New Revelations When 3,000-Year-Old Prosthetic Toe is Examined with Cutting Edge Technology

New Revelations When 3,000-Year-Old Prosthetic Toe is Examined with Cutting Edge Technology

Egyptologists from the University of Basel have discovered details of production techniques and usage of one of the oldest prosthetic devices in history after re-examining it with the help of other experts. The find is nearly 3,000 years old and was discovered in a female burial from the necropolis of Sheikh ´Abd el-Qurna close to Luxor, Egypt.

Advanced Technology Provides Detailed History

As Phys Org reports , the international team of researchers re-examined the unique prosthesis with the help of advanced technology such as modern microscopy, X-rays, and computer tomography. They managed to discover that the wooden toe was refitted many times to the foot of its owner, a priest's daughter. The scientists also re-classified the used materials and identified the practice with which the highly advanced prosthesis was created and used. Experts from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo – where the prosthetic device has been kept after it was discovered – and the Institute of Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich also participated in this project.

  • Walk Like An Egyptian… Scientists Preserve Modern Human Leg using Ancient Egyptian Methods
  • Sarcophagus of Egyptian High Priest Unearthed with Hieroglyphic Inscriptions and Scenes of Offerings

A view of the excavation area in the cemetery of Sheikh ´Abd el-Qurna. (University of Basel, LHTT. Image: Matja Kačičnik)

The artificial toe dates back to the first millennium BC and it is believed to be the first of its kind. In 2000, researchers in Cairo unearthed the prosthetic big toe made of wood and leather which was attached to the almost 3,000-year-old mummy of an Egyptian noblewoman identified as Tabaketenmut. It clearly showcases the undeniable skills of an artisan who was very familiar with the human anatomy. His expertise can be clearly traced due to the mobility of the prosthetic extension and the robust structure of the belt strap. The fact that the prosthesis was designed in such an advanced and diligent manner implies that the owner preferred a natural look and a comfortable wearing, which reveals that she had the luxury to hire very talented specialists to create her this unique prosthesis.

Prosthetic toe made of cartonnage, found on the foot of a mummy from the Third Intermediate period (circa 1070-664 BC). This toe is both younger and of inferior craftmanship ( CC BY-SA 2.5 )

The Origins of Ancient Egyptian Prosthetics

Despite some falsely thinking that the use of prosthetic devices is a modern phenomenon, in reality it was already in use several thousand years ago. As Dhwty reports in a previous Ancient Origins article , the ancient Egyptians perceived the afterlife as a perfect version of this life, so it would have been important for them to go there with their body parts intact. This is evident of the fact that a variety of prosthetic devices have been found on mummies. These include feet, legs, noses, and even penises.

The prosthetic toe in the Cairo Museum. Credit: Jacky Finch

While this ideological belief may explain the presence of such prosthetic devices on mummies, some of the ancient Egyptian prosthetic devices – as the 3,000-year-old wooden toe – also have had a practical function while the individual was still alive. With the help of volunteers without a big toe, it was shown that the use of prosthetics would have made walking around in ancient Egyptian sandals much easier. Thus, this device had a practical function, alongside a possible ideological purpose.

  • Chinese Man with Fused Knee used a Prosthetic Leg with a Horse Hoof Tip 2,200 Years Ago
  • Severed Limbs and Wooden Feet: How the Ancients Invented Prosthetics

3-D Technology Provides Life Histories

As Heritage Daily reports , for this study, microanalytic, scientifically oriented methods, as well as precision technology for surveying and photography were used. Furthermore, researchers are examining the materiality of archaeological remains in order to find out more about the life histories of building structures and objects. These material biographies can provide information about the manufacturing techniques, usages, personal skills, habits and preferences of people who were in contact with these objects.

Additionally, Heritage Daily reports that with the help of experts for geodesy and geology from the ETH Zurich, the Swiss team of archaeologists is scientifically evaluating the natural and artificial structures of the excavation area and its surroundings. The specialists are currently developing geometric precise digital elevation, landscape, and architecture models for this area. These will then be combined with an archaeological and geological 3-D map that will highlight the morphology of the terrain as well as the examined subterranean structures. Ultimately, the researchers hope to rebuild and simulate the development of the cemetery and its use phases.

The Devil's Advocate (1997 film)

The Devil's Advocate (marketed as Devil's Advocate) is a 1997 American supernatural horror film directed by Taylor Hackford, written by Jonathan Lemkin and Tony Gilroy, and starring Keanu Reeves, Al Pacino, and Charlize Theron. Based on Andrew Neiderman's 1990 novel of the same name, it is about an unusually successful young Florida lawyer (Reeves) invited to New York City to work for a major firm. As his wife (Theron) becomes haunted by frightening visual phenomena, the lawyer slowly begins to realize the owner of the firm (Pacino) is not what he appears to be, and is in fact the Devil.

