David Julievich Dallin

David Julievich Dallin

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David Julievich Dallin was born in Rogachev, Russia, in 1889. Dallin became a socialist and was a supporter of the 1905 Russian Revolution. While studying at the University of St. Petersburg he became involved in anti-tsarist political activity. Dallin was arrested in 1909 and after two years of imprisonment he moved to Germany. He studied at the University of Berlin and obtained his doctorate in Economics from the University of Heidelberg in 1913.

After Tsar Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917, Dallin returned to Russia, where he joined the Mensheviks. When Lenin returned to Russia on 3rd April, 1917, he announced what became known as the April Theses. Lenin attacked those Bolsheviks who had supported the Provisional Government. Instead, he argued, revolutionaries should be telling the people of Russia that they should take over the control of the country. In his speech, Lenin urged the peasants to take the land from the rich landlords and the industrial workers to seize the factories. Some Mensheviks such as Leon Trotsky and Alexandra Kollontai, agreed with this view and now joined the Bolsheviks.

Dallin and the Mensheviks were united in their opposition to the Russian Revolution. In the elections for the Constituent Assembly in November, 1917, they obtained 1,700,000 votes compared to the Bolsheviks (9,000,000) and the Socialist Revolutionaries (16,500,000). However, Dallin did win his election to serve on the Moscow City Soviet in 1918.

Dallin did support the Red Army against the White Army during the Russian Civil War, however, he continued to denounce the persecution of liberal newspapers, the nobility, the Cadets and the Socialist Revolutionaries. The Mensheviks, along with other opposition parties, were banned after the Kronstadt Rising. Faced with the prospect of arrest, Dallin fled to Germany.

In 1933 Adolf Hitler took power in Nazi Germany. Soon afterwards the Communist Party and the Social Democrat Party were banned. Party activists still in the country were arrested and by the end of the year over 150,000 political prisoners were in concentration camps. Dallin decided it was only a matter of time before he was arrested and therefore he moved to Poland.

In August 1939, a group of concentration camp prisoners were dressed in Polish uniforms, shot and then placed just inside the German border. Hitler claimed that Poland was attempting to invade Germany. On 1st September, 1939, the German Army was ordered into Poland. Dallin managed to escape arrest and by 1940 he had arrived in the United States. Soon afterwards he married Lilia Estrin, who had been active in Paris as a member of the Left Opposition that published the Bulletin of the Opposition, the journal "which fought against Stalinist reaction for the continuity of Marxism in the Communist International".

Mark Zborowski, posing as a supporter of Leon Trotsky, but actually an NKVD agent, arrived in New York City in 1941. He immediately made contact with David Dallin and his wife Lilia Estrin. They helped him find employment at a factory in Brooklyn and set him up in an apartment. A few months later he moved to a more expensive home at 201 West 108th Street, where the Dallins also lived. It was later discovered that the NKVD were paying Zborowski to spy on the Dallins.

Dallin became friends with a group of anti-Stalinist socialists that included Isaac Don Levine, Max Eastman and Eugene Lyons. In 1943 he was approached by Victor Kravchenko, who was working for the Soviet Purchasing Commission in Washington, an organization that was involved in implementing the Lend Lease agreement. As John V. Fleming has pointed out: "The volumes of Lend-Lease shipments were so large that the Russians required for their administration what was essentially a corporate headquarters on Sixteenth Street in Washington. A large staff of military and industrial experts, technicians, accountants, purchasing agents, transportation consultants, engineers, translators, chauffeurs, police agents, and secretaries worked there." His job was of supervising and expediting the shipment of industrial products. Kravchenko told Dallin that he wanted to defect and so it was arranged for him to have a meeting with the FBI.

Kravchenko told the FBI that the Washington office of Soviet Purchasing Commission was under the control of a covert NKVD team. The author of The Anti-Communist Manifestos: Four Books that Shaped the Cold War (2009) has pointed out: "All the executives of the commission were Communist Party members, though most, including Kravchenko, were under instructions to conceal that fact. The most important business was conducted in closed meetings attended only by Party members. In the typical pattern of domestic Soviet industries, there were secret police spies everywhere." Kravchenko also informed the FBI about illegalities and profiteering on the part of the American contractors supplying the Soviets. J. Edgar Hoover did not seem very interested in this and instead ordered that Kravchenko was investigated.

On 1st April, 1944, he sought political asylum in the United States. A few days later the New York Times reported that Kravchenko was "accusing the Soviet Government of a double-faced foreign policy with respect to its professed desire for collaboration with the United States and Great Britain and denouncing the Stalin regime for failure to grant political and civil liberties to the Russian people" The newspaper went on to add: "Mr. Kravchenko declined for patriotic reasons to discuss matters bearing on the military conduct of the war by Soviet Russia or to reveal any details bearing upon economic questions, particularly as they affect the functioning of lend-lease as handled by the Soviet Purchasing Commission and in Russia."

Kravchenko issued a statement of well over 1,000 words. He pointed out that his experience in the United States had "served to crystalize in my mind views and sentiments I had long felt in Russia". The Russian people he insisted yearned for the "four freedoms" promoted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt since he gained power. Kravchenko argued that during the Second World War the "Russian people have earned a new deal." Ambassador Joseph E. Davies appealed to Roosevelt directly on behalf of Joseph Stalin to have Kravchenko returned to the Soviet Union. Roosevelt rejected this idea and he was allowed to live under a pseudonym. However, it has been pointed out: "A Soviet defector at that time was not a triumph but a potential embarrassment. The vital thing for the U.S. policy was to keep the Red Army on its remorseless offensive against the Germans."

Max Eastman arranged for Kravchenko to receive a $15,000 advance from Cosmopolitan magazine for a series of articles. With the help of anti-communist journalist, Eugene Lyons, who was now his literary agent, Kravchenko also began work on a book about his experiences. A publishing deal was agreed with Charles Scribner's Sons and Lyons agreed to accept 40% of the royalties. Kravchenko later wrote: "I worked on it month after month under harrowing conditions of persecution and threats against my life. I was obliged to wander from city to city, continually changing hotels and private residences, living under assumed names and assumed nationalities, finding safe hide-outs in the homes of Americans or my own country-men." Kravchenko's autobiography, I Choose Freedom, was published in 1946.

In 1954, Dallin had a meeting with Alexander Orlov. He wanted advice on a book he was writing. During the conversation Orlov asked Dallin if he knew "Mark, the agent provocateur" who was a member of the Left Opposition on Paris in the 1930s? Orlov said that as an NKVD agent he had read Mark's reports on the group. Dallin said that the only man he knew of that name was Mark Zborowski.

The next meeting between the two men took place on 25th December, 1954. This time Lilia Estrin attended. Orlov told Lilia that when Lev Sedov was at the Bergere Clinic "Mark" sent a report to the NKVD that he had a tremendous urge for an orange and that it was provided by Lilia. This was a true and Lilia now came to the conclusion that Mark Zborowski was indeed a Soviet agent and told Orlov that his suspicions must be correct. Two days later Orlov told the FBI that there was a known Soviet agent in the United States.

The former NKVD agent, Alexander Orlov, appeared before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in September 1955. He disclosed that Mark Zborowski had been involved in the killing of Ignaz Reiss and Lev Sedov. Zborowski appeared before the committee in February 1956. He admitted to being a Soviet agent working against the supporters of Leon Trotsky in Europe in the 1930s but denied that he had continued these activities in the United States. Lilia Dallin appeared before the committee in March 1956. She also gave information against Zborowski. However, it was not until November 1962, that he was convicted of perjury and received a four-year prison sentence.

