7 October 1943

7 October 1943

7 October 1943

October 1943

> November


The 5th Army advance is halted by the defences of Volturmo


The last Japanese troops are evacuated from the north-western corner of Vella Lavella, in the Solomon Islands.

Dumpu, New Guinea, 7 October 1943. Members of the 2/2nd Australian Independent Company.

Left to right: NX37195 TROOPER (TPR) F. J. THORPE WX11366 CORPORAL J. F. FOWLER NX130254 TPR J. A. PRIOR WX13118 TPR W. R. WATSON.

The 2/2nd Commando Squadron was one of 12 independent companies or commando squadrons raised by the Australian Army for service during World War II. The 2/2nd served in Timor, New Guinea and New Britain during World War II, taking part in the Battle of Timor in June 1942 as part of Sparrow Force. Following the capture of the island, the company was withdrawn in December 1942 and returned to Australia, later taking part in operations in New Guinea in 1943–44 and then on New Britain in 1945.

After the war, some of the unit's members became advocates for the rights of the Timorese people, recognizing the contribution that they had made to Australia's war effort. One member, John Patrick "Paddy" Kenneally, who died in March 2009 at the age of 93, said that the Australians would ". not have lasted a week had the Timorese not protected them". Kenneally visited East Timor four times after World War II once in 1990 and a further three times after independence from Indonesia was achieved in 1999. In 2005, he appeared in TV advertisements promoting a fair deal for the people of East Timor in negotiations over Timor Sea gas and oil and was instrumental in securing a fair share of the gas field for the Timorese people.

My grandfather was a Commando in the war. I don't have the details on the division or anything else really as I have yet to get his full military records (because I'm not sure if the record I know they have is his full record and don't want to give a $30 donation to the government to find out).

It came as quite a shock to me to learn he was a commando as most of the stories he told me were about when he was with an artillery division and doing transport. I always listened to his stories both out of fascination and respect (respect when it was the 29th time Iɽ heard the story, bless him) but he didn't bring up being a commando until he was in his 90s during one of the last times I saw him. I'm not sure why he never spoke about it or told me his involvement, maybe it was too much for him to talk about and he preferred the stories about driving, the cooks, camp, and how much grief he gave his superiors etc.

I can only really recall one story about killing someone. A Japanese sniper that was in a tree taking shots at his squad. I don't even recall if he said he shot him or not, just that he was shot. I think the point he was making was how determined the Japanese were and how they would do something like open fire even though it would show their position and be likely death. I think he both hated and respected the Japanese with equal measure.

Anyway, just thought Iɽ share some of the memories that your post brought to me. Thank you very much for the post and inspiring me to reflect on my grandfather. I'm tearing up as I type. I miss him a great deal and I'm so proud of him. I wish I had told him that while he was alive, I always felt it but as a younger person didn't share my feelings and kept it to myself. I don't think anyone else in my family listened to his stories as much as I did and definitely not with as much attentiveness as me, I hope that told him all he needed to know about my pride of being the grandson of a digger.

Today in World War II History—Oct. 7, 1943

Memorial for the 98 US civilian contract POWs who were executed by the Japanese on 7 Oct 1943 an unidentified prisoner escaped and chiseled 󈭒 US PW 5-10-43” on this rock before he was executed himself (US Air Force photo)

75 Years Ago—Oct. 7, 1943: Japanese execute all 98 US civilian construction POWs on Wake Island in reprisal for US air raids.

First German time bomb explodes in Naples, in the main post office, leading to 70 casualties more bombs will explode over the next 3 weeks.

Movie premiere of Lassie Come Home, starring Roddy McDowall & Donald Crisp.

LDS Church History

-- Oct 7, 1943
[George F. Richards diary] At 10:00 A.M. the Twelve met the [First] Presidency in their office in the Church offices building and Pres[ident] [Heber J.] Grant ordained Spencer Kimball and Ezra T. Benson apostles and set them apart members of the quorum of the Twelve. We then repaired to the Temple excepting Pres[ident] Grant & Pres[ident] [J. Reuben] Clark, the latter being out of the State. By request of Pres[ident] [David O.] McKay, I instructed the brethren on the tokens &c. (1)

-- Oct 07, 1943
Spencer W. Kimball and Ezra Taft Benson are ordained Apostles, replacing Sylvester Q. Cannon and Rudger Clawson, who had passed away.

-- After October 7, 1943
Though he had previously gone by "Taft," "T," and "Ezra," following his calling Benson began going by his full name. He explained that George Albert Smith, president of the Quorum of the Twelve, advised him: "Now, Brother Benson, in order that we not get you and your great-grandfather mixed up in Church records, we suggest in view of the fact that he always signed his name 'Ezra T.' that you spell yours out fully, 'Ezra Taft.'" Benson then states, "So I've made that a practice because of the counsel of George Albert Smith, who was my file leader as president of the Twelve." (3)

-- Nov 11, 1943
[Joseph Fielding Smith] "At 6 p.m. I was engaged with Brother Harold B. Lee and others including officers of the law which resulted in bringing charges against Richard R. Lyman of a most serious nature." [The Twelve were dealing with fellow quorum member Lyman's extra-marital affair.] (4)

-- Nov 12, 1943
[Quorum of the Twelve] Richard R. Lyman excommunicated. [Ezra Taft Benson, absent from meeting] (5)

-- Apr 20, 1944
Mark Edward Petersen is ordained a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, replacing Richard R. Lyman, who had been excommunicated.