Pacino's character, Satan, takes the guise of a human lawyer named after the author of Paradise Lost, John Milton. The story and direction contain allusions to Milton's epic, Dante Alighieri's Inferno, and the legend of Faust. An adaptation of Neiderman's novel went into a development hell during the 1990s, with Hackford gaining control of the production. Filming took place around New York City and Florida.

The Devil's Advocate received mixed reviews, with critics crediting it for entertainment value and Pacino's performance. It grossed over $153 million in the box office and won the Saturn Award for Best Horror Film. It also became the subject of the copyright lawsuit Hart v. Warner Bros., Inc. for its visual art.

Artificial Limbs

A number of heroes and villains in video games, anime and science fiction either start off with or receive an artificial limb over the course of the story, usually to offset the poignant loss of an appendage. This can either be due to an injury, or in rare cases intentional mutilation. Said prosthetics will almost always function perfectly, as if the character had never lost the limb to begin with, save for malfunctions that relate to the story.

Artificial limbs will often grant superhuman strength, frequently overlooking the fact that even if your arm has the strength to lift a tanker truck, doing so would very probably crush your spine unless it were similarly reinforced. Or, the arm will bend, but follow the path of least resistance, and simply rip itself out of the shoulder joint.

If you're in an era where cybernetics are not just in the future but ridiculously so, never fear: the Rule of Cool allows you to get Steampunk limbs instead. Nevermind that this makes little sense in terms of nerve connections and power source. A fantasy world may substitute magical prosthetic limbs (based on the magic that produces the Golem), but this is rare since such worlds can usually use the same magic to regenerate lost limbs instead.

The darker the setting, the more likely cyber-bits are to cause loss of humanity of some sort&mdashsometimes it's actually called "soul", but you often get workarounds like "essence" or "vitality", and magic wielders, in settings that have both, generally can't have too much cyberware. Especially common in roleplaying games, as a balancing measure so that rich characters can't just have their whole bodies replaced.

Quite fortunately, this is also a case of Truth in Television. While they can't give you superhuman powers, prosthetic limbs are becoming more and more advanced, allowing people who've lost a limb a chance to live more normal lives. As a real-life example of the belief that artificial limbs may be better in some ways than biological ones, the International Association of Athletics Federations has banned certain artificial limbs in competitions it governs, including the Olympics, due to a still controversial claim that certain prosthetics may provide some athletes with an unfair advantage.

See also Brain–Computer Interface for characters getting "jacks" implanted to connect to computers via cable (or even LAN!), and Swiss Army Appendage for characters who hot-swap their Artificial Limbs. Often a result of the We Can Rebuild Him style of Emergency Transformation. If the limb is awesome enough, it might be a Badass Transplant, and is usually an example of Fashionable Asymmetry. Often can result in Limb-Sensation Fascination when someone explores their new limb. See Prosthetic Limb Reveal for instances where a character is suddenly revealed to have an artificial limb or two despite not looking like they'd have any. For someone who keeps getting prosthetics, see Serial Prostheses.

An alternative is Cloning Body Parts, where the missing organ is simply replaced with a cloned copy. If a species is merely born with strange appendages, that's Bizarre Alien Limbs.

Younger patients

For younger patients, Owen noted that clinicians must target not only functions but also structures.

“In cerebral palsy, or spina bifida syndromes, if you have neurological or genetic or muscle-weakness problems, and on top of this, skeletal structures that can’t take those abnormalities, the feet may deform terribly and need surgery,” she said. “In that situation, one of the main purposes of an AFO is to minimize the deformities that occur as part of the natural history of the condition. You hope that by age sixteen, when they’re fully grown, you’ll have had the least surgical interventions possible.”

This, like so many aspects of AFO tuning, involves the necessary wisdom of compromise.

“While you’re trying to teach them to move as normally as possible, you’re also trying to allow them to do the activities they want to do—running, jumping, bouncing on the trampoline. So what AFO design and frequency of use will give them good body structures and functions, but also allow them to do their activities? Those decisions are different for each child, and you have to decide what you’re trying to achieve,” Owen said. “Often what’s most important to these children is growing up with good mental health, not depressed about their disability. Ideally, you can get a good balance.”

As an example, Owen noted the problems associated with trying to get a child with Duchenne muscular dystrophy to walk more “normally,” despite the fact that this could compromise the child’s ability to get around due to the gait compensations they typically develop as a result of the disease.