Dallin was a member of the Socialist Party of America and worked on the left-wing, anti-Stalinist magazine, The New Leader, for nearly twenty years. Dallin was a visiting professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania and was the author of The Real Soviet Russia (1944), Big Three: The United States, Britain, Russia (1945), Forced Labor in Soviet Russia (1947), Soviet Russia and the Far East (1948), Economics of Slave Labor (1949), Rise of Russia in Asia (1949), New Soviet Empire (1951), Soviet Espionage (1955), Changing world of Soviet Russia (1956), Soviet Foreign Policy after Stalin (1961) and From Purge to Coexistence (1964).

David Dallin died in New York City in 1962.

Dallin was one of the triumvirate of the leadership of the old Menshevik Party, which had first been exiled to Paris and then, in 1940, moved to the United States. Along with Boris Nikolaevsky (1887-1966), sometimes called "the father of Kremlinology," Dallin made knowledgeable and authoritative contributions to the more scholarly kind of Cold War literature. His most famous, or at least his most controversial, book was Forced Labor in Soviet Russia (1947).

Dallin, who lived in New York, came into discreet contact with Kravchenko. Kravchenko had had sufficient experience with the NKVD to be wary, but even so he was taking a great risk. One of Dallin's "friends" at the time was Mark Zborowski, the anthropologist-spy, not yet exposed as a Stalinist agent, who had actually taken up residence in the same apartment building with Dallin. When he wasn't writing about Polish shtetls from the anthropological perspective, Zborowski was an expert Trotskyite-watcher for the NKVD. Eventually Trotskyites grew so thin on the ground in Paris that he became for a time head of the operation he was supposed to be infiltrating. According to John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Kravchenko and Zborowski actually crossed paths at the apartment building in March 1944 - but without Zborowski's knowing who he was.* Thus the security apparatus that did not diagnose Kravchenko's infidelity during the process of his vetting in Moscow nearly discovered him by accident through Stalin's continuing obsession with Trotskyism. Indeed, Kravchenko was very lucky, but also smart and prudent.

We must remember that these "Mensheviks" were, and considered themselves to be, genuine revolutionaries. Most of them no longer shared the fantasy of the old Trotsky clique that they might one day mount to power, but there was about them a memorial aroma of conspiracy. Dallin and his wife were perhaps what Lenin and Krupskaya might have been had they remained in Zurich in 1940. Most of us have friends, acquaintances, colleagues, and "contacts." They were among the groups to whom the historians assign a "circle."

The Ukrainian engineer was mightily impressed with the older man. Here was an old revolutionary, like his own father a pre-Stalinian socialist. Here was a man with a vast knowledge of Russian history, passionately pursued. Here was a Russian patriot who made the clearest distinction between the "Russian people," whom he loved, and the "Stalin clique," whom he hated. Above all, here was a man who demonstrated both in word and deed that it was possible to flee Babylon and fight against it. What Kravchenko did not at first know was that Dallin was not so pure in his prelapsarian radicalism as to eschew intimate relations with the FBI and with such specimens of American left-wing demonology as Max Eastman, Isaac Don Levine, and Eugene Lyons.

Defection was no simple or easy act. To sever forever the political commitments and habits of a lifetime, to abandon vulnerable family members, a spouse, children, parents, to leap into the darkness of a profound cultural alterity, these are not things easily undertaken. Later on in the postwar period, in what might be called the Golden Age of Defection, we find famous defectors of a certain cultural sophistication and experience, people who had done some traveling and had at least the rudiments of a cosmopolitan outlook-dancers, athletes, chess players, and diplomats. Kravchenko was a purely parochial, dyed-in-the-wool cradle Communist. He had been nowhere, had no foreign contacts, spoke and read no languages other than Ukrainian and Russian.

I appreciate this opportunity to speak for the record on a number of issues that have been of immense interest to scholars, Church members, and the general public over the last several years.

The public is intensely interested when someone commits the horrible crime of murder by bombing. When the bombing murders of 15 October 1985 were shown to be involved somehow with the sale of early Mormon history documents, the news interest was global. When it was revealed many months later that the murders were committed in an effort to conceal the fact that these Church history documents were clever forgeries, the whole episode achieved epic proportions.

As this complicated matter unfolded, there were many different peaks of interest, ranging from the techniques of forging ancient documents to the mind patterns of a master deceiver. What interested me most was the fact that these forgeries and their associated lies grew out of their author’s deliberate attempt to rewrite the early history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and that so many persons and organizations seized on this episode to attempt to discredit the Church and its leaders. I was saddened but not surprised that the news coverage of the truth about the forgeries and lies of Mark Hofmann was small by comparison with the earlier trumpeting of the claims that his newly discovered documents destroyed faith, compromised Church leaders, and rocked the foundations of the Church.

In the course of this episode, we have seen some of the most sustained and intense LDS church-bashing since the turn of the century. In a circumstance where The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints could not say much without interfering with the pending criminal investigation and prosecution, the Church and its leaders have been easy marks for assertions and innuendo ranging from charges of complicity in murder to repeated recitals that the Church routinely acquires and suppresses Church history documents in order to deceive its members and the public. In the hands of clever writers and cartoonists, the mythical salamander proved a most effective instrument to pique public interest and to blacken the reputation of faithful persons, living and dead.

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November 18, 1945 (vol. 56, iss. 16) - Image 4


Attlee Resents Faux Pas

Edited and managed by students of the University of
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Business Staff
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Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1945-46
Editorials published inThe Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
Danger in Japan
ONE-HUNDRED per cent censorship of the
Japanese press and radio was instituted .by
General MacArthur's directive of Sept. 10. At
the time there was discussion as to the effective-
ness and scope of such an action.
The following article taken from the
'Mainichi" newspaper published Oct. 11 in
Osaka, Japan, reveals how impossible it is to
obtain complete censorship. There is little in
the actual words printed which is objeetorn-
able, and yet a reader feels the undertone of
criticism and dissatisfaction.
"Can' anyone blame the Japanese for expect-
ing a period of quiescence after prolonged suf-
ferings, now that the war i over and the Ameri-
cans seem kindly disposed? Yet, unfortunately,
the signs of time point to the opposite.
"We now know what the conqueror wants He
wants to reduce Japan to a tiny little harmless
democracy, shown of capital and energy for ex-
pansion, a quiet tourist country like Switzerland.
"Japan as a powerful modern state has, like
other great nations, developed along with mili-
tarism other tissues and nerves of a giant
Leviathan, which cannot be easily removed by
external treatment.
"Such for instance are financial, business and
technological mechanisms a swarm of privi-
leged class thriving on increments of vested'in-
terests an excessive .population with ever ac-
celerating multiplicity and the like.
"These and many other vestiges of once an
ambitious and rising Empire may prove sources
of inflammation like the appendix to a scanty lit-
tle new Japan, and therefore they-must be elimi-
"But how? The most effective and the quick-
est method is to leave the present trend for
anarchism uncontrolled or unchecked and let
it perform its mission of destruction.
"Nor is there any lack of incentives. The
reaction against protracted oppression is
bound to be violent the sentiment of despaired
masses without dwellings, clothes and food is
ready for a catastrophic outburst.
"These suppressed energies once released, like
the malaria fever introduced to kill the deeply
embedded germs, may do a quick job of national
catharsis, but the danger is that it may kill the
"Yet an unconditional surrender is not a joke
the conqueror means business and there is no
way out for us than to try this radiacal adven-
ture for life or death.
"So, dear compatriots, be prepared for the
worst, since the crisis, far from being over, is
about to descend upon our head."
-Patricia Cameron
Freedom Threatened
AFTER two years, the United States Court of
Claims has now, unanimously, ruled uncon-
stitutional the House action banning Professor
Robert Morss Lovett, Dr. Goodwin B. Watson
and William E. Dodd from federal jobs this
"bill of attainder" was one of the sour fruit of
the Dies Committee "a shocking and outrage-

