Natoya SP-396 - History

Natoya SP-396 - History

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(SP-396: t. 12; 1. 44'6"; b. 9'7"; dr. 4'; s. 10 k.; cpl. 9; a. 1 1-pdr.)

Natoya (SP-396), a wooden motor boat built in 1909, was acquired by the Navy 11 June 1917 from R. M. Haddock Ossining, N.Y.; and commissioned at New York 11 June 1917.

During World War I, Natoya operated in New York Harbor on section patrol until decommissioning for repairs 11 January 1918. Recommissioned 18 May 1918, she resumed patrol duty until after the Armistice, decommissioning 18 December 1919. She was transferred to the Treasury Department for duty with the Customs Service 12 April 1919.

یواس‌اس ناتویا (اس‌پی-۳۹۶)

یواس‌اس ناتویا (اس‌پی-۳۹۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Natoya (SP-396) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۴ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱۳٫۵۶ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۰۹ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس ناتویا (اس‌پی-۳۹۶)
تکمیل ساخت: ۱۹۰۹
به دست آورده شده: ۱۱ ژوئن ۱۹۱۷
اعزام: ۱۱ ژوئن ۱۹۱۷
مشخصات اصلی
گنجایش: 12 gross register tons
درازا: ۴۴ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱۳٫۵۶ متر)
پهنا: ۹ فوت ۷ اینچ (۲٫۹۲ متر)
آبخور: ۴ فوت (۱٫۲ متر)
سرعت: 10 knots

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.

SM U-2 (Austria-Hungary)

boat in June. The boat was handed over to Austria - Hungary and commissioned as SM U - 10 in July. In May 1917, U - 10 was fired upon by a British submarine
to Austria - Hungary and commissioned as SM U - 11 on 14 June. In early 1916, U - 11 fired on a British submarine, but missed. After the end of the war, U - 11
SM U - 15 or U - XV was a U - 10 - class submarine or U - boat of the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und Konigliche Kriegsmarine or K. u K. Kriegsmarine
SM U - 30 or U - XXX was a U - 27 class U - boat or submarine of the Austro - Hungarian Navy. U - 30, built by the Hungarian firm of Ganz Danubius at Fiume, was launched
SM U - 41 or U - XLI was a U - 27 class U - boat or submarine for the Austro - Hungarian Navy. U - 41, built by the Austrian firm of Cantiere Navale Triestino CNT
SM U - 22 or U - XXII was a U - 20 - class submarine or U - boat built for and operated by the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und Konigliche Kriegsmarine
SM U - 20 or U - XX was the lead boat of the U - 20 class of submarines or U - boats built for and operated by the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche
SM U - 23 or U - XXIII was a U - 20 - class submarine or U - boat built for and operated by the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und Konigliche Kriegsmarine
SM U - 3 or U - III was the lead boat of the U - 3 class of submarines or U - boats built for and operated by the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und
submarine U - 2 1966 a Type 205 submarine of the Bundesmarine that was launched in 1966 and sold in 1993 U - 2 or U - II may also refer to: SM U - 2 Austria - Hungary
SM U - 17 or U - XVII was a U - 10 - class submarine or U - boat of the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und Konigliche Kriegsmarine or K. u K. Kriegsmarine
SM U - 32 or U - XXXII was a U - 27 class U - boat or submarine for the Austro - Hungarian Navy. U - 32, built by the Hungarian firm of Ganz Danubius at Fiume, was

SM U - 6 or U - VI was a U - 5 - class submarine or U - boat built for and operated by the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und Konigliche Kriegsmarine
SM U - 5 or U - V was the lead boat of the U - 5 class of submarines or U - boats built for and operated by the Austro - Hungarian Navy German: Kaiserliche und
was dropped from her name and she was known as SM U - 47 or U - XLVII as a member of the Austro - Hungarian U - 43 class. UB - 47 was ordered in July 1915 and was
dropped from her name and she was known as SM U - 43 or U - XLIII as the lead boat of the Austro - Hungarian U - 43 class. UB - 43 was ordered in July 1915 and
during World War I. The submarine was also known by the Austro - Hungarian Navy designation of SM U - 26. UB - 14 was ordered in October 1914 and was laid down at
SM UC - 12 was a German Type UC I minelayer submarine or U - boat in the German Imperial Navy German: Kaiserliche Marine during World War I. A German Type
identical. From the beginning of World War I, Austria - Hungary had been working to increase the size of its U - boat fleet, so the Imperial German Navy, which