Today in World War II History—Oct. 7, 1943

Memorial for the 98 US civilian contract POWs who were executed by the Japanese on 7 Oct 1943 an unidentified prisoner escaped and chiseled 󈭒 US PW 5-10-43” on this rock before he was executed himself (US Air Force photo)

75 Years Ago—Oct. 7, 1943: Japanese execute all 98 US civilian construction POWs on Wake Island in reprisal for US air raids.

First German time bomb explodes in Naples, in the main post office, leading to 70 casualties more bombs will explode over the next 3 weeks.

Movie premiere of Lassie Come Home, starring Roddy McDowall & Donald Crisp.

October 17th, 1943 is a Sunday. It is the 290th day of the year, and in the 41st week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 4th quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1943 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 10/17/1943, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 17/10/1943.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

On a refugee – Lis Jacobsen, née Rubin and the missing Ellen

The 62-year- old Lis Jacobsen (1882-1961) * fled to Sweden in October 1943 through the small fishing town of Dragør. As a child refugee from the Holocaust who grew up to be a distinguished professor of history once wrote, a refugee gives up “home and possessions for an uncertain future”. ** For no matter how distinguished a place she held in society, being in exile would have created a certain fear and insecurity. That someone like her with so much self-confidence, and who had contributed so much to Danish intellectual life, should still have to flee for her life, and did not know if and when she could return home to the life she had once known, would have shaken her to the core.

This is, however, not exactly the impression one receives of her time as a refugee from reading the 431-paged biography of Lis Jacobsen written by the historian Kristian Hvidt***

A philologist by education, she had since her youth passionately researched the development of Danish as a language. She was also an enthusiastic runologist. However, it was her administrative capabilities that left its mark on her beloved Denmark. She obtained funding for, and administered, when she had not initiated them herself, some of the key research projects in the Danish humanities in the 20 th century. Among her many accomplishments were the co-founding of the DSL (Society for Danish Language and Literature), DSOM (Dansk Selskab for Oldtids- og Middelalderforskning) the journal Acta philologica scandinavica, the organization and publication of the 28-volumed definitive dictionary of the Danish language, as well as several other dictionaries, The Diplomatarium Danicum, and initiated, and while in Sweden in exile worked on, the 22- volume Kulturhistorisk Leksikon for Nordisk Middelalder.

In his biography, which forms the basis of this blog post, Kristian Hvidt gives a detailed account of her personality and her world, as gleaned from her massive archive in the Royal Library of Denmark in Copenhagen.

I. She was already aware of a threat to her existence from the late 1920s when she changed political direction over Danish defence policy. Until then she had been close to leading members of the Danish Social Liberal Party such as Edvard Brandes (1847-1931) and Peter Munch (1870-1948) the former was a close family friend since childhood, and the latter a friend of her husband, J.P. Jacobsen (1869-1918). However, the defence policy of the Stauning-Munch government in the 1930s was an anathema to her.

All her life, she was an avid supporter of regaining lost Danish territory from 1864 on the southern border with Germany. Thus, at a time when Denmark’s hereditary enemy was rearming, she was horrified by the disarmament policies of her erstwhile family friend who was foreign minister. Her professional relationship with German philologists and her visit to Berlin in 1930 to hold a lecture would have confirmed her fears. She wrote open letters in the newspapers advocating a Nordic defence alliance. By the early 1930s she was caricatured in Danish Nazi publications. The leader of the Danish Nazi party, Frits Clausen named her publicly in anti-Semitic speeches, and Danes with Nazi sympathies would ostentatiously hover around outside her home.

By August 1943, when the Danish government called a halt to its official collaboration with the Nazi German occupying authorities, she was too scared to live at home. And slept elsewhere. When the Germans came for her, she wasn’t to be found.

II. We have no indications, at the Dragør Local Archives, of how she found her way to a fisherman in Dragør or who he was. She paid him passage for 3, her two grown-up daughters and herself. She felt the payment was worth it in the circumstances and did not begrudge him the money as she could see he had other expenses. For the sum of 9000 kr. she and her grownup daughters were pressed into the hold of the boat with 13 others in a space meant for 2. They arrived safely in Sweden.

She was no ordinary refugee. With her excellent contacts in Sweden she spent her ca. 20 months in exile giving talks on Denmark, including on a Swedish radio programme on the Danish language and its differences to Swedish, and working on various projects on Nordic culture and medieval Scandinavia. That is, when she was not engaged in other pursuits, some of which at times irritated her fellow refugees.