WTASHINGTON - Though Texas' charming
Tom Connally is chairman of the Senate
Foreign Relations Committee, even his friends
admit he could learn something about tact when
it comes to diplomacy. They are still chortling
over a Connally remark at the closed-door lunch-
eon to Prime Minister Attlee of England and
MacKenzie King of Canada, given by the Sen-
ate and the House foreign affairs committees.
Attlee, concluding a brief talk to the assembled
solons, remarked that "it has been pleasat to
see that Republicans and Democrats in the
United States and representatives of foreign gov-
ernments such as myself and Mr. King can sit
down to lunch together so pleasantly."
Senator Connally, whose wit sometimes runs
away with him, responded that this was not
so strange. "After all," he said, "we've all
been eating off one government for a good
many years now."
Complete silence followed. Connally, apparent-
ly unaware of his faux pas, continued to joke.
committee members are convinced that their
chairman was referring only to the Republi-
cans and Democrats present, not to lend-leae
aid to Britain. But they are not at all certain
Attlee understood.
The British prime minister did not join in
the laughter after that, though by the end of
the luncheon he appeared either to have for-
gotten Connally's remark or decided to inter-
pret it in the way it was meant.
Conscription Figt
EMOCRAT leaders really had to turn on the
h at to push a 15-12 vote through the House
Military Affairs Committee to continue hearinms
on the conscription bill. Over the weekend,
Chairman Andrew Jackson May of Kentucky
wired commitee members all over the country to
return at once. Representatives Sparkman of
Alabama and Sikes of Florida flew through blind
fog and nearly cracked up to be on hand.
Even so, the vote might have been unfavor-
able had not the opposition to conscription been
led by isolationist Republican Dewey Short of
Democrats remembered that Short was the
leader of the strong fight against the original
Selective Service Bill in 1940-so strong that the
bill passed the house by only one vote. So they
decided they didn't want Short to do any more
policy-making on defense matters.
When the closed-door session opened, Short
remarked that although he didn't want to ob-
struct the committee, he strongly felt that con-
sideration of the bill should be deferred until
next year, when the present world situation
might be vastly changed and the need for mili-
tary training less obvious.
"This bill," the Galena, Mo., congressman
declared, "is a signal to Russia and the other
nations of the world that we want to get in an
armaments race. It is a challenge to them
that we are set to go .
"It looks to me like Russia doesn't need any
signal," observed Ewing Thomas of El Paso,
Texas. "At any rate, I think we ought to com-
plete these hearings now and get a rounded
picture cf what the country wants or does not
Rep. Paul Kilday of San Antonio, Texas, sup-
ported Thomas.
British ihplomtacy
DURING Prime Minister Attlee's visit, the Brit-
ish have come close to Woodrow Wilson's
philosophy of open diplomacy.
The Truman-Attlee talks were supposed to
be shrouded in secrecy. But a good part of the
story has been appearing on the front pages,
promptly and accurately, "from an authorita-
tive spokesman."
That authoritative spokesman is shrewd, pipe-
Experts vs. Novices

To the Editor:
]/[R. BAKER made a very interesting reply to
_L Vthe criticism of the ticket distribution in the
Michigan Stadium. Undoubtedly he feels the
system justifies the "equitable" distribution of
seats. The pertinent question, as we see it, is to
whom does the University owe its first obliga-
tion? Is it to the students or to the bondsmen,
alumni, and the state legislators?
If the University's obligations are to the lat-
ter, why aren't they provided with the seats
that the experts prefer-those behind the
goal lines. I am sure the students consider
themselves novices, and would suffer through
the season from the disadvantage of the 50
yard line seats.
True, the entire student body cannot sit on the
50 yard line, but it is apparent that they all
could be seated within the limits of the two 30
yard stripes.
Let's make Michigan's 1946 season a spirited
one and satisfy both the "experts" and "nov-
ices.".Bob Tisch
Sol Scott

puffing Francis Williams, British press secretary
and official Attlee news "leak."
While Secretary of State James F. Byrnes
holds stereotyped press conferences only once a
week, British spokesman Williams meets the
press daily, including American newsmen who
at first were flabbergasted at his free and easy
frankness. He told them exactly what position
Attlee was going to take in his talks with Tru-
man at the very moment the Prime Minister and
the President were arguing it out at the White
NOTE-Exact opposite of British news pol-
icy in Washington is British news policy in the
East, where Overseas News Agency correspon-
dent Connie Poulos was kicked out of Pales-
tine, and where rigid censorship prevails from
Suez to Java.
(Copyright, 1945, by the Bell yndicate, Inc.)
THE solemn march of Rabbis upon Conress
and Prime Minister Attlee is one more of the
contradictions of our strange epoch. A well
trained Rabbi is the, last person, philosophically
and politically, to become one of a pressure
grcup. He is an internationalist and a believer
in. the universality of God's love. He marches
as a nationalit today only because of the haunt-
ing souls of 5.000,000 victims of tyranny and the
out reached hungry fingers of another million
about to die before Christmes again can celebrate
the birth of their Prince of Peace. In anti-semi-
tism of the twentieth century are exhibted three
defects of western civilization.
First: The idea of the chosen people incurs
hatred on the part of ignorant, not informed
Gentiles. The informed citizen .knows that the
concept of "Chosen People" was social not indi-
vidualistic. Said Rabbi Saadie in 920 A.D. "A
men are God's creation and we may not say that
we would choose one to the exclusion of another
or to a greater degree than another." In the
Chosen People concept the Jewish parents are
impressing upon their children, not their unique
relation to God nr God's favoritism, but their
and our responsibility to convey to society the
gifts and truths and goods which God has en-
trusted to man. Far from being egoistic, that
concept as expounded by Jewish scholars was
and is altruistic almost to an extreme. Do not
the enlightened Gentiles in Germany and now in
America therefore expose their ignorance in stat-
ing that Jewish training stresses a "holier than
thou" attitude? The Universal duty to share and
not parade a blessing runs beneath the idea of
Chosen People.
Secondly: Strange as it may seem to the ir-
religious, Judaism and Christianity constitute
the persistent strain in our western life which
holds in unity the two divergent trends con-
stantly pulling modern man in two directions
at once. We refer to the welfare of the IN-
DIVIDUAL as a goal in himself and adequate
community as the only environment in which
an individual can grow normally and make
his distinctive contribution. In his "Dilemma
of Humanitarian Modernism" Robert Calhoun
observes that "Man cannot live by culture
alone" and that "though complete freedom
and self-mastery lie beyond the horizon of
temporality he yet longs for that freedom
which can be found only in the relationship
and reality which lie beyond nature. The anti-
semitism we find all about us ignores the re-
ligion of the Jews and denies the sense of
universality which Christianity derived from
Jewish sources. For men who believe in cosmic
purpose or social solidarity anti-semitism is sin.
Third: It may be that when history has ac-
cumulated all the data and a century has added
perspective, our children's children will look back
and report that the Racism which was halted in
Europe by an expensive bloody war, hurried over
to Detroit, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and
Ann Arbor to function as Hitler's ghost for the
confusing of our returned veterans. Does not
the cause of this fear lie deep in the paganism to
which we in our age have degenerated in a nar-
row worship of wealth and the priority we give
to material control? The very argument the