“Why would you put something on a Duchenne’s child if they don’t function better?” she asked. “That’s madness. You want to tune the AFO so they do better you want to increase their performance. You need to decide what you’re trying to achieve and then figure out how to get there. The AFO is a therapeutic device.”

Because fixed AFOs are often prescribed for such children, this year Owen published a paper containing an algorithm for determining whether a dorsiflexion-free AFO-FC is appropriate, versus a fixed design. 5

Kristie Bjornson, PT, PhD, a pediatric physical therapist at the Seattle Children’s Research Institute and an associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington in Seattle, praised Owens’s algorithm.

“I tend to think our orthotics practices have been eminence-based rather than evidence-based, meaning that a master clinician we respect does it a certain way, then teaches their students, who go on to do it the same way for the next twenty years,” Bjornson said. “It’s one reason orthotic practices are so different in different parts of the country, but it’s also a reason that what we’ve been doing isn’t working very well. Elaine’s algorithms are a light-year advance, because orthotic prescription is an individualized intervention, and having that decision tree available supports consistency of AFO prescription as you see different clinical impairments and walking pathologies.”

Bjornson’s research focuses partly on how well clinical interventions translate into the daily activities of her patients, many of whom have cerebral palsy. She described the tuning process for one of her patients, a boy she began to treat when he was 4 years old, and who is now 6.

“He had an equinus gait pattern, very flexible hips, tight hamstrings, limited passive range of motion at the ankle, and gross motor function classification of level 2,” she said. “He was wearing a solid ankle AFO and walking on his toes in these braces with his knees bent, in a jump gait pattern. We changed his AFO prescription, wedged him [under the heel] to incline his shank-to-vertical angle and help static standing and stability in midstance, then added a point-loading rocker at eighty-five percent of his shoe length to help time heel-off. Then we put him in a gait training program.”

The result of the AFO tuning was that the boy’s static standing balance improved significantly, he could stand still and hold things more easily, his stride length and walking speed increased, and his amount of community walking improved, according to Bjornson. The boy’s optimal SVA was 8°-10° other patients of Bjornson’s have had SVAs as low as 4° and as high as 15°. (The data will be included in a paper she and her colleagues are now preparing.)

Bryan Malas, CO, MHPE, agrees with this focus on the individual patient.

“I can’t emphasize enough how important it is to identify the desired outcome for the patient, prior to tuning,” said Malas, who is director of orthotics and prosthetics at Lurie Children’s Hospital in Chicago. “Tuning is a means to an end.”

In his own practice, Malas pays close attention to the sequence of events in an approach similar to that of Bjornson.

“First, we need to determine the patient’s range of motion and accommodate it appropriately,” he said. “Once we’ve done that, we can begin to address kinematics, look at the relationship of the AFO in the shoe relative to the heel-sole differential. Do we need to add wedging to change that? Then you’re looking at the relationship between the shank and the forefoot distally, and the relationship between the shank, the thigh, the hip, and the trunk proximally. In the end, this all has to be tailored to individual patients and their needs—again, to what you’re trying to accomplish. I need to make sure my expectations are in line with the patient’s.”

Malas thinks, also, that clinicians too often overlook the vital role of the shoe in AFO tuning.

“If you have a properly designed AFO but inappropriate footwear, it can completely derail you from optimizing the patient’s gait and achieving your desired outcomes,” he said. “If you take away motion [with an AFO], you need to give that motion back so for example if we’re using a solid AFO, then we need to think about what to do with the shoe. Do we need a custom heel, or a rocker at the front? You need to consider those things without compromising stability or balance.”

More severe gait deviations complicate the process, for example, in the case of a patient who has a severely crouched gait pattern with knee flexion contractures.

“In a case like that, you’re limited in what the AFO can accomplish, and if you don’t get the alignment right, it may make the crouching worse,” Malas said. “Other modalities may be necessary to gain range of motion first then you’re in a better position to determine what the AFO can do.”

Like Elaine Owen, Malas draws a distinction between normal and optimal gait.

“If normalization creates an optimal gait pattern, that’s great, but in some cases trying to achieve normal gait will just create more instability,” he explained. “If we try to create a normal gait in a child with, say, Duchenne’s, they wouldn’t be able to walk.”

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6 Practical Prosthetics

Looking at old personal items, it can be hard to discern which had a practical or cosmetic use. This holds true for ancient Egypt. Burial preparations often included false body parts, even when the deceased had no amputations. Recently, the University of Manchester strapped a special kind of replica on volunteers lacking a right big toe.