She had, it seems sadly, an almost visceral fear that anti-semitism would be encouraged in post-war Denmark if too many German-Jewish refugees were to be allowed into the country after the war. She felt they would be too “German” in their attitudes, and thus stand out. The worries of an older generation of settled and assimilated families faced with large groups of new arrivals is a perennial issue the world over, not least today. This is perhaps an explanation for the incident that her biographer alludes to: an exchange of letters on the subject between her and an understandably horrified fellow refugee, who was a prominent member of the Danish Jewish community. Typically, in the way human beings are contrary creatures, she had, however, helped start a support fund in Denmark before the German Occupation, to send money to employ non-Danish refugee academics elsewhere.

Musing on her time as a refugee made me think of the film manuscript Hvidt mentions she wrote in 1949, entitled Marja – en flygtningebarns drejebog (a refugee child’s film manuscript). In his opinion it had no literary merits. As in the early post-war period, Lis Jacobsen was heavily engaged in the issue of the Danish-German border, i.e. having the former Danish region of South Schleswig returned, the manuscript’s references to this area may also be a reason for its rejection. That someone who had recently escaped German persecution could consider a refugee girl from East Prussia as the protagonist of a film, about the making of a film on refugees, is noteworthy. And some of its dialogue may not be irrelevant to today’s debate on refugees either. At the least, it is an indication that Lis Jacobsen, either consciously or unconsciously, had not yet finished processing her traumatic experiences from October 1943.

This is why it comes as a surprise to the reader when Hvidt makes the statement that, Lis Jacobsen did not appear to be especially interested in the German Occupation period (“Lis Jacobsen var vist ikke særlig interesseret i besætelsestiden” (p. 380)).

This is not so. For instance, she wrote a book review “Kvinder i Kampfronten” which appeared on the 29 th December 1945 in the newspaper Berlingske Aftenavis. It was a review of Kvinder i Modstandskampen by Kate Fleron (1909-2006), herself a member of the Danish resistance. In its 19 chapters, we encounter many Danish women who resisted the German Occupation. Among the women whom Lis Jacobsen singles out for comment in her review are an Ellen Quistgaard, and an Ellen Christensen. The latter is even introduced with the words, “and so there is Ellen…” (Saa er der Ellen, …). I mention this because I then expected to see mention of the third Ellen, Ellen Nielsen from Dragør, to whom Fleron devotes the entire final chapter of her book. Given that it was through the little fishing town of Dragør that Lis Jacobsen and her daughters had escaped to Sweden merely 2 years earlier, the lack of this resistance woman’s name in an otherwise detailed and large book review makes us pause.

Was it, understandably, too painful and horrifying for Lis Jacobsen, six months after her return from exile, to contemplate reading, let alone discussing, Ellen Nielsen’s account – even if the worst details had been left out with ellipses- in the chapter entitled “In a German extermination camp” (I tysk Tilintetgørelseslejr)?

Towards the end of her life, from ca. 1959 – to her death in June 1961, the last huge project she assiduously worked on, despite illness, was the establishment of a society for the publication of contemporary Danish history, termed the DNH (Danmarks nyeste Historie).

Her involvement included persuading recalcitrant historians to join the project insistently following up those who had private archive material writing a myriad applications for financial backing from both the State and the Carlsberg Fund, among others ensuring that promising young historians were caught before they were employed elsewhere, giving them decent salaries and pensions where possible and minutely copy-editing and proofreading the earliest publications. In setting up an administrative structure for the entire undertaking, which she could see would be colossal, she even made sure of heading off future petty conflicts between the researchers and the secretarial staff by writing a set of guidelines of the various functions and who was responsible for what.

Indeed, historians interested in the historiography of the Occupation period would do well to examine her papers on the DNH at the Royal Library, as they allude to some of the problematic issues that bedevil historiographical questions today.

III. Paul Ricoeur identifies three types of traces (see my blog entry, On enigmatic traces). Between the written trace and the cerebral are the emotional or affective traces: “an event has struck us, touched us, affected us, and the affective mark remains in our mind”.**** In Lis Jacobsen’s case, the terrifying events of October 1943 left a huge mark in her inner life, which I feel her biographer did not address sufficiently.

But then, the times she lived in were different to ours. While the horrors of the Shoah or Holocaust were known, they had not yet been studied or discussed in the public sphere to the same extent as today. Suffering and emotional matters belonged to the private sphere. For those who suffered the consequences of the Holocaust in various ways, a great deal had to be processed internally. The 16 years that Lis Jacobsen lived on afterwards may not have been enough for the working through of this process. So perhaps one cannot blame her biographer for not addressing the issue, as she may not have written about it in her papers.

The only thing that can be said with certainty is that, while she loved her family and never denied her Jewish heritage, she, like historian and resistance martyr Marc Bloch in France, identified herself, first and foremost, by the country of her birth – Denmark.