Gentile uses against too many furs on Jewish
daughters, the railings against swanky cars,
elaborate houses of Isrealites and the lucrative
mortgage business an unreligious family is a con-
fession of that same worship of wealth by those
who bring the charge. No real Jew or Christian
could so mistake the meaning of the Tenth Com-
mandment. Says Reinhold Niebuhr "In Hebrew
religion the transcendent God is never an escape
to another supermundane world in order to pre-
serve an- ultimate optimism. For prophetic Ju-
daism, existence in this world is intensely mean-
ingful, though the ultimate center of meaning
transcends the world. It knows nothing of the
distinction between a virtuous reason and a
sinful body." (Christianity and Power Politics,
p. 181).
These Rabbis on the march, far from being a
cause of it are the victims of a thing centered
civilization, which we confess, regretfully, is
American as well as European..
-Edward W. Blakeman
Counselor in Religious Education

Anthony, Katharine--
The Lambs: A story of pre-Vic-
torian England. N. Y. Knopf, 1945.
A modern evaluation of the Lambs
from the psychologist's point of view,
but not too scientific to discourage
the general reader. It is, too, a pic-
ture of the Georgian world.
Dallin, David Julievich-
The big three. New Haven, Yale
university press, 1945.
Mr. Dallin's volume is an excellent
exposition of the international poli-
cies which shape the foreign policies
of the United States, Russia, and
Britain. It appraises the war-making
potentialities of each nation and the
steps toward security each nation
must take. Places in perspective cer-
tain Russian policies which have
caused suspicion in both Britain and
the United States.
Espey, John Jenkins-
Minor heresies. N. Y., Knopf,

With deftly turned phrases andt
charm, Mr. Espey recalls his early
years in China among the mission-z
ary folk of China in the 1920's. z
Lattimore, Owen-
Solution in Asia. Boston, Little,
Success or failure of the United
Nations in Asia will effect the peace
of Europe and the world. There is a1
drive for self-expression and inde-
pendence by the peoples of Asia which
cannot be ignored. Mr. Lattimore's
final chapter, sketching the problems1
of the future peace in Asia is both1
realistic and just.
Lauterbach, Richard Edward '
These are the Russians. N. Y.,
Harper, 1945.'
"The Moscow correspondent of
Time and Life, here records his obser-
vations on the people of Russia, their
leaders and the things which they
have accomplished while their coun-
try was at war."
Papashvily, G.
Anything can happen. N. Y.,
Harper, 1945.
Twenty episodes in the life of a
Russian immigrant from the province
of Georgia. The author's happy phil-
osophy in relating his many ridicu-
lous adventures make the book de-
lightful entertainment.
T HE VATICAN has been as useful
an ally of the Franco government
as was the now defunct Axis. Ac-
cording to the November 10 issue of
"The Nation," the Pope has on sev-
eral occasions congratulated Franco
on his "glorious Catholic victory."
In 1943, he commended the "happy
resurgence" of the faith in Spain.
In his Christmas message of 1944,
the Pope mentioned in alphabetical
order those nations meriting praise
for "their brotherly love and char-
ity." It is interesting to note that
he preceeded the entire list with
Spain and its "head of state."
The recent reports that the Vatican
favors the return of the Spanish mon-
archy do not contradict its consistent
support of Franco. A democratic vic-
tory in Spain is what the Vatican ap-
parently fears above all else. It does
not seem to realize that only under a
strong Republican government can
the church regain the respect of the
Spanish populace. The church would
then be rigidly excluded from partici-
pating in the political affairs of the
nation and freedom of religion could
become an actuality.
The Vatican can see that a mon-
archy lacks popular support and is
supporting the Franco forces in the
expectation that a merger between
the Franco forces and the royalists
will be the result. Such a policy,
by perhaps the only source of hope
for a weak and depressed people,
can have only one result-a people
fighting against suppression will
eventually come to fight everything
that contributes to that suppres-
sion. The church is no exception
and devout Catholics who are good
Republicans will not forget the
hundreds of priests who were killed
before Franco's firing squads. The
church's hold is not strong enough
to fight Franco's battle.
-Alice Jorgensen
Better Man?
BILL MAULDIN, ex- G.I cartoonist
who once tangled with General
George S. Patton Jr. over brass-hat
censorship was the man 29 G.I.s in
Italy wanted in Congress. In a letter
to Stars and Stripes they nominated
him as "the only person capable of
opposing" Patton, who they heard
might run.
-Time, Nov. 19, 1945

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VOL. LVI, No. 16
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E. A. Walter
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E. A. Walter
The University Automobile Regula-
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Attention, Pre-Medical Students:
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versity of Michigan on Friday, Dec.
14. The test is a normal require-
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medical schools. It is extremely im-
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1946 to take the examination at this
time. If the test has already been
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Friday, Nov. 16: 9, 10, 11 a. m.
Monday, Nov. 17, 11 a. m 2 or 3
. i.
Wednesday, Nov. 21, 1 p. in.
Academic Notices
Bacteriology Seminar: Tuesday,
Nov. 20, at 4 p. m. in Room 1564 East
Medical Building. Dr. Marshall L.
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Election of the Bureu. Group sing-
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FirstPresbyterian Church:
10:45 a. i. Morning Worship. Dr.
Lemon's sermon topic "God and a
First Baptist Church:
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502 E. Huron.
Rev. C. H. Loucks, Minister.
Mrs. Ruth Copps, Student Coun-
10:00 a. m. Student Class meets in
the Guild House to study the Gospel
of John.

11:00 a. m. Morning Worship. Rev.
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Harvey C. Jackson, Detroit. Social
Worker speaks on "The White Prob-
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Public worship, 10:45. Dr. Parr's
subject, "The Birthday of Surprisal."
Congregational - Disciples Guild,
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Littell on "Development of Christian
Character and Leadership through
Study,." Cost supper in Congrega-
tional assembly room.
First Church of Christ, Scientist:
109 S. Division St., Wednesday eve-
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ing service at 10:30 a. m. Subject:
"Mortals and Immortals." Sunday
school at 11:45 a. m. A special read-
ing room is maintained by this church
at 706 Wolverine Bldg., Washington
at Fourth, where the Bible, also the
Christian Science Textbook, "Science
and Health with Key to the Scrip-
tures" and other writings by Mary
Baker Eddy may be read, borrowed or
purchased. Open daily 'except Sun-

But the deer we shot at looked
like it was iron, painted white- -)-
r- A

While we're waiting for the hijackers
to return to be captured, Howard, you
can dress our venison for the oven-

ME. But Mr. O'Malley! , . . It's
Howard- not a robber's truck!
If belonas to Mom's

David Dallin

David J. Dallin (born David Yulevich Levin) (Russian:Давид Юльевич Далин 24 May 1889 – February 21, 1962 [1] ) was a one-time Menshevik [2] chief and later a author and lecturer on Soviet affairs, who helped Victor Kravchenko defect within the Forties.

Dallin died in New York in 1962. [1] He was survived by his second spouse and son. [3]

Dallin and Eugenia had a son, Alexander Dallin, born abroad, who later turned a distinguished educational professional in Soviet research.

