90 horsepower (67 kilowatts). One version of the 5105ML comes configured to work in orchards and vineyards, while the other version is a low-profile tractor for work in poultry barns.

        2010 models Edit

        In August 2010, Deere & Company had another dealer meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio, to introduce still more tractors. This was confirmed at Deere.com on August 26, 2010, with the announcement of more new 8R/8RT Series tractors. The new models are 2011 model year tractors, with several improvements. These would be the 8235R, 8260R, 8285R, 8310R, 8335R, and 8360R wheel tractors, ranging from 235 to 360 horsepower (175 to 268 kilowatts) rated engines. The PTO outputs are 192 horsepower (143 kilowatts), 213 horsepower (159 kilowatts), 234 horsepower (174 kilowatts), 250 horsepower (190 kilowatts), 276 horsepower (206 kilowatts), and 296 horsepower (221 kilowatts) for the six tractors. Besides the six wheel tractors, three new 8RT track tractors would also be added. There would be the 310 to 360 horsepower (230 to 270 kilowatts) rated engine 8310RT, 8335RT, and the 8360RT. Power-take off horsepower is 247 horsepower (184 kilowatts),268 horsepower (200 kilowatts), and288 horsepower (215 kilowatts) respectively. One of the major changes with these nine green-and-yellow tractors was the new PowerTech PSX 548 cubic inches (8.98 litres) dual turbocharged diesel. This is an Interim Tier 4 (IT4) diesel engine. On January 1, 2011, EPA Tier 4 regulations began, thus the new PowerTech diesel in these tractors. Despite their competitors going with SCR to counter this, John Deere uses exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). To tell these new 8R tractors apart from the earlier 2010 tractors, John Deere put new wrap-around lights up front. Also the model number has been moved close to the front just off the black grill on both sides. Another characteristic is the new large black muffler on the right corner of the cab. Other improvements engineered into these tractors are JDLink, ActiveCommand Steering (ACS), Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT) AutoMode, GS3 CommandCenter, and the StarFire 3000 receiver.

        In a 2010 October meeting in Florida, John Deere dealers were shown the new 1023E and 1026E sub compact tractors that the company announced in February 2011.

        11 Orgasmatron

        Created as part of a design challenge, the Orgasmatron 3000 combines housework with debauchery, because sometimes having your fluids running down the washing machine is acceptable. I'm not convinced that these were ever produced for consumers, but it's enough that one exists, potentially with seasoned leather all around it to appeal to a lonesome housewife somewhere who has a lot of Tide and whites that need whitening in the dirtiest way possible.

        Fun Website Quote: This leather clad washing machine and saddle aims [to] bring the fun back to housework.


        7 Things To Know About Cavalier King Charles Spaniels

        This gentle, affectionate breed won over royal hearts as early as the 17th century. Cavalier King Charles Spaniels combine the lovable traits of a companion dog with the lively sporting instincts of their ancestors and are beloved, popular pets today. Not convinced? Check out some of the things Cav owners would tell you.

        1. Cavs are toy-sized bundles of love.

        They are one of the friendliest breeds, showering affection on their family and happily getting along with other dogs, kids, cats, and total strangers. In fact, strangers are friends they haven’t met yet.

        2. The beautiful large round eyes are a breed hallmark.

        The warm, dark brown color of their eyes and the cushioning under the eyes create a melting, limpid look which contributes to their gentle expression.

        3. Cavalier King Charles Spaniels makes great therapy dogs.

        Originally bred as companion dogs, it’s only natural that they excel as therapy dogs. If your Cav has a loving, warm temperament and you have the time and dedication to work with him, consider the AKC Therapy Dog Program.

        4. Yes, they’re lapdogs, but they’re also sporting dogs.

        Cavs retain their original hunting instincts and can be off like a shot after small creatures or if they catch a scent. They may be so intent on the chase that even a well-trained dog may not come when called. Best not to let them off-leash when out and about and to have a fenced yard at home.

        5. The Cav is a natural athlete.

        A combination of athleticism and trainability help the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel excel at sports like agility, rally, and obedience.

        6. They’re named for royalty.

        Both King Charles I and his son, Charles II were devotees of the breed. Charles II was so attached to his spaniels that they went with him everywhere. He issued a royal decree that the dogs should be allowed in all public spaces, including Parliament. The breed was even named for the monarch.