US 7th Fleet

United States 7th Fleet is naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. It is subordinate to Commander, Pacific Fleet. At present it is the largest of the forward-deployed U.S. fleets, with 50㫔 ships, 350 aircraft and 60,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel. With the support of its Task Force Commanders, it has three major assignments:

Joint Task Force command in a natural disaster or joint military operation,
Operational command of all naval forces in the region, and
Defense of the Korean Peninsula.

1. History
2. Operations
3. Fleet Organization
4. 7th Fleet ships
5. Fleet Commanders

US 7th Fleet History
The 7th Fleet was formed on March 15, 1943 in Brisbane, Australia, during World War II. It served in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) under General Douglas MacArthur, and the 7th Fleet commander also served as commander of Allied naval forces in the SWPA.

USS Princeton (CVL-23) of the 3rd Fleet on fire east of Luzon at the Battle of Leyte Gulf.Most of the ships of the Royal Australian Navy were also part of the fleet during 1943㫅. The 7th Fleet formed a large part of the Allied forces at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 1944, which is often said to have been the largest naval battle in history. After the end of the war, the 7th Fleet relocated to Japan.

The fleet also participated in the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and afterwards conducted operations near North Vietnam. Following this, its next major combat action was in the Persian Gulf War, wherein it was placed under the command of NAVCENT (Naval Forces, U.S. Central Command). After the war ended, it was returned to the Pacific Fleet.

Following the end of the Cold War, the two major military scenarios in which the 7th Fleet would be used would be in case of conflict in Korea or a conflict between The People's Republic of China and Taiwan in the Taiwan Straits.

US 7th Fleet Operations
Of the 50㫔 ships typically assigned to Seventh Fleet, 18 operate from U.S. facilities in Japan and Guam. These forward-deployed units represent the heart of Seventh Fleet. The 18 permanently forward-deployed ships of the US 7th Fleet are the centerpieces of American forward presence in Asia. They are 17 steaming days closer to locations in Asia than their counterparts based in the continental United States. It would take three to five times the number of rotationally-based ships in the United States to equal the same presence and crisis response capability as these 18 forward deployed ships. On any given day, about 50 percent of Seventh Fleet forces are deployed at sea throughout the area of responsibility. The Seventh Fleet Command Ship is the USS Blue Ridge, forward deployed to Yokosuka, Japan. In 2004, Blue Ridge entered dry dock and command responsibility was transferred temporarily to USS Coronado (AGF-11). Blue Ridge returned to duty 27 September 2004.

US 7th Fleet Fleet Organization
For operational and administrative purposes the United Sates Seventh Fleet, as with other numbered fleets, is organized into several specialized task forces.

7th Fleet Task Force 70 — TF 70 the Battle Force of 7th Fleet and is actually made up of two distinct components: Surface Combatant Force 7th Fleet, composed of cruisers and destroyers, and Carrier Strike Force 7th Fleet, made up of at least one aircraft carrier and its embarked air wing. The Battle Force is currently centered around the carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) and Carrier Air Wing 5 (CVW-5).

Task Force 72 — TF 72 is the Patrol-Reconnaissance Force of the Seveth Fleet. It is mainly composed of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft and maritime airborne surveillance platforms such as P-3 Orion and EP-3 reconnaissance planes operating on land bases.

Task Force 73 — 7th Fleet's Logistics Force composed of supply ships and other fleet support vessels.

Task Force 74 — Fleet Submarine Force responsible for planning and coordinating submarine operations within 7th Fleet's area of operations.

Task Force 75 — Designation of the Surface Combatant Force assigned to Seventh Fleet responsible for the cruisers and destroyers.

Task Force 76 — Amphibious Assault task force mainly responsible for supporting Marine landing operations. It is composed of units capable of delivering ship-to-shore assault troops, such as Tarawa-class and Wasp-class amphibious assault ships, and landing craft.

Task Force 77 — Another designation for the Carrier Strike Force of the 7th Fleet. This, however, refers specifically only to the aircraft carrier(s) assigned to the fleet and its associated air wing.

Task Force 79 — The Marine Expeditionary Unit or Landing Force assigned to the fleet, consisting of at least a reinforced Marine battalion and its equipment.

US 7th Fleet ships

USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63)
USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19)
USS Cowpens (CG-63)
USS Chancellorsville (CG-62)
USS Curtis Wilbur (DDG-54)
USS John S. McCain (DDG-56)
USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62)
USS Cushing (DD-985)
USS Gary (FFG-51)
USS Vandegrift (FFG-48)

USS Essex (LHD-2)
USS Juneau (LPD-10)
USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49)
USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43)
USS Guardian (MCM-5)
USS Patriot (MCM-7)
USS Safeguard (ARS-50)

USS Frank Cable (AS-40)
USS Corpus Christi (SSN-705)
USS San Francisco (SSN-711)