Earlier in life, Dallin married a girl named Eugenia. In New York, he left Eugenia and lived with Lilia Ginzberg Estrin earlier than marrying her by 1944 (when she turned often known as Lilia Estrin Dallin), when the Dallins turned concerned in Kravchenko’s defection. [4]

Dallin additionally was a visiting professor of political science on the University of Pennsylvania. [3]

Dallin joined the employees of the left-wing anti-communist journal, The New Leader in New York, the place he labored for almost twenty years. (Founded in 1924 by the Socialist Party of America, The New Leader had come underneath government editor Samuel Levitas, a Russian Menshevik, after which the journal left the SPA however remained left. [5] ) He wrote quite a few books and newspaper and journal articles on financial and political topics, significantly Soviet affairs. [3]

Through a good friend of his spouse Lilia, Dallin got here to welcome Victor Kravchenko of their residence in New York in January 1944. The subsequent day, Kravchenko revealed his want to defect from the Soviet embassy. Dallin inspired Kravchenko to defect. He approached the previous U.S. ambassador to Russia, William C. Bullitt, whom he had identified in Moscow, for recommendation. (Bullitt had additionally been concerned with one other Soviet defector, Walter Krivitsky.) Bullitt known as Attorney General Francis Biddle after which extricated himself from the matter. Biddle introduced within the FBI. In March, Dallin met Kravchenko in Pennsylvania, the place the latter had an official journey. Dallin suggested Kravchenko about his contact with the FBI. Kravchenko adopted his recommendation and contacted the FBI, who interviewed him 3 times in Washington earlier than the tip of the month. Dallin and his spouse then met Kravchenko when he arrived in New York once more in April as a defector. Dallin suggested Kravchenko to inform his story to The New York Times as quickly as doable: Kravchenko started drafting his story that first night time. The subsequent day, Dallin introduced The New York Times labor journalist Joseph Shaplen to fulfill Kravchenko. When Shaplen and Kravchenko didn’t get alongside, Dallin turned to a former United Press correspondent to Moscow, Eugene Lyons, by then editor of The American Mercury. He additionally launched him to Isaac Don Levine and Max Eastman. (Levine had been Krivitsky’s co-writer of the memoir In Stalin’s Secret Service.) Lyons, Levine, and Eastman would type the core group of co-writers and co-editors of Kravchenko’s best-selling memoir, I Chose Freedom Dallin would type a part of a second tier of supporters. [4]

Following the February Revolution of 1917, Dallin returned to Russia. He received election to the central committee of the Menshevik group of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and represented the group on the Moscow City Soviet from 1918 to 1921. The Bolsheviks arrested him a primary time in 1920, and he averted a second arrest in 1922 by fleeing again to Germany. He stayed in Germany till the Nazis pressured him to depart in 1935, when he settled in Poland. [1] He stayed in Poland till the outbreak of World War II in 1939, when he moved to the United States. [3]

He studied on the University of St. Petersburg from 1907 to 1909, when he confronted arrest and imprisonment for anti-tsarist political exercise. After two years of imprisonment, he fled Russia to Germany. He studied on the University of Berlin and obtained his doctorate in Economics from the University of Heidelberg in 1913. [3]

Alexander Dallin dies expert in Soviet and East European studies

Alexander Dallin, a leading scholar in the field of Soviet and East European studies, died July 22 at Stanford Hospital at age 76. Dallin, the Raymond A. Spruance Professor of International History, Emeritus, at Stanford University, suffered a stroke on July 21.

"Dallin had a profound and beneficial influence on the field of Soviet and East European studies," said David Holloway, the current Raymond A. Spruance Professor of International History. "For him, the study of the Soviet Union was not a question of confirming an already held point of view, but rather a matter of seeking to understand a complex and changing reality."

The son of the famous Menshevik activist and scholar David Dallin, Alex Dallin was born in Berlin on May 21, 1924. The family fled from the Nazis to France, and then made their way to the United States.

He earned a bachelor's degree in social science from City College of New York in 1947 and master's and doctoral degrees in history from Columbia University in 1948 and 1953.

credit: Stanford News Service

Dallin began his career by working after World War II on the Harvard Interview Project, which used the testimony of refugees and emigres from the Soviet Union to study the functioning of the Soviet system. He taught at Harvard, Columbia and the University of California-Berkeley before joining the faculty at Stanford in 1971.

Holloway described Dallin as "the model scholar-organizer," who applied his immense energy for the benefit of the broader community of specialists in the field. Dallin served as director of the Russian Institute at Columbia and, later, of the Center for Russian and East European Studies at Stanford.

For several decades he was a member of virtually every important committee in the field, his colleagues recall, and in 1984-85 he served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Dallin devoted his energy to the revival of the social sciences in the former communist world. He helped to establish the new European University in St. Petersburg and ran the New Democracy Fellows Program, which brought students from the post-communist states to Stanford to do graduate work in the social sciences.

Dallin's classic study, German Rule in Russia, 1941-1945, which was published in 1957 (and republished in 1981) won the Wolfson Prize for History. According to Holloway, Dallin demonstrated how a gifted mind and a talented pen could turn painstaking research in captured German archives into a fascinating and moving story of occupation and resistance.

"Dallin's scholarship had the unusual quality of being deeply researched and carefully formulated while also lively and full of ideas. These qualities are evident in the stream of books and articles he produced for over 50 years.

"The disciplines of history and political science mix easily in his writings, while domestic politics and foreign policy are always presented in their interconnection, and not as isolated spheres of activity. He trained generations of students, providing them with encouragement and mentorship, and gaining in the process many firm friends."

Among his later works were Black Box (1985), about the Soviet shootdown of Korea Air Lines Flight 007, and The Gorbachev Era (1986), coedited with Condoleezza Rice. His last book, coedited with the Russian scholar F. I. Firsov, was Dimitrov and Stalin 1934-1943: Letters from the Soviet Archives, which was published by Yale University Press earlier this year.

Dallin is survived by his wife, political scientist Gail Lapidus, with whom he frequently collaborated by three children from a previous marriage, Linda, Natasha and Andrew and by four grandchildren, Nicaela, Katya, Maya and Leo. A memorial service will be held after the beginning of the academic year. SR

Why the Three Witnesses left the Church, why two came back, and how, despite never coming back, David Whitmer stood by his testimony even at his gravesite

In a talk given in the May 1999 general conference, President Dallin H. Oaks said of the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon:

The testimony of the Three Witnesses to the Book of Mormon stands forth in great strength. Each of the three had ample reason and opportunity to renounce his testimony if it had been false, or to equivocate on details if any had been inaccurate. As is well known, because of disagreements or jealousies involving other leaders of the Church, each one of these three witnesses was excommunicated from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by about eight years after the publication of their testimony. All three went their separate ways, with no common interest to support a collusive effort. Yet to the end of their lives&mdashperiods ranging from 12 to 50 years after their excommunications&mdashnot one of these witnesses deviated from his published testimony or said anything that cast any shadow on its truthfulness.

Why were these Three Witnesses, Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery, and David Whitmer excommunicated? And when, if ever, did they come back to the Church? A new movie in theaters now, Witnesses, tells the story of these three men in detail. On this week&rsquos episode of All In, host Morgan Jones spoke with the film&rsquos executive producer, Daniel Peterson, a scholar and professor at Brigham Young University, about the witnesses&mdashwhat led them out of the Church and, in some cases, what caused them to ultimately come back to the Church.

You can listen to the whole episode in the player below or by clicking here. You can also read a full transcript here.

The following excerpt has been edited for clarity.

Morgan Jones: One thing that I also didn't know is that they were excommunicated and all three left the Church at some point. David Whitmer never returned but never denied his testimony. Martin and Oliver did come back to the Church, so can you talk to me about what led to those excommunications and then what led them back?

Daniel Peterson: I think that. . . with Oliver Cowdery in particular, it was plural marriage&mdashthat was one of the things&mdashand the Church's involvement in temporal affairs. The Kirtland bank (which then failed as part of the great Panic of 1837&mdashit wasn't just Kirtland, it was nationwide), it was a very bad time to start a frontier bank. But we also need to understand they needed banks on the frontier, because there was, in many cases, no currency. People were involved in a barter economy. Banknotes made life so much more convenient than having to carry your 10 wheels of cheese to buy an ox, and things like that. Banknotes were [carried] in a pocket and you can go do transactions. [It] made life a lot easier.