        • Multiple ball sizes eliminate the need for multiple ball mounts
        • Adjustable in height for level towing
        • Steel Construction
        • Fits any standard 2", 2.5", or 3" receiver

        What type of plating is on the Tow & Stow ball assembly?

        The Tow & Stow ball assembly is finished with nickel-plated chrome.

        Can I turn the Tow & Stow over in the receiver?

        Yes. If you need rise to better meet the coupler on your trailer, then you can simply turn the hitch upside down in the receiver and use the height adjustment to give you the needed rise.

        What maintenance is recommended for the Tow & Stow?

        Apply white lithium grease to all three Tow & Stow stainless steel pins. Keep the pins clean and lubricated to prevent seizing.

        The pins on my Tow & Stow have frozen in place. How can I prevent this?

        The best way to prevent pins from seizing in place is to keep them clean and regularly apply a thin coating of white lithium grease. Keep in mind that metal parts in contact with each other and exposed to the elements can eventually corrode and rust. Regular maintenance is required.

        What is a Silencer Pad and how does it work?

        A silencer pad is a foam piece that slides over the shank of the Tow & Stow hitch and helps to reduce rattling when the shank is slid into the receiver.

        I see there are two holes in the Tow & Stow shank. How do I know which one to use?

        The pin hole location on different makes of receivers can vary. The two holes in the Tow & Stow shank offer some adaptability. Under normal circumstances, it’s best to have the shank slid as far into the receiver as possible, both from a strength standpoint and because it makes theft of the hitch assembly more difficult, providing a locking pin is used in the receiver and shank.

        Can I use a sway-bar with the Tow & Stow?

        No. Sway-bar systems, along with weight distribution systems, utilize specialized attachment pieces to connect to the hitch receiver that are not compatible with the Tow & Stow.

        The pins on my Tow & Stow were lost/stolen. How do I go about getting new ones?

        Replacement pins and clips can be purchased through a dealer or ordered through B&W.

        How Do I Determine Vertical Tow Weight (VTW)?

        With your trailer loaded and hitched up, pull just your vehicle onto a commecial scale, making sure the trailer is not on the scale. Weigh your vehicle with the trailer attached and note that weight.

        Next, unhook the trailer and jack up the trailer until there is no trailer weight on the hitch. Make sure the trailer jack is not on the scale. Record that weight of only the truck. This is your Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW).

        Now subtract your GVW from the weight with the trailer attached. This will give you your Vertical Tow Weight

        How do I know which Tow & Stow hitch model I should purchase?

        For most vehicles, the Model 6 is the appropriate Tow & Stow hitch. However, if you have a vehicle with oversized tires, a lift kit, or a trailer that is not at the same relative height as your receiver, you may need a Model 8 or Model 10. The following diagram depicts how to calculate what is commonly referred to as 'drop.'

        Hitch (toy) - History

        J. I. Case and Company – one of the oldest tractor builders – began the 50s selling one of the oldest tractor lines, a line that had been introduced a decade earlier. Over the next 20 years, they developed and introduced four new series of tractors.

        • The Letter Series. At the bottom of this lineup was the Model "VC" rated at 18 horsepower on the drawbar. The Model "SC" was rated at 27 HP. Both of these models were sold between 1940 and 1955. The V series was updated first to the VC and then the VA series in 1942. The row-crop version, the "VAC," was advertised as "The Tractor for over 100 Farm Jobs." The Model "DC" had been introduced in 1939, and had 33 HP. The Model "LA" was the largest Case tractor of the time with 51 HP. It was sold between 1940 and '53.
        • The Hundred Series. When Case began to modernize their lineup, the started in 1953 with their first diesel engine tractor, the Model "500." The "500" produced 56 HP on the drawbar and became a respected engine. Two years later, Case brought out the "400" series tractors with 44 HP, and the "300" with 23 HP. From 1956-58, the offered the Model "350" with 42 HP. Then, in 1957, the Model "600" joined the lineup.
        • Construction Tractors. In 1957, Case purchased the American Tractor Corporation, a small privately-held company that had developed a backhoe attachment. Case took the hydraulic backhoe apparatus, put a hydraulic loader on the front and married them to several of their tractor models, and a new market was established. The Case Model "320" was the first factory-integrated tractor loader/backhoe. Over the years, these construction models have become big sellers.
        • The "B" Series. From 1958-60, Case offered the "B" series in 12 different power ratings (depending on fuel types) and 124 model configurations to service row crop farmers, rice growers, orchard men, industrialists and other special needs. The line included the "200B" with 26 HP, the "300B" with 28 HP, the "400B" with 31 HP, the "500B" with 39 HP, the "600B" with 41 HP, the "700B" at 46 HP, the "800B" at 49 HP, and the "900B" with 66 HP.
        • The "30" Series. In 1960, Case introduced a new lineup that would stay in their dealers' showrooms until 1969. Each tractor in the lineup got a power boost, better transmissions and the option of a three-point hitch. The "330" offered around 31 HP, the "430" had 33 HP, the "530" had around 36 HP, the "630" came in at 40 HP, the "730" at 48 HP, the "830" at 56 HP, and the "930" at 75 HP.
        • The high horsepower tractors. Later in the decade, Case joined the horsepower sweepstakes. In 1964, the brought out the Case "1200," a huge four-wheel drive and four-wheel-steering machine with 106 HP. It weighed over 17,000 pounds and cost over $20,000, so it was useful only to big farmers who had a lot of plowing to do. It was built until 1969. The Model "1030" was built between 1966 and '69 and was a general purpose tractor with 92 HP.
        • The "70" Series. In 1969, Case closed out the decade with the "70" Series that became the backbone of the company in the new decade. The series was topped by the massive Model "2670" that produced 219 HP at the PTO. [We will cover this series in more detail in the next section of this web site.]