Natoya J. Walker Minor

Natoya J. Walker Minor serves as the Chief of Public Affairs for the City of Cleveland. In this capacity she provides executive leadership, drives policy, and facilitates execution & implementation of Mayoral priorities for 7 departments to meet the vision established by the Mayor (Aging, Civil Service, Community Relations, Human Resources, Public Health, the Office of Equal Opportunity, and Workforce Development). Vital to her role is leveraging intersections between each of the 7 departmental disciplines to influence policy and programs.

Natoya’s career as a public servant spans a 25 years in public administration & policy in municipal government, non-profit, and government consulting. These experiences have provided her with a unique capability of recognizing the value proposition of public private partnerships and building will.

Natoya holds a bachelor’s degree in Political Science, a Master of Public Administration, and holds executive leadership certificates from Georgetown University in NonProfit Management and the Harvard Kennedy School of Government in Senior Executives in State & Local Government.

Natoya is married to Bishop Tony Minor, who pastors at Community of Faith Assembly and serves as a member of the Council of Bishops for the Higher Ground Always Abounding Assemblies (HGAAA).

Big-Block Chevy Buyer’s Guide

A torque-monster Chevrolet big-block with simple bolt-ons can make 550 lb-ft of torque with a yawn, and they do it with low-octane fuel! Now, that's something an LS can't do.

HOT ROD has proved it before for example, Evan Perkins installed a top-end kit on a tired 454 from a motorhome and made 567.2 hp and 537 lb-ft of torque with 87-octane. We thought this is a good time to revisit an old favorite. Here's a quick history lesson on the Chevrolet big-block and which one you should use for your next project.

Chevrolet Big-Blocks by Generations

Mark I "W Motor"
Common Sizes: 348ci, 409ci, 427ci
Years: 19581965

During the 1950s, Chevrolet needed an engine with more torque but still fit inside the inner fenders of a passenger car. It needed interchangeable compression between trucks and cars, and it had to work well on low-octane fuel while producing gobs of torque.

Engineering nicknamed it the W Motor for the shape of the valve covers resembling an upside-down W. It features 4.81-inch bore centers, two-bolt mains, and side oiling. Read 40 Years Of 348 And 409 W-Engines for more information.

348ci: It features a 4.125x3.25-inch bore and stroke with a 9.5:1 compression ratio, resulting in 250 to 350 hp, depending on the year and performance package. It was available from 19581961 (through 1964 in trucks). The 348ci is 3 inches wider and 1.7 inches longer than the 265/283ci small-block of the time.

409ci: The 409 was introduced at 360 hp and phased out after reaching a 425hp rating. It features 4.31x3.5-inch bore and stroke. It was available from 19611965.

427ci: The rare RPO Z11 427ci is a version of the 409, with the stroke increased by 0.150 inches. It features larger main bearings and domed pistons and was available from 19621963.

Mark IV "Rat Motor"
Common Sizes: 396ci, 402ci, 427ci, 454ci
Years: 19651990 (until 1974 in passenger cars)

The Mark IV Rat Motor is the traditional big-block we know today. Many of the fundamental elements are similar between the mark IV and modern generations (excluding the Gen VII/L18).

Customers were used to the W-engine's ample torque, but they desired more horsepower and higher revs. The original Mark I engines steeply fall off after 6,500 rpm, but the Mark IV features a conventional wedge chamber with the combustion chamber in the head. Now, Chevrolet could develop a variety of heads for different applications, such as low-compression, torquey ones for trucks and high-flowing ones for Corvettes.

366ci: Found in medium trucks and school buses of the era, the first Mark IV features 9.4:1 compression and 4x3.62-inch bore and stroke. Today the 366/396ci is not desirable for hot rodding, as they're small-bore, although HOT ROD did build one once .

396ci: First introduced as a high-output version for the 1965 Corvette, the 396 is rated at 425 hp with a solid-lifter cam. It uses the same bore as the 366 but a longer 3.760-inch stroke.

402ci: The 396 was bored to 4.126 inches to make 402 ci in 1970, although Chevrolet continued to market it as the 396.