But there was almost no currency in the American frontier for a long time. But those sorts of issues bothered Oliver. David, I think it probably was the failure to use a seer stone [and] the growth of the Church, he didn&rsquot like new offices, like Apostles and high priests. He liked a small little close-knit group. Thing is, that was impossible as the Church grew, it could not possibly have grown into the Church it is today. Martin Harris, I think, wounded vanity to an extent. And he just was kind of worn out. He&rsquod always been approached for his money [and] his financial contributions.

Morgan Jones: Resources.

Daniel Peterson: Yeah. And he&rsquod just had it. But he and Oliver do come back. They can't deny what they saw. And there&rsquos a hole in Oliver's heart I think for a long time. Martin is kind of embittered for a while and so it took some work to get him back. Actually, in both Oliver and Martin&rsquos cases the Church undertook to try to reclaim them. Phineas Young, for example, did a lot of correspondence with&mdashand that's Brigham&rsquos brother, at Brigham&rsquos request I think&mdashwith Oliver Cowdery. And Oliver Cowdery says, &ldquoLook,&rdquo there's a wonderful letter from him I really, really like [where Oliver] says, &ldquoLook, I want you to acknowledge that I was not guilty of some of the charges that were made against me in the heat of things in Missouri.&rdquo

They&rsquod accused him of counterfeiting and things like that and he says, &ldquoThis is not true.&rdquo And he says, &ldquoIt may seem a small thing to you,&rdquo and this is what I really like, but he says &ldquoFor me, if you had stood in the presence of Peter, James, and John and John the Baptist, and in the presence of the angel, you would want to make sure that your reputation was kept as spotlessly clean as you could have it. I need those charges cleared up. They have to be cleared up before I can return to the Church.&rdquo And basically, they were. And he comes back, he&rsquod wanted to for quite some time, but he insisted that was kind of his bargaining chip&mdash&ldquoI will not come back under a cloud, not for myself.&rdquo He says, &ldquoIt doesn't matter to me. But it matters because I'm a witness. I want . . . I want my witness to be taken seriously that I was a man of character.&rdquo So that is part of his background.

David&mdashI've already alluded to the fact that I see David as a little bit on the pigheaded side. Very stubborn. He would take a position, he would stand by it, which makes his testimony all the more impressive. But we kind of alluded before to the fact that the Whitmer family were really close-knit. And Oliver joined the Whitmer family, eventually married after he was a witness, married one of the Whitmer girls. And Hiram Page was already a Whitmer son-in-law.

When the Whitmer family left the Church, they left as a pack. And they kind of lived as a pack in Richmond, Missouri, in the greater Richmond, Missouri area, holding their own kind of house church. For them that kind of satisfied the need for community, they supported one another. And David is the last of that group to survive. He lived until 1888. I think it may be the stubbornness. He didn't agree with some of the things Joseph did, he never could, he didn&rsquot agree with Brigham Young on some things because Brigham carries on Joseph&rsquos policies and practices.

But he won't say anything negative about the gospel. And that people have said, &ldquoWell, doesn't that invalidate his testimony?&rdquo Not to me, it doesn't. . . . I care about David Whitmer a lot and I hope that David Whitmer is saved and exalted. I actually believe that he will be. He went through a lot more than I can imagine. But the only thing about David Whitmer that really matters is what he heard and saw as a witness. His opinions about later theology are no more authoritative than anybody else's. But a question of what he saw and what he heard. He has unique authority, and that's what counts. That's what counts in the cases of all the witnesses.

And I might say, he was so fiercely dedicated to his testimony. I don't know how many people in the audience will have been to Richmond, Missouri and seen the cemetery where David Whitmer is buried, but there's an impressive thing there. There's a pillar about, I don't know, three or four feet high, and it stands on his grave. And on top of it in stone are carved two books, obviously, the Book of Mormon and the Bible. And on the side of the pillar, by his orders, or by order of his family hearing his wishes, it says &ldquoThe record of the Jews and the record of the Nephites are one. Truth is eternal.&rdquo

Morgan Jones: Oh wow.

Daniel Peterson: He&rsquos bearing his testimony after his death, as well as he can. And it reminds me of my favorite argument I ever heard against his credibility. Someone wrote to me and said, &ldquoWell, he was just terrified of Brigham Young. He knew that Brigham Young would have him done in if he ever told the sordid truth about the Book of Mormon.&rdquo Well, Brigham Young dies in 1877, David has 11 years in which Brigham Young is gone. He can say anything he wants, what does he do? He bears his testimony. And then when he himself is dead, and he&rsquos as safe as anybody ever will be from Brigham Young or the Danites or the evil Mormons out in Utah, he&rsquos still bearing his testimony in stone on his tombstone. To me, boy, if that doesn&rsquot say sincerity, I don&rsquot know what would.

‘Not made up or imagined’: Witnesses of Book of Mormon will be featured in a new film

In a joint statement published with the Book of Mormon in 1830, Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and Martin Harris declared that an angel of the Lord showed them the golden plates used by Joseph Smith to translate ancient scripture — and that it was done by the “gift and power of God.”

While the trio didn’t always remain affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, they never retracted their statement about the origin of the Book of Mormon.

Now a feature film telling their story is coming to the big screen. Earlier this month filmmakers released the trailer for “Witnesses,” which is scheduled to premiere in theaters this summer.

“Witnesses” was produced by Redbrick Filmworks (“American Prophet,” “Fires of Faith”) in partnership with The Interpreter Foundation and Purdie Distribution. It is not affiliated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Mark Goodman, the film’s director, said the story of the three witnesses is one of faith and time-honored values for all audiences.

“In every age there are people of integrity, people who are willing to stand up for what they believe, regardless of personal consequences,” Goodman said. “The witnesses were known to be men of integrity.”

The movie stars Paul Wuthrich (Joseph Smith), Lincoln Hoppe (Martin Harris), Michael Zuccola (David Whitmer) and Caleb Spivak (Oliver Cowdery). It was filmed at locations in Canada, near Boston, Massachusetts, and in Utah.

While filmmakers took artistic liberties with some scenes, the story is based on real events, Goodman said.

A scene from “Witnesses.” The film is scheduled to premiere this summer. Purdie Distribution

“The 10-year timeline of the film is compressed to help tell the story, but the events portrayed in the film happened. They are not made up or imagined,” he said. “Dissidents trying to take over the Kirtland temple at gunpoint. Martin Harris switching Joseph’s seer stone for a look-alike. These are some of the lesser-known events that actually occurred. The drama is real, the emotions are real — you can’t make this stuff up.”

For 29-year-old Wuthrich, playing Joseph Smith was a dream role. As a returned missionary and lifelong Latter-day Saint, he had spent years learning about the Prophet. Wuthrich came away from the iconic role with a new level of appreciation and empathy for the historic figure.

“It was a little overwhelming but also a thrill,” said the actor from Kaysville, Utah. “I wanted to portray him as somebody who struggled with trials and struggled to fulfill a prophetic calling while at the same time still honoring somebody that I really admire.”

Actor Paul Wuthrich, next to the camera, plays Joseph Smith in “Witnesses.” Purdie Distribution

Hoppe, 49, has known the story of Martin Harris and his role as one of the three witnesses all his life. Harris is predominately known by church members as the man who lost the 116 pages of the Book of Mormon manuscript.

After taking a deep dive into church history and acting in “Witnesses,” Hoppe has a new perception of the Martin Harris, who is buried in Clarkston, Utah. While this man of faith made mistakes and left the church for many years before returning, Hoppe came to appreciate the value of Harris mortgaging his prosperous New York farm to finance the publication of the Book of Mormon, among other things.