The recreations copied two Egyptian artifacts that may be the first known prosthetics. Respectively, the toe sets consist of cartonnage (before 600 BC) and wood and leather (950� BC). The second was found on a Luxor mummy&rsquos foot. Signs of long-term use hinted at prosthetics in the truest sense and not burial props.

The volunteers went barefoot then wore the toes, with and without authentically remade Egyptian sandals. The study revealed that both devices were highly successful replacements for real toes and removed the crippling pressure traditional sandals would&rsquove caused.

Recurring slope lineae and debate causes it

Features known as recurring slope lineae (RSL) were first identified in 2011.

These dark streaks populate the areas of Mars with a sharp incline.

Researchers speculated that these may have been caused by the intermittent flow of liquid water down steep banks on the planet.

In June 2013, Curiosity found powerful evidence that water good enough to drink once flowed on Mars. In September of the same year, the first scoop of soil analysed by Curiosity revealed that fine materials on the surface of the planet contain two per cent water by weight.

In 2015, Nasa claimed to have discovered the first evidence of liquid water on Mars in the present day.

The space agency said that its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provided the strongest evidence yet that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.

In 2017, Nasa issued another statement rebuking its initial findings.

Features known as recurring slope lineae (RSL) were first identified in 2011 (pictured). These dark streaks populate the areas of Mars with a sharp incline. Researchers speculated that these may have been caused by the intermittent flow of liquid water

It said the dark features that run down steep inclines on the red planet were actually granular flows, where grains of sand and dust slip downhill to make dark streaks, rather than the ground being darkened by seeping water.

Images from the MRO revealed the streaks only exist on slopes steep enough for dry grains to descend the way they do on faces of active dunes.

Also in 2017, scientists provided the best estimates for water on Mars, claiming it once had more liquid H2O than the Arctic Ocean - and the planet kept these oceans for more than 1.5 billion years.

The findings suggest there was ample time and water for life on Mars to thrive, but over the last 3.7 billion years the red planet has lost 87 per cent of its water - leaving the surface barren and dry.

This series provides examples of:

  • Aborted Arc: As with any show with this many characters that's run for this long, it's bound to happen. Notably:
    • The Dead Baby Bike Race is an annual bike-messenger race infamous for the number of injures it produces. After Season 1 it is never mentioned again.
    • The resident's surgical contest in "Where The Wild Things Are" is revealed be a tradition so long-running that Richard Webber competed as a resident some thirty-something years ago, with the prize of a sparkle pager that allows the holder to steal other resident's surgeries. And then after Season 4 the sparkle pager is forgotten and the contest is never run again.
    • Arizona's prosthetic leg. After being a major focus of Season 9, it is almost never brought up afterwards. Justified in that she probably got used to it, you can't see it most of the time and they probably got tired of filming with it.
    • Bailey has a mental breakdown in season 10 due to her OCD. After a few episodes, she takes one pill, and her OCD is rarely an issue. Probably justified as it was a result of her being a MRSA carrier and over-compensating in an attempt to avoid another outbreak.
    • Exploding pistol rounds do exist in real life. However, they are a incredibly rare, highly expensive fad on the American civilian market. Owen and Teddy wouldn't have encountered them overseas.
    • Meredith appears in every single episode until Season 13, where she misses two episodes (though she does the voice-over in one of them). She misses a third episode the next season.
    • One episode has a girl who has very bad injuries, and the doctors strongly suspected it is her parents who have been hurting her. It is later revealed she feels no pain and has been allowing other kids to beat her up as she believed it was a superpower.
    • Meredith's mother was verbally/emotionally abusive and took her away from her father.
    • Alex's father, until Alex fought back as a teenager and his father never came back home. Alex's mother was schizophrenic (which his brother also develops), and unable to care for her children.
    • The entirety of the episode "The Girl With No Name." Aside from the main Patient of the Week, Bailey panics for a few minutes when she thinks her son is missing.
    • After he's declared brain-dead, Meredith has to wait for signs of brain activity for hours before allowing the hospital to remove Derek's life support. Your spouse dying suddenly and traumatically, leaving you to raise two small children on your own, has to be at least in the Top Ten of worst things that could happen in a relationship. It gets worse the next episode,:when she finds out she's pregnant again.
    • Intern Meredith Grey begins dating attending Dr. Shepherd, and eventually marries him. Their age gap is no more than 10 years, but it still causes amusement with Shepherd's friends, who call her "the 12 year old".
    • One of Dr. Shepherd's friends, Dr. Sloan, starts dating Lexie Grey, Meredith's little sister. There's a twelve year age gap between them, but they joke that they have to call her "the fetus".
    • In later seasons, Andrew DeLuca starts dating Meredith. It’s not explicitly stated what their age gap is, but it appears to be similar to Derek and Meredith’s, just with Meredith as the older one this time.
    • Season 7's "Slow Night, So Long" revolves around most of the cast being put on night shift, despite it being repeatedly established that their shifts are over 24 hours long.
    • After a 27-hour surgery, Meredith falls asleep leaning against a wall.
    • Patrick Dempsey (as Derek "McDreamy" Shepherd).
    • Isaiah Washington also had this credit.
    • Guest star William Daniels always had it during his appearances in the 9th season.
    • For her one-episode appearance in the 17th season, Sarah Drew gets this listing as well.
    • Cristina's experience with being nominated. She receives a phone call that she is a finalist, flies to Boston for the ceremony, and loses out to someone else, only to find out through back channels later that she actually secured the votes to win but was excluded due to her connections to the Harper Avery Foundation. In the real world, the terms of an award like that would have transparently prevented her from ever being nominated due to her close connections with the foundation giving it and the appearance of favoritism. Cristina would have known from reading the rules that she was never eligible, and would not have advanced as far as the finalist stage still under the impression that she might win. As mentioned above, though, in the real world being ineligible for one award wouldn't be seen as the massive career hit it is in a show where seemingly only one important award exists.
    • Buying a hospital is not done quickly.
    • In Season 10, Episode 9, Dr. Torres is sued by a patient alleging medical malpractice that resulted in the amputation of both of his legs. Twice during the episode, characters speak as though they are in a criminal trial, rather than a civil suit. First the patient's lawyer, concluding his case, announces to the judge "The Prosecution rests", rather than "the Plaintiff rests". Then at the end, the jury foreman announces "Not Guilty", rather than "We find in favor of the Defendant."
    • One of the most unreal things it's how surgeons are depicted following patients from their hospitalization up to the discharge. In this show, surgeons visit patients in the ER, supervises them during clinic exams or when they undergo radiological examination and personally brings them to the OR, while in real life surgeons usually deal with patients only when they visit them to determinate if they need surgery or not, when they explain them the surgery they need, during the surgery, the post-op, and months later during the follow-up visit. Apart from nurses and, sometimes, psychiatrists and O Bs, it is a show where it seems that there are no internists, radiologists, UAP and other medical figures.