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Task Group 70.6 Fleet Air Wing One
VP-1 7 August 1950 – 13 November 1950 April 1951-29 August 1951
VP-6 27 July 1951 – 15 January 1952
VP-28 14 July 1950 – 10 August 1950 28 March 1951 – 11 October 1951 26 May 1952 – 1 December 1952
VP-28 Detachment Able 11 October 1951 – 13 December 1951
VP-42 19 July 1950 – 10 August 1950
VP-46 1 December 1950 – 6 February 1951
VP-47 Detachment 7 July 1950 – 1 January 1951
VP-731 7 February 1951 – 13 August 1951
VP-892 12 February 1952 – 18 September 1952
Fleet Air Wing Six 4 August 1950 – End of war
VP-1 29 March 1952 – 5 October 1952 27 May 1953 – End of war
VP-2 1 August 1951 – 2 December 1951
VP-6 7 July 1950 – 12 February 1951
VP-7 28 June 1953 – End of war
VP-9 27 June 1952 – 3 January 1953
VP-17 4 February 1953 – 1 August 1953
VP-29 27 September 1952 – 5 April 1953
VP-40 15 May 1951 – 12 December 1951
VP-42 11 August 1950 – 9 April 1951 22 November 1951 – 11 June 1952
VP-46 25 September 1951 – 2 April 1952 1 March 1953 – End of war
VP-47 Detachment 7 July 1950 – 1 January 1951 26 July 1951 – 4 March 1952 22 November 1952 – 1 June 1953
VP-50 Detachment 1 June 1953 – End of war
VP-731 29 May 1952 – 8 December 1952
VP-772 1 January 1951 – 3 August 1951
VP-871 October 1951-7 July 1952
VP-892 23 November 1950 – 9 June 1951
RAF No. 88 Squadron Detachment
RAF No. 205 Squadron Detachment
RAF No. 209 Squadron Detachment

Task Force 72 Formosa Patrol 12 September 1950

Carrier Division One (USN)
USS Essex 18 August 1951 – 7 March 1952
US Air Group 5
Carrier Division Three (USN)
US Carrier Division 5
USS Essex 27 July 1952 –
US Cruiser Division 1
US Cruiser Division 3
US Cruiser Division 5
USS Essex 26 June 1951 – 25 March 1952 16 June 1952 – 6 February 1953
USS Boxer 24 August 1950 – 11 November 1950 2 March 1951 – 24 October 1951 8 February 1952 – 26 September 1952 30 March 1953 – End of war
USS Bon Homme Richard 10 May 1951 – 17 December 1951 20 May 1952 – 8 January 1953
USS Leyte 6 September 1950 – 3 February 1951
USS Kearsarge 11 August 1952 – 17 March 1953
USS Oriskany 15 September 1952 – 18 May 1953
USS Antietam 8 September 1951 – 2 May 1952
USS Princeton 9 November 1950 – 29 May 1951 31 May 1951 – 29 August 1951 21 March 1952 – 3 November 1952 24 January 1953 – End of war
USS Lake Champlain 26 April 1953 – End of war
USS Valley Forge 25 June 1950 – 1 December 1950 6 December 1950 – 7 April 1951 15 October 1951 – 3 July 1952 20 November 1952 – 25 June 1953
USS Philippine Sea 5 July 1950 – 26 March 1951 28 March 1951 – 9 June 1951 31 December 1951 – 8 August 1952 15 December 1952 – End of war
USS Bataan 16 November 1950 – 25 June 1951 27 January 1952 – 26 August 1952 28 October 1952 – 26 May 1953