427ci: The 427 can be found with hydraulic flat-tappet lifters in family cars or with high-revving solid lifters in the Corvette. It was rated as high as 435 hp and 460 lb-ft of torque. It features the big-bore block at 4.25 inches but the same 3.760-inch stroke as the 366/396.

454ci: Chevrolet added the 454 in 1970, with the same bore but slightly more stroke than the 427 at 4 inches. An LS7 version—not the modern LS model—offered in the Corvette and as a dealer performance option is rated at 465hp and 610lb-ft. It was phased out in 1976.

454ci/L19/EFI: Chevrolet phased big-blocks out of passenger cars as emissions and fuel standards went into place in the late 1970s. In 1987, a new 454 Mark IV hit the market with EFI, exclusively in trucks.

Sizes: 454ci
Years: 19911995

Gen V, introduced in 1991, included a superior one-piece main rear seal, new oiling passages closer to the cam, and all blocks received four-bolt mains. However, the engine dropped any mounting bosses for a mechanical fuel pump and the valvetrain is non-adjustable with hydraulic flat-tappet lifters. GM offers rocker studs (PN 10198929) and nuts (PN 10198930) when running a high-lift cam.

The Gen V gained cast-aluminum valve covers and front cover—stamped steel on the Mark IV—for superior sealing. Today, certain crankshafts are interchangeable between the Mark IV and Gen V when accompanied by an aftermarket adapter kit. The same goes for the heads, which require the correct head gaskets. Visit the Fel-Pro Performance catalog for more than 30 available head gaskets .

The front of the block features extruding bosses for the water pump and front accessory mounting, an excellent way to spot a bare Gen V block. The smaller 4-quart oil pan is ideal for swaps (PN 12495360), compared to the larger pan.

454ci/L19: The mark IV has a sluggish rating of 230 hp and 380 lb-ft of torque, largely due to the small "peanut-port" heads. It ended production after 1995.

Sizes: 454ci
Years: 19962001

Introduced in 1996 model year, the Gen VI features hydraulic-roller lifters, multi-port fuel injection, and a PCM. It is the last step of evolution until the LS hit the market in 1998 (introduced in trucks 1999). You can spot these blocks by a six-bolt aluminum front cover, compared to the Mark IV and Gen V's 10-bolt front cover.

454ci/L29: Rated at 290 hp, The Vortec 7400 is the last generation 454, with the same 4.5x4-inch bore and stroke as before. Like the Gen V, all engines feature four-bolt mains.

454ci/L21: This commercial version is much rarer. However, if you can score one, you'll be pleased to find forged pistons and crank. It ceased production in 2001.

Which Generation Is Best?

The jump from the Mark IV to Gen V saw a significant redesign of the water passageways. The Mark IV water passageways are round, meaning you can drill and tap them for a smaller size, which strengthens the block (not possible on later-model blocks). A good indication that the Mark IV is preferred is that Dart bases their race blocks off this design.

A Gen V or VI can make great street engines, though, with four-bolt mains and improved cooling. "The Gen V was all about making things lighter," said Dennis Siderko, dyno technician at Pro Motor Engines in Mooresville, North Carolina. "I'd say up to 11:01 compression for a street build and/or Gen V block. When you get into the 13.1, I'd reconsider the block."

Builders say a stock Gen V block will handle 650 to 750 hp, depending on pump gas or race gas, and a two-bolt main limited to around 600 hp. A Mark IV can get you closer to the 900hp mark.

All Gen V heads are the low-torque, poor-flowing "peanut-port" heads. If you decided on a Gen V/VI build, you should consider a top-end kit for adjustable valvetrain and better heads.

Big-Block Head Basics

There's no runaway winner, as they all serve their own benefits. "Big and bad, or small and efficient," said Dennis. The oval-ports provide torque, but not much horsepower. You'll likely find the smaller ones on the trucks, and they're good for about 650 hp, with square-port heads capable of 750 hp. Aftermarket options will get you to that horsepower rating a lot quicker, however.


Before the 1980s, manufacturers played fast and loose with performance options. Casting numbers do a great job, but they're not definite and sometimes misleading.

Casting numbers are on the front of the BBC, above the timing cover. There are also markings on the back of the block, below the passenger-side head.