    • Interns, expecially in the first seasons, are shown being treated like nuisances: seniors are shown enjoying being strict and sometimes almost vicious, with the justification that this is the best way to push them to improve. In the show this has a comedic purpose, while in real life medical teachers can be stricts and demanding but they could never treat interns in such a way. If interns report that an attending doesn't teach them or has an hostile attitude, the attending could face severe consequences.
    • Alex has a patient with c-diff in one episode, a young woman. They give her a fecal transplant to restore the bacterial culture in her stomach, which is a wholly unnecessary procedure. C-diff is very common in hospitals, it happens a lot with patients on iv antibiotics, and the treatment is to simply wait it out. Other measures might be taken if a patient is very sick or elderly, but not when you're a young, healthy person.
    • In the penis fish episode the entire cast react to the patient's swollen testicles as if it were something unique. Hydrocele of the testicles is not uncommon, nobody in urology would have batted an eye at it (and one might wonder why the first action wasn't to call a urologist - which is a surgical specialty, too). They also treat the possibility of the patient getting septic as it being likely that he might die. Septic shock is a very serious condition, but a urosepsis is typically not. Some patients don't even get a fever, and in almost all cases it can be treated with fluids, oxygen and antibiotics. It shouldn't be treated lightly, but it's not practically a death sentence.
    • Interns don't participate in the OR on a regular basis, and when they do, they observe. They certainly don't get to do as much as Meredith and her friends. Interns focus mainly on learning the floor work.
    • General, ortho, neuro, cardio, ped, plastic and OB are separate sub-specialitles that must be choose before starting specialization and, once chosen, the interns will specialize in them only, without working on other sub-specialities. General surgery residents don't rotate on those services routinely, or specialize in those fields.
    • Doctors don't work on just the one patient per shift.
    • In the episode where Meredith has appendicitis she is given a dose of Morphine and becomes stoned. Morphine, especially in the dose she was given, does not have that effect.
    • CPR and defibrillation is depicted as reviving patients back to the shape they were in before coding. In reality CPR is a violent procedure that is likely to break ribs. People who are elderly and/or have multiple underlying illnesses are unlikely to survive it. Among those who do, cerebral function can be severely compromised. One episode of the show has an old lady who goes into cardiac arrest over and over and over, each time easily revived with CPR and defibrillation, never with any negative effects. The likelihood of that happening in real life is. slim.
      • It's also common on the show for the doctors to defibrillate the patients several times in succession, without performing CPR in-between. You need to perform CPR between each defibrillation, or it doesn't work.
      • On a related note, nurses can be specialized as well, and those that are tend to not just head off to another specialty willy-nilly. Nurse Rose, for instance, has spent time specializing as an OR nurse and her switching to peds from one day to the next makes about as much sense as if Meredith had decided to switch to dermatology.
      • In his first episode, Owen Hunt tells Derek "I don't take orders from civilians". Yes Owen, you do. First of all, Hunt doesn't have privileges at Seattle Grace, so he shouldn't be doing anything medical - this comes up several times in later seasons as Chief Webber grants privileges to visiting doctors during a crisis. Second, Hunt's military rank means nothing outside the military. And finally, Derek is talking about a neuro issue. As head of Neuro, Derek trumps everyone.
      • Somehow George is shipping out to Iraq within days of enlisting. He still needs to graduate both Basic Training and Officer Candidate School, which would require him to spend months in training.
      • Megan Hunt wears the rank of and is referred to as a First Lieutenant. As a doctor, she would be a Captain or higher.
      • Webber and Carina DeLuca, watching the extraction from the gallery, swap stories of object extractions in a Seen It All-off
      • In the Season 11 premiere, a young couple are having sex in their van when the vehicle is speared by a falling gurney.
      • The Season 13 finale kicks off with a young couple (actually rapist and would-be victim) being brought in after their car went off a cliff during sex. This prompts an in-universe discussion as to the merits of car sex, with most doctors thinking cars are too small to actually have fun in.
      • During Season 15's windstorm, Nico and Levi have sex in the back of an ambulance. Justified in that they took shelter in it after Nico was blown off his feet and injured trying to cross the ambulance bay.
      • Izzie winds up hairless due to her chemotherapy.
      • In "I Must Have Lost It on the Wind", Monica is informed that due to her head wound she'll need to be partially shaved to treat it. She takes the opportunity to go completly bald in solidarity with her bald-due-to-cancer boyfriend.
      • Do not hurt Jo when Alex is around. Jason gave Jo a black eye and only avoided a beating by virtue of Jo beating Alex to the punch. Alex walked in on what looked to him like DeLuca raping Jo and beats the absolute crap out of him
      • Richard Webber is one of the most level-headed individuals on the show. Then he hears about a bar offering shots for Alcoholics Anonymous chips and goes to town on the bar with a baseball bat.
      • Season 2x05: A big storm hits Seattle Grace Hospital and a power-outage traps George and Alex in an elevator with a patient. George then does open-heart surgery in the elevator as Burke advises from the partially-open door.
      • Season 2x06: A train crash with multiple ensuing casualties.
      • Season 2x16 & 17: A man arrives at the hospital with a bomb lodged in his chest.