Task Group 77.3 Formosa Patrol 20 July 1950 – 11 September 1950

Task Group 77.7 Replenishment Group

US 7th Fleet Fleet Commanders
• Vice Adm. Arthur S. Carpenter (15 Mar. 1943 – 26 Nov. 1943)
• Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid (26 Nov. 1943 – 20 Nov. 1945)
• Vice Adm. Daniel E. Barbey (20 Nov. 1945 – 2 Oct. 1946)
• Vice Adm. Charles M. Cooke (2 Oct. 1946 – 28 Feb. 1948)
• Vice Adm. Oscar. C. Badger (28 Feb. 1948 – 28 Aug. 1949)
• Vice Adm. Russell S. Berkey (28 Aug. 1949 – 5 April 1950)
• Rear Adm. Walter. F. Boone (5 April 1950 – 20 May 1950)
• Vice Adm. Arthur D. Struble (20 May 1950 – 28 Mar. 1951)
• Vice Adm. Harold. M. Martin (28 Mar. 1951 – 3 Mar. 1952)
• Vice Adm. Robert. P. Briscoe (3 Mar. 1952 – 20 May 1952)
• Vice Adm. Joseph. J. Clark (20 May 1952 – 1 Dec. 1953)
• Vice Adm. Alfred M. Pride (1 Dec. 1953 – 9 Dec. 1955)
• Vice Adm. Stuart H. Ingersoll (19 Dec. 1955 – 28 Jan. 1957)
• Vice Adm. Wallace M. Beakley (28 Jan. 1957 – 30 Sept. 1958)
• Vice Adm. Frederick N. Kivette (30 Sept. 1958 – 7 Mar. 1960)
• Vice Adm. Charles D. Griffin (7 Mar. 1960 – 28 Oct. 1961)
• Vice Adm. William A. Schoech (28 Oct 1961 – 13 Oct. 1962)
• Vice Adm. Thomas H. Moorer (13 Oct. 1962 – 15 June 1964)
• Vice Adm. Roy L. Johnson (15 June 1964 – 1 Mar. 1965)
• Vice Adm. Paul P. Blackburn (1 Mar. 1965 – 9 Oct. 1965)
• Rear Adm. Joseph W. Williams, Jr. (9 Oct. 1965 – 13 Dec. 1965)
• Vice Adm. John J. Hyland (13 Dec. 1965 – 6 Nov. 1967)
• Vice Adm. William F. Bringle (6 Nov. 1967 – 10 Mar. 1970)
• Vice Adm. Maurice F. Weisner (10 Mar. 1970 – 18 June 1971)
• Vice Adm. William P. Mack (18 June 1971 – 23 May 1972)
• Vice Adm. James L. Holloway, III (23 May 1972 – 28 July 1973)
• Vice Adm. George P. Steele (28 July 1973 – 14 June 1975)
• Vice Adm. Thomas B. Hayward (14 June 1975 – 24 July 1976)
• Vice Adm. Robert B. Baldwin (24 July 1976 – 31 May 1978)
• Vice Adm. Sylvester Robert Foley, Jr. (31 May 1978 – 14 Feb. 1980)
• Vice Adm. Carlisle A.H. Trost (14 Feb. 1980 – 15 Sept. 1981)
• Vice Adm. Martin Stasser Holcomb (15 Sept. 1981 – 9 May 1983)
• Vice Adm. James R. Hogg (9 May 1983 – 4 March 1985)
• Vice Adm. Paul F. McCarthy, Jr. (4 March 1985 – 9 Dec. 1986)
• Vice Adm. Paul D. Miller (9 Dec. 1986 – 21 Oct. 1988)
• Vice Adm. Henry H. Mauz, Jr. (21 Oct. 1988 – 1 Dec. 1990)
• Vice Adm. Stanley R. Arthur (1 Dec. 1990 – 3 July 1992)
• Vice Adm. Timothy W. Wright (3 July 1992 – 28 July 1994)
• Vice Adm. Archie R. Clemins (28 July 1994 – 13 Sept. 1996)
• Vice Adm. Robert J. Natter (13 Sept. 1996 – 12 Aug. 1998)
• Vice Adm. Walter F. Doran (12 Aug. 1998 – 12 July 2000)
• Vice Adm. James W. Metzger (12 July 2000 – 18 July 2002)
• Vice Adm. Robert F. Willard (18 July 2002 – 6 Aug. 2004)
• Vice Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert (6 Aug. 2004 – Present)

Text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

US 7th Fleet is a part of United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a Pacific Ocean Navy theater-level component command of the United States Navy, under the operational control of the United States Pacific Command. Its homeport is at Pearl Harbor Naval Base, Hawaii, commanded by Admiral Patrick M. Walsh. The term United States Pacific Fleet, also used during World War II, was often shown as COMPACFLT as Navy typewriters in the ship's message centers at the time contained only capital letters, to lessen the chance for typing or reading errors. Prior to 24 October 2002, the commander was titled Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet (CINCPA

A Pacific Fleet was created in 1907 when the Asiatic Squadron and the Pacific Squadron were combined. In 1910, the ships of the First Squadron were organized back into a separate Asiatic Fleet. The General Order of 6 December 1922 organized the United States Fleet, with the Battle Fleet as the Pacific presence.

The fleet's modern incarnation dates from the splitting of the United States Fleet into the Atlantic and Pacific fleets prior to World War II.

Until May 1940, the fleet was stationed on the west coast of the United States. During the summer of that year, as part of the U.S. response to Japanese expansionism, it was instructed to take an "advanced" position at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Long term basing at Pearl Harbor was so strongly opposed by the commander, Admiral James O. Richardson, that he personally protested in Washington. Political considerations were thought sufficiently important that he was relieved by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, who was in command at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Rear Admiral Claude C. Bloch commanded the local Naval District at Pearl, as distinct from the fleet, at the time of the attack.

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Since 1945 the Pacific Fleet has been involved in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the two Taiwan Straits Crisiss, and a number of other operations including the Mayaguez Incident of 1975. The RIMPAC exercise series began in 1971. The very large PACEX '89 in the North Pacific involved the USN, Canadian Navy, Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force, and ROK Navy. At the end of Exercise PACEX '89 a 54 ship formation was assembled for photos. It included the flagship, USS Blue Ridge, the USS Enterprise Battle Group, the USS Carl Vinson Battle Group, two battleship surface action groups formed around the USS New Jersey and USS Missouri, and a Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force task force.[citation needed] Later ships of the Pacific Fleet, notably the Ticonderoga class cruiser USS Mobile Bay provided support to the entry of INTERFET in East Timor in 1999.