        J. I. Case Company began in 1842 to build threshing machines for farmers. Over the years, they expanded their implement and tractor lines often by buying other companies. Along the way, Case, and most other farm equipment manufacturers brought out industrial versions of their tractors.

        But Case took the industrial market to a new level. By 1967 – after the introduction of their backhoe model – the construction division of the company was selling as much as the agricultural division. Around that time, the venerable old ag manufacturer was acquired by the energy conglomerate Tenneco Inc. of Houston. That launched a period of consolidation in the agricultural market that characterized the last quarter of the 20th century.

        Written by Bill Ganzel, the Ganzel Group. First published in 2007. A partial bibliography of sources is here.


        In Europe, the origins of travel trailers and caravanning can be traced back to the travelling Romani people, and showmen who spent most of their lives in horse-drawn caravans. Samuel White Baker purchased an actual Gypsy caravan in Britain and shipped it to Cyprus for his tour in 1879. [5] The world's first leisure trailer was built by the Bristol Wagon & Carriage Works in 1880 for Dr. William Gordon Stables, a popular author of teenage adventure fiction, who ordered a "gentleman's caravan". It was an 18-foot (5.5 m) design, based upon their Bible Wagons, [6] used by traveling preachers in America's Wild West. [7] Stables named it Wanderer. [8] He travelled around the British countryside in it and later wrote a book documenting his travels in 1885 called The Gentleman Gypsy. This moved the Duke of Newcastle to commission his own caravan, The Bohemian. [7]

        By the turn of the century, caravanning for leisure had become an increasingly popular activity. In 1901, the first dedicated caravanning club was established. The Camping and Caravanning Club (originally the Association of Cycle Campers) was founded by Thomas Hiram Holding, the father of modern camping. The Caravan Club was founded in 1907 with Stables as its vice president. [9] Its stated aim was to ". bring together those interested in van life as a pastime. to improve and supply suitable vans and other appliances. and to arrange camping grounds." [10] Caravanning gained popularity in North America in the 1920s.

        Modern travel trailers come in a range of sizes, from tiny two-berth trailers with no toilet and only basic kitchen facilities, to large, triple-axle, six-berth types.

        Romani caravan Edit

        Caravans, particularly the vardo, have served both as a significant cultural icon and symbol of the nomadic Gypsies. Until the early 19th century, Romani caravans served primarily as a means of transport and not as a domicile. [11] At the beginning of the 19th century, more Romani people began to live in their caravans instead of sleeping in tents. The caravan offered greater protection from weather conditions and could be outfitted with modern amenities such as wood-burning stoves. [11] Often, caravans were commissioned to be built at the request of newlywed couples and their families. The small-scale, pre-industrial methods of the builders and the labour-intensive nature of the building process meant that a family's caravan could take up to a year to build. [11]

        Trailer caravan is defined in ISO Standard 3833:1977, Road vehicles – Types – Terms and definitions, term No [12]

        Travel trailer Edit

        In the United States and Canada, the history of travel trailers can be traced back to the early 1920s, when those who enjoyed their use were often referred to as 'tin can tourists'. [13] As time progressed, trailers became more liveable and earned a new name in the 1930s and 1940s, which was the house trailer. [14] In the 1950s and 1960s, the industry seemed to split, creating the two types that we see today, that of the recreational vehicle (RV) industry and mobile home industry. Today travel trailers are classified as a type of RV along with motorhomes, fifth-wheel trailers, pop-up trailers, and truck campers.