Natoya Miller

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Natoya SP-396 - History

Click here to view 1971 Sales Brochure (Note: Brochure is nearly identical to 1970)
Click here for "Second Generation Camaro Spotters Guide & Summary of Yearly Changes"

CID Config Bore & Stroke Gross HP @ RPM Net HP @ RPM Gross Torque @ rpm Net Torque @ rpm Comp Carb.
Base 250 L-6 3.875 x 3.53 145 @ 4200 110 @ 3800 230 @ 1600 185 @ 1600 8.5:1 1V
Base 307 V-8 3.875 x 3.25 200 @ 4600 140 @ 4400 300 @ 2400 235 @ 2400 8.5:1 2V
L-65 350 V-8 4.00 x 3.48 245 @ 4800 165 @ 4000 350 @ 2800 280 @ 2400 8.5:1 2V
L-48 350 V-8 4.00 x 3.48 270 @ 4800 210 @ 4400 360 @ 3200 300 @ 2800 8.5:1 4V
Z-28 350 V-8 4.00 x 3.48 330 @ 5600 275 @ 5600 360 @ 4000 300 @ 4000 9.0:1 4V
LS-3 396 V-8 4.126 x 3.76 300 @ 4800 260 @ 4400 400 @ 3200 345 @ 3200 8.5:1 4V

Notes: 1971 was the year GM lowered compression ratios and began to record horsepower and torque in terms of "net" instead of "gross". The LS-3 "396" V-8 actually displaced 402 cid.

Engine Suffix Codes

CAA: 250ci, mtCGK: 350ci, mt, 270hp/SS CJG: 350ci, mt, 270hp/SS
CAB: 250ci, pgCGL: 350ci, at, 270hp/SS CLA (CLC): 396ci, hp, mt, 300hp/SS
CCA: 307ci, mt CGP: 350ci, mt, z CLB (CLD): 396ci, at, hp, 300hp/SS
CCC: 307ci, at, pg CGR: 350ci, at, z CGB: 350ci, pg
CJD: 350ci, at, 270hp/SS

Abbreviations: at = Turbo Hydramatic automatic, ci = cubic inch, hp = high performance, pg = Powerglide automatic transmission, mt = manual transmission, sp = special high performance, z = RPO Z28 special performance package. SS = super sport, (CLC/CLD engine code usage is unverified)

Engine Code Example: V0328CGP - (350 330hp Assembled in Flint assembly plant on March 28)
Click here for further engine decoding information

1971 Camaro Powerteams

BaseBase L-65L48Z-28LS-3
250307 350350350396
3- and 4-spd. 1 2.85:1 2.85:1 2.54:1 2.52:1 2,52:1 2.20:1
manual 2 1.68:1 1.68:1 1.80:1 1.88:1 1.88:1 1.64:1
transmission 3 1.00:1 1.00:1 1.44:1 1.46:1 1.46:1 1.27:1
ratios 4 -- -- 1.00.1 1.00:1 1.00:1 1.00:1
R 2.95:1 2.95:1 2.54:1 2.59:1 2.59:1 2.26:1
Clutch diam., in. 9.12 10.34 10.34 11.0 11.0 11.0
Axle ratios S 3.08:1 3.08:1 3.08:1 3.42:1 3.73:1 3.42:1
P 4.10:1 --
Base Base L-65 L48 Z-28 LS-3
250 307 350 350 350 396
Powerglide & 1 1,82:1 1.82:1a 2.52:1 2.52:1 2.48:1 2.48:1
Turbo Hydra- 2 1.00:1 1.00:1 1.52:1 1.52:1 1.48:1 1.48:1
matic ratios 3 -- -- 1.00:1 1.00:1 1.00:1 1.00:1
R 1.82:1 1.82:1 1.93:1 1.93:1 2.08:1 2.08:1
Axle ratios S 3.08:1 3.08:1 2.73:1 3.08:1 3.73:1 3.42:1
P 3.42:1 -- 4.10:1

Only manual transmission available with base 250 and 307 was the 3-speed.
Only manual transmission for larger V-8's were 4-speeds.
a = Turbo Hydra-Matic with 2.52:1 low also available with 307 V-8.
S = Standard ratio, E = Economy, P = Performance.