As of 2011, the Pacific Fleet consists of the numbered Third and Seventh Fleets, as well as Naval Air Force, Pacific Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific Naval Submarine Force, Pacific and other commands.[citation needed]

The naval shore commands Commander Naval Forces Korea Commander Naval Forces Japan and Commander Naval Forces Marianas are also under the authority of the Pacific Fleet.

In response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990, President George H. W. Bush ordered Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet to assume additional responsibilities as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command. The Fleet Commander departed Yokosuka, Japan immediately, heading for the Persian Gulf, and joined the remainder of his staff aboard the flagship Blue Ridge on 1 September 1990. During Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, Naval Forces Central Command exercised command and control of the largest U.S. Navy armada since the Second World War. At the peak of combat operations, over 130 U.S. ships joined more than 50 allied ships to conduct maritime intercept operations, minesweeping and combat strike operations against enemy forces in Iraq and Kuwait.

Naval Forces Central Command included six aircraft carrier battle groups, two battleships (Missouri and Wisconsin), two hospital ships, 31 amphibious assault ships, four minesweeping vessels and numerous combatants in support of allied air and ground forces. After a decisive allied victory in the Gulf War, Commander U.S. Seventh Fleet relinquished control of Naval Forces Central Command to Commander, Middle East Force on 24 April 1991 and returned to Yokosuka, Japan to resume his Asia-Pacific duties.

In 1996, two aircraft carrier battle groups were sent to the Taiwan Straits under Seventh Fleet control to demonstrate U.S. support for Taiwan during the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis. The Nimitz battle group (CCDG 5?) made a high speed transit from the Persian Gulf, while Carrier Group Five, led by Independence, sortied from its Japanese homeports.

World War 1 World War 2 Operations, Weapons Data Modern Weapons Data Modern Wars Combat Organizations
LIST OF PLANES US AIR FORCE WW2 USN WW2 Torpedo Bomber - Douglas TBD-1 Devastator USN WW2 Fighters: Brewster F2A Buffalo, Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk Grumman F3F, Grumman F4F Wildcat, General Motors FM-2 Wildcat LOCKHEED P-38 LIGHTNING F-82 TWIN MUSTANG REPUBLIC P-47 THUNDERBOLT NORTH AMERICAN P-51 MUSTANG Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress , Boeing B-29 Superfortress Consolidated B-24 D Liberator North American B-25 Mitchell , Martin B-26 Marauder
USAF Plane List USN FIGHTERS A-10 / A10 Thunderbolt II F-5 Freedom Fighter F-20 Tigershark F-4 Phantom II F-86 Sabre , A-4 Skyhawk , A-6 Grumann Intruder F-14 Tomcat F-15 Eagle F15 , F-16 Fighting Falcon F-18 Hornet F-22 Raptor F-35 Joint Strike Fighter U-2 Dragon Lady SR-71 Blackbird F-117 Nighthawk F117 F-22 Raptor , F-35 Joint Strike Fighter JSF B-52 Stratofortress B52 F-111, AC130 Gunship B-1 Lancer B-2 Spirit P-3C Orion S-3B Viking CH-46 Sea Knight , CH-53 Sea Stallion H-3 Sea King MH-53 Sea Dragon SH-60 Seahawk HH/UH-1N Iroquois AH-1 Cobra UH-60 Black Hawk , HH-60 Pave Hawk Helicopter AH-64 Apache AH64 RQ-1 Predator List of Aircraft Weapons
Pre/Post WW2 USSR Russia Planes - List of Aircraft Ilyushin_IL2 IL-4_Ilyushin Operation Stalingrad , Operation Barbarossa Zhukov (Zukov) MIG19_Farmer SU35_Sukhoi SU27_Flanker SU24_Fencer MIG21 MIG23_Flogger MIG25_Foxbat MIG29_Fulcrum MIG31_Foxhound Mi24_Hind_Gunship Ka50_Hokum_helicopter KA25_Kamov_Naval_Helicopter Kirov_Battlecruiser Kuznetsov_Russian_Aircraft_Carrier Soviet_Aircraft_Carrier_Varyag

US 7th Fleet (USN 7.Fleet)

Exchange Grenadier. Bataillonen against Ost-bataillonen in October 1943

Post by AETIUS 1980 » 03 May 2021, 09:49

I'm looking for the assignment of II./Gr.Rgt.726 in October 1943. Indeed, following various directives (AOK. 7 Ia Nr 5207/43, Gen.Kdo.LXXXIV.AK Abt Ia Nr 1873/43- korpsbefehl Nr 7 October 1943 17th) to exchange infanterie units (battalion sizes) for an higher ratio in Ost.Btlen, it's impossible for me to know the destination of this unit. At the same time, the I./Gr.Rgt.739 and II./Gr.Rgt.583 saw themselves broken down to the east.
The contribution of Ost.Btlen.643, 642, 649, then 439. will be a numerical compensation, although the II.Bataillon./Gr.Rgt.726 is fully reconstituted by the end of November, unlike the other two.
So, about the "first" II./Gr.Rgt,726:
_ Where was he sent?
_ with which units (regiment's, division's)?
_ was it dissolved and then absorbed, and if so, when?