      • Season 3x15 & 17: A barge crashes into a ferry boat with many casualties, and Meredith Grey drowns (it's okay, she gets better).
      • Season 4x09 & 10: An ambulance collision in the ER bay leaves multiple paramedics in critical condition fighting for their lives and others trapped in the wreckage.
      • Season 6x14: The roof collapses on a popular restaurant on Valentine's Day and the doctors must treat dozens of injured patients.
      • Season 6x23 & 24: The husband of a deceased patient enters the hospital heavily armed and goes on a shooting rampage.
      • Season 7x18: Callie Torres and Arizona Robbins get into a car crash en route to a romantic weekend getaway, moments after Arizona proposes, that leaves Callie suffering from severe injuries and their unborn child in danger.
      • Season 7x22: Cruelly subverted as the hospital is alerted to a major plane crash, which turns out to kill all but one of the people aboard.
      • Season 8x23 & 24: Meredith, Cristina, Derek, Mark, Lexie, and Arizona board a flight to Boise, ID to take part in a surgery on conjoined twins. Their tiny plane crashes in the woods, critically injuring several passengers.
      • Season 9x23 & 24 and 10x01 & 2: A major storm threatens the newly renamed Grey Sloan Memorial Hospital. Meredith goes into labor as the hospital loses power for the second time in nine seasons, and a packed school bus flips over right outside of the hospital. Then a mudslide sends a second wave of casualties into the hospital as Heather and Richard are electrocuted.
      • Season 10x24: An explosion at a shopping mall sparks fears of a terrorist attack and both Cristina (leaving for Switzerland) and Leah (fired) show up one last time to pitch in.
      • Season 11x20: A small plane crashes, causing multiple casualties and also traumatic flashbacks for the doctors who were in the plane crash in season 8.
      • Season 11x23 & 24: A tunnel collapse floods the ER and sends a team of doctors into the field to save a man trapped in a car.
      • Season 12x08: A wildfire fills the ER with burned firefighters
      • Season 13x23 & 24: Stephanie is taken hostage by a rapist attempting to escape the hospital and sets him on fire. The resulting explosion reduces the guy to a crisp and starts a large fire that inflicts career-ending burns on Stephanie as she fights her way through the flames to save herself and a little girl.
      • Season 14x08 & 09: A hack takes the entire computer system down, sending the hospital back to pen-and-paper records.
      • Season 15x07 & 08: A major windstorm hits Seattle, flooding the hospital with impalements. Oh, and the hospital loses power for the third time, resulting in the show's second elevator surgery.
      • Season 15x14: A bad batch of drugs floods the ER with overdoses and overflows into the clinic. For the first time in fifteen seasons, there's an actual line of ambulances stacked up waiting their turn to unload.
      • Also serves as an Oh, Crap! alert- if someone starts erasing the entire board, a major incident has gone down and the schedule is being cleared for traumas
      • In a later episode when Callie comes out to her father and he tries to make her leave Seattle and move back home with him she starts ranting in English but as she gets increasingly furious she swaps between English and Spanish, sometimes mid sentence.
      • Andrew and Carina DeLuca sometimes have unsubtitled conversations in Italian, their native tongue. Most notably, they argued in Italian after Andrew found his sister with Arizona on the couch in Carina's first episode.
      • "Guess Who's Coming To Dinner" takes place almost entirely at Meredith's house as she throws a dinner party. Callie's date turns out to be Penny, which completely kills the mood when Meredith announces that Penny is responsible for Derek's death.
      • Season 13's "The Room Where It Happens" focuses entirely on Meredith, Owen, Stephanie and Richard in one surgery, with some flashbacks/fantasy sequences.
      • In the same season, we also have "You Can Look (But You'd Better Not Touch)" which focuses only on Arizona, Bailey, and Jo performing a procedure on a pregnant teenage convict at a state prison, with Meredith (who doesn't appear physically in the episode) providing narration at the beginning and end of the episode. Unusually for this trope, the episode takes place on a completly new set.
      • "In The Air Tonight" sees Meredith and Riggs on a flight that encounters heavy turbulence, forcing them to improvise treatment with their limited supplies.
      • Meredith and Derek's son Bailey, born after Meredith goes into labor during a strong storm in "Perfect Storm". The storm makes the already dramatic birth very dramatic by juxtaposing it with a bus crash and the power going out. The birth is further complicated with an emergency C-section and splenectomy. Fortunately, both Meredith and Bailey make it.
      • Dialed Up to Eleven in the Season 12 finale, as April goes into labor at Meredith's house and Ben is forced to preform a C-section without anesthesia when the delivery goes wrong.
      • Meredith and Riggs take a flight and end up treating the passengers when heavy turbulence injures them.
      • Jo gets distracted on her and Alex's honeymoon inventing a new way of fighting cancer.
      • Alex's librarian mother comes to visit and promptly organizes the hospital library.
      • All surgeons dread hand/arm injuries, as they can easily spell the end of their career. Burke required surgery and extensive rehab after being shot, and Derek was benched for several episodes after the plane crash and ultimately required a donated tendon to regain full use of his hand.
      • In "Blink", Callie arranges one for a football player who wants to quit without disappointing his fans, in the form of a much-needed knee replacement.
      • Nicole Herrman's operation saves her life but takes her sight, forcing her to retire. However, she does later work with Arizona in an advisory and teaching role.