Transmission Codes

3-SpeedMuncie L.D.S
4-Speed (cast iron case)Muncie L.D.R
4-Speed (Aluminum case)Muncie H.D.P
PowerglideMcKinnon E
Turbo Hydramatic 350ClevelandB
Turbo Hydramatic 350Toledo Y
Turbo Hydramatic 350GM CanadaJ

Transmission Code Example: P1C27C - (1971 Muncie 4 speed, assembled March 27, M22 w/2.20 1st gear)
Click here for further transmission decoding information
TH400 transmission code is CY and is stamped on a tag which is rivited to transmission case.

Rear Axle Codes

CA2.73:1 Locking CK3.42:1
CB4.10:1 GX3.08:1
CG3.73:1 GY3.08:1 Locking
CJ3.42:1 Locking GZ2.73:1

Rearend Code Example: CJG100DE - (Chevy sourced 3.42 Posi, Assembled on day shift of 100th day of the year w/ Eaton Posi)
Click here for further axle decoding information
Click Here for general axle info and tooth combinations

1971 Camaro Factory Options

RPODescriptionQtyRetail *
12387Camaro Sport Coupe, 6-cylinder 11,178 $2,758.00
12487Camaro Sport Coupe, 8-cylinder 103,452 2,848.00
AK1Belts, custom deluxe 16,922 2,848.00
AN6Adjustable Seat Back, driver side - 19.00
AS4Belts, custom deluxe rear shoulder 9926.35
A01 Soft Ray Tinted Glass, all windows67,25040.05
A02Tinted Glass, windshield
A31Power Windows
B37 Floor Mats, color-keyed front and rear22,57612.65
B93 Guards, door edge 33,124 6.35
C08 Vinyl Roof Cover 38,329 89.55
C24 Windshield Wipers, hide-a-way 30,488 21.10
C50 Defroster, rear window 8,794 31.60
C60 Air Conditioning 42,537 402.35
D34 Mirror, visor vanity5,522 3.20
D35 Mirror, left-hand remote control 40,684 15.80
D55 Console 72,656 59.00
D80 Spoilers, front and rear 6,489 79.00
F41 Suspension, special purpose front and rear 10,975 30.55
G80 Positraction, rear axle 11,753 44.25
J50 Power Brakes 41,630 47.30
J52Front disc brakes
L48V8 Engine, 350 CID
L65 Engine, 245hp, 350ci Turbo-Fire V8 34,017 26.35
LS3 Engine, 300hp, 396ci Turbo-jet V8 (SS) 1,533 99.05
M20 Transmission, 4-speed wide range 7,603 205.95
M21 Transmission, 4-speed close ratio 1,721 205.95
M22 Transmission, 4-speed close ratio heavy-duty 1,290 237.60
M35 Transmission, Powerglide automatic 13,466 179.55
M38 3-speed automatic transmission, 300 deluxe
M40 Transmission, Turbo Hydra-Matic automatic 77,541 216.50
NK2 Steering Wheel, custom black 621 15.80
NK4 Steering Wheel, sport four spoke black 6,216 15.80
N33 Tilt Steering Column 8,374 45.30
N40Power Steering 93,163 110.60
PL3Tires, E78x14 belted white stripe 55,834 26.05
PL4 Tires, F70x14 belted white letter 20,457 81.50
PM7 F60-15-B tires - GB white lettering
PU4 Tires, F70x14 belted white stripe 24,579 68.05
PY4 F70-14-B tires, white stripe
P01 Wheel Covers, bright metal 55,363 26.35
P02 Wheel Covers, special 1,809 84.30
P06 Deluxe wheel trim cover
T60 Battery, heavy-duty 5,168 15.80
U14 Special Instrumentation 12,174 84.30
U35 Clock 10,338 16.90
U63 Radio, AM pushbutton 95,776 66.40
U69 Radio, AM-FM pushbutton 13,310 139.05
U76 Windshield antenna
U80 Speaker, rear seat 20,018 15.80
VF3 Bumpers, deluxe front and rear 1,309 36.90
V01 Radiator, heavy duty 1,594 14.75
YD1 Axle, trailering ratio 130 12.65
ZJ7 Wheels, rally 34,604 45.30
ZJ9 Auxiliary Lighting Group 6,323 18.45
ZP5 Appearance Guard Group (Includes B93, B37, D34)
ZQ9 Axle, performance ratio 1,294 12.65
Z21 Style Trim Group 38,161 57.95
Z22 Rally Sport Package 18,404 179.05
Z23 Interior Accent Group 32,411 21.10
Z27 Super Sport Package 8,377 313.90
Z28 Special Performance Package 4,862 786.75
Z87 Custom Interior 11,643 115.90

* Option prices are retail for base model. Prices could be reduced or option could be had at no charge if it was included as standard equipment on the Z28, Rally Sport or Super Sport or as part of an option package.