Re: Exchange Grenadier. Bataillonen against Ost-bataillonen in October 1943

Post by jpz4 » 04 May 2021, 20:40

Are you sure the battalion ever left? Unlike the other battalions you mention there is no mention of it leaving in the Armee, Korps or Division records (unless I missed something). In October it became Korpsreserve, which could have been a step to prepare it for extraction, but like I said I've not seen any evidence that it actually was transferred. I suspect this may have be cancelled because the division was already weak with just two regiments instead of the three regiments in the other two divisions, but can't recall seeing any documents to formally cancel the transfer.
Will check though.

Dug a little deeper: Tessin does not mention the battalion leaving the division (it does mention the other two battalions leaving) and the battalion is not absent from any situation maps. Unless you have additional evidence I haven't found any evidence that the battalion left at all.

Re: Exchange Grenadier. Bataillonen against Ost-bataillonen in October 1943

Post by AETIUS 1980 » 04 May 2021, 20:53

Re: Exchange Grenadier. Bataillonen against Ost-bataillonen in October 1943

Post by jpz4 » 04 May 2021, 20:54

Where in the corps records? I may have overlooked it, but although there are orders to prepare for transfer, the actual departure is not something I've found mention of.

Now if the battalion was filled with troops who were 'Ostverwendungsfähig' (which units intended for transfer were supposed to have), I can see how it lost a lot of its troops through the 'Austausch', but that is not the same as transferring a battalion and/or disbanding and rebuilding a battalion. Instead I would not be surprised if a considerable rebuild was required to replace the transferred troops, but that's not the same as a completely new battalion.
To find an answer to where the troops ended up it might be necessary to look into how the Austausch worked and to what extend men stayed together. The option that the men became part of a Marschbtl. is also possible, which would require yet another approach.

G503 WWII Jeep 1943 Ford GPW History

The G503 WWII Jeep 1943 Ford GPW has an important place in history. Here some interesting notes about the Jeep history for this time period.

1. Ford Contracts
Ford had 5 contracts with the Government to build the Willys design jeep. They were as follows: (summarized from Nabholtz information)


Contract #Serial #Date of DeliveryHow Many?(Approx)
F-11-15000Feb 42-Apr 4215,000
F-215001-78146Apr 42-Nov 4263,147
F-378147-101304Nov 42-Mar 4323,158
F-4101305-179758Mar 43-Jan 4478,454
F-4 Ext 1179759-226205Jan 44-Oct 4446,447
F-4 Ext 2225206-252741Oct 44-Feb 4526,536
F-5252742-277878Feb 45-July 4525,136

3. A Ford Jeep produced in 1943 could be under one of two contracts:
Contract F-3 and part of F-4
Serial numbers: 89381-170021

4. F-3 Contract distinct Features
Trailer Socket added
Generator: Autolite
Distributor: Autolite
Regulator: Autolite
Tires: Goodrich
Last Serial number under F-3 contract 101304 (Mar 43)

F-3 Contract Production by Month

MonthSerial NumberHow Many?
Nov 4278147-821203,973
Dec 4282121-893807,259

6. F-3 Production by Manufacturing Plants
Edgewater 740
Chester, 1,817
Dallas,TX: 6,720
Louisville, KY: 8,471
Richmond,CA: 5,410

7. Note: Ford GPW's should have matching Frame and Engine numbers

8. F-4 distinct Features
Tires: Firestone
Front Bumper: GPW type 2 tooling holes, wood block filler
Oil Filter: Fram, cone shaped outboard drain
Rear Crossmember: similar tooling holes as front bumper
Radiator Hose: Top-metal in black or OD
Battery Cable: Round-braided (ground)
Reflectors changed to Oval type GUIDE not F stamped
Crating started during this time
Body: late in this year move to ACM I

9. Gages: Stewart Warner (generally)-Temp/Oil can be Autolite
Windshield: Standard with stamped steel clamps
Extinguisher bracket: two band clamps some marked G8T
Seats: Standard padded with backrest

F-4 Contract Production by Month

MonthSerial NumberHow Many?
Apr 43105233-1111695936
May 43111170-1194188248
Jun 43119419-1254436024
Jul 43125444-1321866742
Aug 43132187-1396087421
Sep 43139609-1474607851
Oct 43147461-1552607799
Nov 43155261-1624857224
Dec 43162486-1700217535

11. F-4 Production by Manufacturing Plants
Dearborne 22,462
Edgewater, 598
Dallas,TX: 15,703
Louisville, KY: 27,526
Richmond,CA: 12,165

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Watch the video: The Russian Front 1943