        Smaller travel trailers and pop-ups are still made with touring in mind. These generally are less than 18 feet (5.5 m) long and contain simple amenities. By design, they are lightweight and quick to set up or prepare for travel. Most weigh less than 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) and can be towed with a large car or small truck depending upon its towing capacity. Lightweight pop-up trailers weighing less than 700 pounds (320 kg), such as the Combi-camper and Kamparoo can be towed even by small economy cars. Some exceptionally light travel trailers can be pulled by motorcycle or even bicycle. [15] Fiberglass body construction entered the U.S. scene in 1971 with the introduction of the first U.S.-produced mini travel trailer, called the Playpac.

        The Playpac, invented by Steven Whysel, was the answer to the needs of the growing horde of VW "Bug" and other small-car owners who wanted a hard-shelled camper, light enough to be pulled by a small car. It came with a private water closet, shower, and the ability to sleep six. Its ultramodern aerodynamic styling and domed skylight by the modernist industrial designer Toshihiko Sakow made it an instant hit. It was short-lived, however (1971–1973), as the first Arab Oil Embargo and the ensuing major slow-down of RV sales caused it to cease operations. The Boler travel trailer, was developed in Canada in 1968, soon joined the Playpac in the U.S. fiberglass light-weight class. The Hunter and Amerigo travel trailers were also on the scene by then.

        Mid-range travel trailers are 18 to 25 feet (5.5 to 7.6 m) long, can weigh 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) or more, and are generally towed with compact pickup trucks and SUVs. They have most of the amenities of the larger travel trailers, but sleep fewer people.

        Larger travel trailers are made with the seasonal or full-time user in mind. These generally range from 25 to 40 feet (7.6 to 12.2 m) long and contain all the comforts of a luxury condominium. These amenity-laden models can reach 12,000 pounds (5,400 kg) or more, requiring a purpose-built tow vehicle, highway tractor or large truck or SUV. While trailers may weigh in even above that, most long-bed pickups have a maximum tow-weight of 15,500 pounds (7,000 kg). Multiple televisions and air conditioners are common in units of this size. Slide-out rooms and screen porches add to livability. By law, [ citation needed ] travel trailers are limited to 400 square feet (37 m 2 ) of living area, and many models offer exactly that plus any optional slide-outs.

        With all of the disincentives inherent in municipal zoning bylaws and building codes to affordable, ecological (off-grid) and compact housing solutions, travel-trailers offer a possibility for those considering an ecological full-time home or seasonal cottage. Travel-trailers are often acceptable on flood-plains, areas outside of urban growth limits, etc. where regular buildings are not allowed. Among the virtues of a trailer park are its light infrastructure, low ecological footprint, minimal land disturbance, abundant permeable surfaces (for stormwater drainage), and ease of site restoration.

        Some specialized brands of trailer, such as the hi-lo trailer, have an upper half (slightly larger than the lower half) that can be folded down over the lower half to a total height of about five feet for reduced wind resistance during travel these otherwise contain everything other travel trailers have (except for a full-height closet).

        An innovation in travel trailers is the hybrid travel trailer, combining the features of a pop-up and a hard-sided trailer. In its camping configuration, one or more bunks fold down from the side with canvas tent covers. When travelling, the bunks fold up, leaving four hard sides. Larger models allow the hybrid travel trailer to be used while "turtled", that is with the sides up. The primary advantage of a hybrid travel trailer is it offers a greater space-to-weight ratio. A disadvantage is the tent ends are not insulated and subject to heat loss and condensation.