1971 (Z28) Example Cowl Tag & Description

The trim tag, located on the cowl area identifies significant information about your car. Move mouse over code on above trim tag examples for detailed description or Click Here for general trim tag decoding information.

Paint CodeColorVinyl TopInterior Availability
11 Antique WhiteB-Bk-Br-G-W* ALL *
13 Nevada SilverB-Bk-W775, 776, 777, 785, 786, 789
19 Tuxedo BlackB-Bk-G-W* ALL *
24 Ascot BlueB-Bk-W775, 776, 777, 785, 786, 789
26 Mulsanne BlueB-Bk-W 775, 776, 777, 785, 786, 789
42 Cottonwood Green Bk-G-W 775, 777, 778, 785, 787, 789
43 Lime GreenBk-G-W 775, 777, 778, 779, 785, 787, 789, 792
49 Antique GreenBk-G-W 775, 777, 778, 779, 785, 787, 789, 792
52 Sunflower YellowBk-W 775, 777, 778, 779, 785, 787, 789, 792
53 Placer GoldBk-W775, 777, 779, 789, 792
61 SandalwoodBk-Br-W775, 777, 778, 779, 787, 789, 792
62 Burnt Orange Bk-Br-W 775, 777, 789
67 Classic CopperBk-W 775, 777, 789
75 Cranberry Red Bk-W 775, 777, 789
78 RosewoodBk-Br-W775, 777, 789

Stripes were available in black or white only, except black with black paint and white with white paint. For non-vinyl roof cars (except black) black stripes were used unless white was specially ordered.

1971 Vinyl Top Code
A = White, B = Black, C = Blue, F = Brown, G = Green

Natoya Haskins named director of diversity and inclusion for W&M SOE

Natoya Haskins, associate professor of counselor education, has been named the first director of diversity and inclusion for the School of Education.

“Equity and inclusion are at the heart of our work,” says Rob Knoeppel, dean of the School of Education. “It’s one of the highest priorities for our school as we move forward in addressing these issues in our community. Dr. Haskins brings a wealth of experience and passion for diversity, having examined diversity through myriad lenses in her research and leading impactful programs that advance equity here at William & Mary and far beyond. We are so grateful to have her in this role.”

A newly-created position, the director of diversity & inclusion serves as a member of the leadership team within the school, as well as on the university-wide Diversity & Inclusion Leadership Council. Specifically, the director is responsible for leading, envisioning, strategizing, and implementing processes, initiatives, and measurable actions leading toward greater diversity and inclusion throughout the school.

“I’m excited to take on this role and lead this work for the school,” says Haskins. “I applied because I wanted to help build a spirit of community and connection around equity, because no one person can do this work alone.”

She pointed to a favorite African proverb as an inspiration: If you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together. For Haskins, this is an opportunity to build a vision and a journey that the entire school community can undertake together.

A wealth of experience

Haskins began her career as a school counselor in a high-needs school where 99% of students were minority and 99% qualified for free and reduced lunch. Following her doctoral work, she focused her teaching, research and service on creating opportunities for underrepresented students and advancing social justice and equity within higher education and the counseling profession.

At William & Mary, she has built courses and expanded curriculum offerings related to multicultural competence, including building the social justice dashboard that is an integral component of the student experience in the   online counseling degree.

Haskins’s research focuses on strategies to support underrepresented students and faculty, as well as culturally responsive theories and the role of school counselors as social justice activists.

She founded and co-directs the   Social Justice & Diversity Research Fellows Program, which brings together researchers from across the university to support and promote research in the areas of social justice and diversity, and served as the co-director of   WMSURE, a program that supports undergraduates from underrepresented backgrounds as they pursue research.