Martin Harris comes to life in Clarkston Pageant

Church finalizes pageant decision: 4 to end, 3 to continue

“We look on Martin Harris, and, for a lot of members of the church, there’s a negative taste in the mouth,” Hoppe said. “But we literally would not have had that first printing of the Book of Mormon without his faith and sacrifice. It tells you how much he believed — not only in the book they were translating but in Joseph as well.”

Some may think they know the whole story of the three witnesses, but audiences may be surprised to learn a thing or two. The film also conveys a timely message that Wuthrich hopes will resonate with viewers.

“It is OK to believe in something,” he said. “It might not be trendy to have faith nowadays, you know, I don’t think it’s popular to have faith. But it’s a noble thing to believe in something and to commit to something higher than yourself. I think that’s OK.”

Lincoln Hoppe, who plays Martin Harris, prepares to film a scene of “Witnesses.” Purdie Distribution

David Julievich Dallin - History

Memorial Resolution: Alexander Dallin

Alexander Dallin, the Raymond A. Spruance Professor of International History Emeritus at Stanford University, died on July 22, 2000 at Stanford Hospital at the age of 76. Over 200 people gathered at Memorial Church on October 11 to celebrate his life and work and to remember and honor him.

Dallin was one of the pioneers of the field of Russian and East European Studies in the United States. Before joining the Stanford faculty in 1971 and serving as Director of our Center for Russian and East European Studies, he was for many years Professor of Political Science and Director of the Russian Institute at Columbia University. Dallin chaired virtually every major committee in the field and was a long-term Board Member and President of the AAASS, the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, which he helped to reinvigorate when he brought its headquarters to Stanford in the 1980s.

Son of the prominent Menshevik scholar, David Dallin, Alex was born in Berlin on May 21, 1924. His family fled from the Nazis to France, where, even as a teenager, he became involved in anti-fascist activities. After emigrating to the United States in 1940, Alex earned his undergraduate degree from City College in New York and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia. No doubt the harrowing experiences of his youth influenced the passion for liberty and the deep humanity that infused all of his work and deeds.

Dallin's early scholarly career was marked by his participation in the Harvard Interview Project, funded by the U.S. Air Force and organized at the Russian Research Center in the late 1940s. His long and comprehensive interviews, conducted with Soviet émigrés and deserters in Europe, planted the seeds for his classic study of the occupation and resistance, German Rule in Russia, 1941-1945 (St. Martin's, 1957). The book won the Wolfson Prize for History and was republished in an enlarged and revised edition in 1981 by Westview. This volume, still widely read and admired by scholars and students in the field, combines insights gained from the interview project with meticulous research in captured German documents and Soviet memoirs.

Dallin was a prodigious scholar, who moved effortlessly and creatively between the disciplines of Political Science and History. He helped to bridge the gap between the two disciplines at Stanford, serving as an interpreter and bridge-builder and holding appointments in both departments. He was also a brilliant stylist and an inspiring speaker. Alex's ability to express himself with sparkling clarity and eloquence marked both his scholarship and his teaching. He set the highest standards for himself, yet was self-effacing and modest about his astonishing accomplishments.

Both during the Soviet period and after, Dallin was never satisfied with pat answers or convenient stereotypes about Russia or the Russians. He constantly searched behind the ostensible one-dimensionality of the Soviet monolith for movement, change, and internal conflict. By focusing on causal linkages between domestic and foreign affairs, he was able to identify nuanced shifts in Soviet policy. He looked at Soviet-American rivalry as the outcome of a dynamic relationship, one that was subject to change and amelioration from both sides. Dallin's numerous books and articles routinely broke new ground in Soviet Studies and, more recently, in the post-Soviet field.

His colleagues and friends at Stanford barely noticed his retirement. He was repeatedly "called back to duty" to teach, and he continued to write and to participate in seminars, panels, and conferences. Together with Condi Rice, he spearheaded the development of Stanford's New Democracy Program, which provides graduate funding for students from post-communist countries. He helped set up the new European University in St. Petersburg in 1994 and traveled back and forth to Russia and the Caucasus countless times, even when his health wasn't the best, in an effort to aid the revival of the social sciences in the region.

Several generations of his students and colleagues at Columbia, Stanford, and elsewhere remember with fondness and gratitude his scrupulous mentorship, his amazing erudition, and his willingness to read and comment on manuscripts. His wisdom, generosity, and irrepressible wit will be sorely missed, especially in the History Department, which was his departmental home, in the Institute of International Studies, where he worked the past several years, and in the Center for Russian and East European Studies, which owes much of its intellectual and financial vitality to the many years of his stewardship and care.

Our deepest condolences go to Alex's wife, political scientist Gail Lapidus -- senior fellow at IIS and Professor of Political Science, by courtesy -- with whom he often collaborated to his children from a previous marriage, Linda, Natasha and Andrew and to his four grandchildren, Nicaela, Katya, Maya and Leo.

Elders Bednar, Cook + 3 Other Apostles Whose Family Life Was Not Picture Perfect

Not everyone grows up in an "ideal" family situation. Death, war, financial insecurity, divorce, Church inactivity, there are many circumstances that can shake a family to its core and try each family member's testimony. No one is entirely immune to difficult family situations like these, including the general authorities of the Church.

Though faced with overwhelming hardships and challenges, these general authorities gained a stronger testimony of the Savior and the importance of families while overcoming incredibly trying family situations.

Elder Dallin H. Oaks

Before Elder Dallin H. Oaks was 8 years old, his father passed away from tuberculosis, leaving his mother, Stella H. Oaks, to care for three children on her own. To help provide for her family, Elder Oaks's mother went to New York to continue her education while Elder Oaks and his siblings stayed with their grandparents.

After two months of separation from her children following the death of her husband, Elder Oaks's mother suffered a nervous breakdown from which "she was told she would never recover" (Elder Dallin H. Oaks, "LDS Leaders and Mental Illness," Mormon Channel).

Image from Mormon Newsroom

However, Elder Oaks says, through "the blessings of the Lord, she did recover and she was stronger than ever" (Elder Dallin H. Oaks, "LDS Leaders and Mental Illness," Mormon Channel).

Elder Oaks's mother worked hard for her family and cultivated that same work ethic in her children. When Elder Oaks was about 11 years old, he took a small job sweeping the floor of a radio repair shop, eventually working his way to radio engineer and announcer in his late teens.

Throughout his life, Elder Oaks admired his mother's fortitude and ability to raise her children in the gospel. After her death, Elder Oaks's mother was remembered for her civic and Church service.

"I was blessed with an extraordinary mother,” Elder Oaks says. “She surely was one of the many noble women who have lived in the latter days” (Elder Dallin H. Oaks, "What are Prophets and Apostles: Elder Dallin H. Oaks," lds.org).

President Dieter F. Uchtdorf

President Dieter F. Uchtdorf was just 4 years old the first time his family fled their home, leaving everything behind.

It was during WWII, and President Uchtdorf's family was no longer safe in Czechoslovakia. With his father serving as a soldier in the war, President Uchtdorf's mother was left alone to transport her four children via a refugee train heading west to Germany during the winter. It was a journey that almost ended in disaster.

"The train stopped, my mother went out and tried to get food," President Uchtdorf told KUTV. "When she tried to find the train, the train was gone with her four children in there."

Image from lds.org

Luckily, President Uchtdorf's mother was able to locate the train and her children in the large train station. During their journey, President Uchtdorf also described the kindness of others who donated food and hot drinks to President Uchtdorf's family until they made it safely to Germany. But unfortunately, this would not be the last time President Uchtdorf's family would have to leave behind everything.

Again, in 1952, President Uchtdorf's father opposed the communist East Germany, and it was no longer safe for his family to remain at their home in Zwickau. President Uchtdorf's family fled their home in Zwickau in East Germany to Frankfurt in West Germany.