        In the United States, it is generally illegal for passengers to ride in a travel trailer, while in motion, [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] unlike horse-drawn trailers and coaches. Triple towing (towing two trailers) is not allowed in some U.S. states, such as California, [16] Alabama, [19] Florida, [20] or New York [18] however, triple towing is permitted in Texas if the combined length does not exceed 65 feet (20 m). [17]

        Fifth-wheel trailer Edit

        A fifth-wheel is a travel trailer supported by a hitch in the center of the bed of a pickup truck instead of a hitch at the back of a vehicle. The special hitch used for fifth-wheels is a smaller version of the one used on 18-wheeler trucks and can be connected by simply driving (backing) the tow vehicle under the trailer. Fifth wheel trailers are popular with full-time recreational vehicle enthusiasts, who often live in them for several months in one place, using their pickup truck tow vehicle for local errands. A fifth wheel trailer tows more securely than a traditional travel trailer because the hitch weight sits directly over the pickup truck's rear axle/tires. Since part of a fifth wheel sits in the bed of the pickup, it reduces the overall length of the vehicle/trailer package while allowing the same room as a comparable length travel trailer. Additionally, the hitch's location in the pickup's bed reduces the risk of jackknifing and allows for more maneuverability when backing. Because of the greater room available on the roads in North America, these vehicles are more popular in the United States and Canada than in Europe or other parts of the world. For uneven terrain a gooseneck hitch is an option to fifth-wheel.

        The downside is that the hitch takes up room in the pickup truck's cargo bed regardless of whether the trailer is hitched or not. The hitch can be unbolted from the bed but this takes a lot more time and effort than the unhitch operation.

        Off-road trailer Edit

        Off-road travel trailers, also called 4x4 trailers, tentrax, [21] and jeep trailers, are built specifically for exploring the extreme backcountry without having the restriction of paved highways or gravel roads. These travel trailers are designed to handle rough terrain. [22] Many off-road travel trailers are equipped with a tent and bed, a skid plate, large tires and long stroke Independent suspensions, lift kits, and articulation systems.

        Toy hauler Edit

        An innovation in the travel trailer types is the "toy hauler" or "toy box". Half living area and half garage, these trailers allow "toys" to be brought to the countryside. A folding rear ramp give access for motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, personal watercraft or racecars. A generator provides power for the equipment.

        Double-decker trailer Edit

        A double-decker trailer is a two-level travel trailer. When traveling the trailer is only as high as a regular trailer, but when set up it increases in height to two full levels. Built by Jexcar and others, they are often used in motion picture production as portable dressing rooms.

        The National Caravan Council estimates that the caravan industry which includes motorhomes, touring caravans (caravans designed to be hitched to a car and towed to a site) and static caravans and mobile homes (caravans designed to be transported to a permanent site, where they are anchored to the ground) is now worth over £1bn (€1.5bn/US$1.7bn) to the British economy alone with the manufacture of caravans worth in excess of £650m (€975bn/US$1.1bn). The growth in popularity of caravanning has been enhanced by improvements in caravan quality and caravan site facilities, making caravan holidays possible at any time of the year.

        There are two main organisations that many caravanners join in the United Kingdom, the Caravan and Motorhome Club, established in 1907, and the Camping and Caravanning Club, established in 1901. Both clubs offer a range of services including exclusive club sites, preferential rates, advice, services such as insurance and community activities including regional and national rallies.

        In the UK Caravan Insurance is not a compulsory addition, but is however recommended due to its levels of speciality cover.

        Under tax regulations, caravans are considered wasting chattel and are exempt from capital gains tax. [23]

        In Australia, camper trailers are common alongside the traditional caravan. Camper trailers differentiate themselves from similar products due to their ability to go off-road. They feature large water holding tanks, batteries for electricity and off-road suspension.

        A mid-range, modern travel trailer may contain the following features:

          , some of which convert to daytime seating
      • Electricity supplied by battery or external hookup /electric powered refrigerator
      • Gas/electric powered stove, oven and grill
      • Gas/electric powered water heater
      • Powered wheel mover system (integrated or clip-on) to enable parking once unhitched
      • Radio/CD/DVD/MP3 player aerial/satellite dish with removable blackwater (sewage) disposal tank and flush-water tank
      • Slide-outs, which extend the width of a room or space, such as a 4 foot x 7 foot dinette or bedroom extension
      • Travel trailers (especially North American ones) may also contain the following:

        Due to the 50 mph (80 km/h) maximum speed limit on single carriageways for caravans [24] on the United Kingdom's crowded and often narrow roads, caravans are seen as a nuisance by some motorists. The motoring journalist and presenter Jeremy Clarkson is well known for his gleeful hatred of caravans, [25] and has physically destroyed several of them on the BBC television programme Top Gear since the show's relaunch in 2002, leading to complaints from the caravan community. [26] [27] [28] [29]

        Watch the video: Homemade Receiver Hitch Crane


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