She has also been a leading voice and organizer of   Courageous Conversations, a series of collaborative discussions within the School of Education regarding race and culture in schools and society. The events provide a safe space for faculty, staff and students to discuss issues of race, culture, diversity and inclusion both at William & Mary and in the schools, communities, agencies and organizations in which they serve and live.

A vision for the future

As Haskins looks to the future of DEI efforts at the School of Education, she aspires to balance short-term wins while working toward longer, lasting change.

“My leadership style focuses on transformation, and my many years of mentoring and coaching have trained me to consider each individual’s needs and be someone who motivates, inspires and encourages others,” says Haskins. “I aim to serve as a role model who engages in high standards of ethical behavior, but who isn’t afraid to challenge assumptions, take risks and explore new ideas.”

Among her priorities is the recruitment and retention of diverse faculty, staff and students an improved climate and culture that centers a disposition toward social justice and equity a review of programs to advance curriculum and instruction and increased mentoring.

“We need to develop a shared language around DEI principles and constructs, so that we understand this work in the same way,” says Haskins. “And we need to connect resources to our values, so that we are truly reflecting and becoming the kind of community we want to be.”

Education News

Peart, Natoya

Double Homeobox 4, Dux4, is the leading candidate gene for Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD is the third most common muscular dystrophy, and is characterized by progressive muscle weakness primarily in the upper body. In individuals diagnosed with FSHD, Dux4 is inappropriately expressed in somatic cells due to two events. The first event is hypomethylation of the subtelomeric D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4. Each D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4 is 3.3kb in length and contains the open reading frame for Dux4. Hypomethylation of the D4Z4 repeats primarily occurs due to contraction of the repeats from 11-100 (typical numbers in the healthy population) to between 1 and 10 repeats. Concomitant with the hypomethylation of the chromosome 4 D4Z4 repeat, is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the flanking DNA that generates a non-consensus polyadenylation signal (PAS). This PAS allows for the productive transcription of a polyadenylated Dux4 mRNA from the terminal D4Z4 repeat. Dux4 is anemically expressed in patient somatic cells, but contributes to FSHD pathology due to Dux4-dependent cellular reprogramming.

We aim to understand what regulatory elements facilitate the cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA) of the Dux4 mRNA beyond the non-consensus PAS and to determine if inefficient CPA underlies the poor expression of Dux4 in patient cells. We designed a transcriptional read-through reporter to assay cleavage and polyadenylation in cells and confirm that additional cis elements are required for CPA of Dux4 besides the non-consensus PAS. This element is not located outside the region where cis regulatory elements for CPA are usually present. Moreover, the element which lies downstream of the PAS, is within a degenerate repeat region, called &beta-satellite DNA. Using the knowledge gained from characterizing Dux4 mRNA 3&primeend formation, we designed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to impair the productive transcription of polyadenylated Dux4. Prior to antagonizing Dux4 CPA, we demonstrate, in proof of principle experiments that ASOs directed toward required CPA regulatory elements can impair gene expression, and may redirect polyadenylation. Finally, the work presented here lays the foundation for us to impair Dux4 CPA in reporter driven assays and patient cells and to exploit currently available deep sequencing technology to determine the specificity of PAS-directed ASOs.

The Global Protein-RNA Interaction map of Epithelial Splicing Regulatory Protein 1 defines a post-transcriptional program that is essential for epithelial cell function

The epithelial splicing regulatory proteins, ESRP1 and ESRP2 are essential for mammalian development through regulation of a global program of alternative splicing of genes involved in maintenance of epithelial cell function. To further inform our understanding of the molecular functions of ESRP1 we performed enhanced crosslinking immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing (eCLIP) in epithelial cells of mouse epidermis. The genome-wide binding sites of ESRP1 were integrated with RNA-Seq analysis of alterations in splicing and total gene expression that result from epidermal ablation of Esrp1 and Esrp2. These studies demonstrated that ESRP1 functions in splicing regulation occur primarily through direct binding in a position-dependent manner to either promote exon inclusion or skipping. In addition, we also identified widespread binding of ESRP1 in 3’ and 5’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes involved in epithelial cell function suggesting that its post-transcriptional functions extend beyond splicing regulation.