At the age of 11, President Uchtdorf watched as his family split up, each taking separate routes to Frankfurt until only he and his mother remained. Together, they made the harrowing journey past Russian guards patrolling the border to West Germany until they were safely reunited with the rest of President Uchtdorf's family.

But these challenges only worked to strengthen President Uchtdorf's testimony of the gospel and family.

Elder David A. Bednar

Though Elder David A. Bednar's father was not baptized until later in life, he was very supportive of his wife and children attending Church meetings.

In fact, Elder Bednar said in his April 2012 general conference talk that some members in his ward did not know his father was not a member because he regularly attending Church meetings with his family and helped with various Church activities.

Image from lds.org

Throughout his childhood, Elder Bednar would ask his father several times a week why he was not baptized.

"He responded lovingly but firmly each time I pestered him: 'David, I am not going to join the Church for your mother, for you, or for anyone else. I will join the Church when I know it is the right thing to do'" (Elder David A. Bednar, "The Powers of Heaven," lds.org).

Even while serving his mission, Elder Bednar would end his letters with "Dad, I love you. When are you going to be baptized?" and continued to pray that one day his father would be baptized and his family would be sealed in the temple.

However, it wasn't until years after Elder Bednar's mission and after he was married that his he received an answer to the question he had been asking his father all those years when his father called him to ask, "What are you doing this Saturday? I need you home to baptize me."

"We always talk about fathers blessing their children and performing the ordinances, and those are wonderful experiences. But I've had the experience of providing all those ordinances for my dad," Elder Bednar said, years after his family was sealed for eternity in the temple.

Elder Quentin L. Cook

Elder Quentin L. Cook said growing up he learned how to trust the Lord from his mother, Bernice Kimball Cook, and how to set and achieve goals from his father, J. Vernon Cook. And when he was 15 years old, Elder Cook experienced something that would draw from both lessons.

Image from lds.org

At the time, Elder Cook's father was a less-active member and thought Elder Cook's older brother, Joe, should pursue a career in the medical field instead of serving a mission.

Elder Cook and his brother deeply respected their father and decided to talk about their father's advice.

The next morning, Joe approached his father and bore his testimony, earning his father's support to serve a mission. But this experience also had a profound effect on Elder Cook and "any doubts he had were swept away forever."

Elder Cook also served a mission from 1960 to 1962, serving in the British Mission with Elder Jeffrey R. Holland as one of his companions.

Later, Elder Cook would be called to serve as a counselor to his brother Joe, who was serving as the stake president at the time.

Of his parents, Elder Cook would later say they "loved the Savior. They did everything they could to raise us the right way" (Elder Jeffrey R. Holland, "Elder Quentin L. Cook: A Willing Heart and Mind", April 2008 Ensign).

Richard G. Scott

Growing up, Elder Richard G. Scott's mother was a less-active member and his father did not belong to the Church.

As a youth, Elder Scott would attend Church occasionally with friends or with the encouragement of home teachers and bishops.

By the time he was 22 years old, Elder Scott had not really considered serving a mission, until he met Jeanene Watkins. As the two started dating, Jeanene told Elder Scott, “When I marry, it will be in the temple to a returned missionary.”

Image from lds.org

After personal reflection and prayer, Elder Scott felt impressed that he should serve a mission and was called to serve in Uruguay from 1950 to 1953.

Two weeks after he returned from his mission, Elder Scott and Jeanene were sealed in the Manti Utah Temple.

However, the couple experienced tragedy about five years after their marriage. Their third child, a baby girl, passed away at birth and their second child, a two-year-old boy, died six weeks later following a surgery to correct a congenital heart defect.

Elder Scott's father, who was not a member at the time, was particularly fond of his 2-year-old grandson and was heartbroken at his passing. Yet when he observed Elder Scott and his wife, he noticed they seemed to have a sense of peace that he did not.

Elder Scott's parents would later serve in the Washington DC Temple for many years, and Elder Scott served as an apostle until he passed away Septemeber 22, 2015.

Bonus: Elder David S. Baxter

Elder David S. Baxter, a general authority of the Seventy, found the gospel at a critical time in his life.

When he was 5 years old, Elder Baxter's mother and father divorced. His mother remarried, but Elder Baxter's stepfather was "not a good man" and times were difficult (Elder David S. Baxter, "Finding Hope in a Troubled Family," August 2015 "New Era").

Image from lds.org

When he was 12 years old, the missionaries began visiting Elder Baxter and his family, bringing a sense of goodness and peace into their home. Before his 13th birthday, Elder Baxter was baptized and received the Aaronic priesthood. However, Elder Baxter's family situation was still difficult.

When he was 15 years old, Elder Baxter says he looked back on the challenges his family faced in his younger years—alcoholism, divorce, poverty—all of the things he couldn't change in his past and decided, "I will change the future—for myself and for the children I will someday have. My unhappy family history will not be passed on" (Elder David S. Baxter, "Finding Hope in a Troubled Family," August 2015 New Era).

Elder Baxter later served two years as a missionary in the Scotland Edinburgh Mission and served as a bishop, counselor in a stake presidency, stake president, counselor in a mission presidency, and as an Area Seventy.

He married his wife, Dianne Marie Lewars, and has four children. His mother also remarried and was sealed in the London England Temple. Elder Baxter says his mother was "happy, content, and fulfilled until overtaken by mortality" during her marriage for nearly 25 years until she passed away.

North End hails 2 icons — artist and subject

From left, Avery Revere her father, Paul Revere Jr. his son Paul Revere III and grandson Paul Revere IV. Pat Greenhouse/Globe Staff

In 1940, Paul Revere's 9-year-old great-great-great grandson helped unveil Cyrus Dallin's iconic statue in the North End's Prado while the artist's 17-year-old granddaughter sat with her grandfather.

Seventy-two years later, Paul Revere Jr. and Jean Dallin-Doherty were together in the same spot, again honoring Dallin's work.

More than 100 people gathered in the Prado Sunday afternoon to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Dallin's birth and the history of the North End. Although originally from Utah, Dallin spent the last 44 years of his life in Arlington.

"Today is about art. It is about history,'' said David A. Kubiak, cochair of the Dallin-Prado event committee, in an introduction to the crowd.

"Most important today is the celebration of 150 years since Cyrus Dallin's birth. His works of art evoke emotion . . . so please get to know Cyrus Dallin today.''

Another well-known work of Dallin's is the Native American sculpture - "Appeal to the Great Spirit'' - that stands outside the Museum of Fine Art.

Gathered in front of a stage near Dallin's statue depicting Paul Reivere, the crowd both sat and stood as community leaders and politicians took the stage to give their thanks to the North End community and applaud Dallin's work. Among those who spoke, Mayor Thomas M. Menino presented a proclamation in honor of Dallin to the artist's family and the Cyrus E. Dallin Art Museum in Arlington.

Revere Jr., 81, the president of the Paul Revere Memorial Association, approached the microphone to address the crowd after three local grade school students read Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride.''

Revere Jr. ended his remarks by thanking the North End community.

"The Paul Revere House is part of a very special neighborhood,'' he said. "You've been great to us, and we appreciate it very much. It is all about the neighborhood.''

Sitting at the front of the crowd, a smiling Dallin-Doherty, now 89, was one of 25 members of her family present, according to Kubiak.

"I can't really express how I feel about it,'' Dallin-Doherty said. "People are getting more and more appreciative [of the statue] now.''

Kubiak said he was very pleased with how many people turned out for the event, especially so many Dallin family members. "The only regret I have about the event is I couldn't meet Cyrus myself,'' Kubiak said.


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