      • While Stephanie's burns are not inherently career-ending, she has spent so much of her life in hospitals that she opts to quit and see the world.
        Discussed in "Stairway to Heaven" as the interns speculate on how Mark broke his penis, then Sadie takes the blame for Lexie.
      • In season 8 Henry asks Teddy where she got her inspiration to be a surgeon, sarcastically suggesting that the Lady of the Lake appeared before her with a gilded scalpel. Sara Ramirez, who plays one of Teddy's best friends Callie, originated and won a Tony for the role of the Lady of the Lake in the very show he's referencing note It's a reference to her role and the show rather than just to the Lady of the Lake in myth because of the scenario he's describing and how he's using the "Holy Grail" as a metaphor for finding your purpose in life, both from Spamalot .
      • When Callie first starts to date women, Addison asks her the immortal line "Do you speak the Vagina Monologues now?" Yes, yes she does, as Ramirez was a performer of the monologues in the original show.
      • Code Blue, signalling a patient having a heart attack, gets called multiple times a season.
      • Code Black, signalling a bomb on the premises, is called in "It's the End of the World" & "(As We Know It)" after a patient is brought in with a live bazooka round in his chest.
      • Code Silver, an active shooter, occurs in the Season 6 finale.
      • Code Pink, a missing child, is called in "There's A Fine, Fine Line". Trapped by the lockdown, Ben preforms a crash C-section that kills both mother and child, prompting a "Rashomon"-Style investigation.
      • Played straight in the mall explosion in the Season 10 finale, though given how recent it was the alerting system may not have even known.
      • At Grey Sloan Memorial:
        • Surgical interns and residents wear light blue, as do scrub nurses.
        • Surgical attendings and fellows wear navy blue.
        • ER residents wear brown.
        • OB/GYN has pink.
        • Nurses wear green.
        • Psych is beige.
        • In season 11, when April's baby is doomed to die quickly following childbirth, Amelia acts very coldly and is seen on edge at several occasions. Those who saw Private Practice will remember that Amelia went through a very similar and painful experience, which is given a nod at the end of the episode:
        • Played ludicrous straight in "I Feel The Earth Move" as the doctors talk an eleven year old girl through doing CPR on her mother, which she then keeps up long enough for a rescue helicopter to arrive. Apparently she could sustain CPR indefinitely., despite the show being pretty good about depicting it as exhausting.
        • The technique's exhausting effects are well seen in "Cold As Ice" as the entire cast takes turns preforming CPR when April is hypothermic , with those relived visibly exhausted. Additionally, a dummy with a cast of Sarah Drew's face was used to prevent injury.
        • Surgeons ranked Attending or higher have custom scrub caps for surgery.
        • Attending OB/GYNs often wear normal clothes in lieu of scrubs.
        • Arizona, who is in pediatrics, has a cartoon monkey and teddy bear on her lab coat.
        • Season 15's "Silent All These Years" is the only episode to get a "Viewer Discretion Is Advised" warning at the beginning. Given the incredibly heavy nature of the episode, which devotes its entire runtime to exploring the effects of rape, it certainly earns it.
          "Old Time Rock And Roll"'s B-plot is teaching the interns how do do these. Meredith, having recently lost Derek, makes an emotional speech telling the interns how important doing this well is.
        • In "Brave New World", a man is in the hospital with a nasty gash on his head because his wife threw the TV remote at him. As he gets stitched up, she mocks him and tells him that she'll divorce him as soon as he gets well. The doctor working on him doesn't even think to notify the police, and the scene is pretty much played for laughs.
        • Lampshaded and deconstructed late in Season 9 when boyfriend and girlfriend Jo and Jason, AKA Chest Pecwell) get into a fight. Alex points out to the guy that, regardless of whether the girl hit first, the fact that the guy hit too is going to follow him forever. Via this blackmail he manages to dissuade the guy from pressing charges. Which Derek immediately calls him on. (To Alex's credit, he also calls the girl on her actions the next chance he gets, though he may not have done so had Derek not chewed him out.)
        • Alex tends to be this unless he's working on a kid, in which case he is amazing.
        • Dr. Stark, which despite being a pediatric surgeon is a colossal Jerkass who just doesn't give a shit.
        • Meredith acts like this in season 9, as she's going through a rough patch in the aftermath of the plane crash and having her best friend separated from her.
        • George being dragged by a bus would qualify. In all fairness, he was saving Lindsey from The O.C..
        • The end of Season 8 dropped a plane on poor Lexie.
        • The interns sit shiva (or at least an attempt at it) for Denny after his death.
        • The main cast have a impromptu wake for "Really Old Guy" (Charlie) in "Let the Truth Sting", standing by his old bed and saying a few words
        • In "Haunt You Every Day", Meredith washes her mother's ashes down the OR scrub sink. Chief Webber walks in on her, notes she really shouldn't be doing that in a sterile area, then joins her in rinsing the ashes down.
        • George is buried in the first episode of Season 6, on one of Seattle's rare days with sunshine.
        • Played for laughs in "Judgment Day". Maggie and Arizona, high off weed cookies, mourn the "death" of the virtual dissection table person after Maggie loses its liver. They even drape the screen in a sheet! April and Miranda, equally high, mourn Harper Avery's reputation after learning of his sexual harassment by holding their noses and imitating bagpipes playing "Amazing Grace".
        • The credits sequence was cut in mid-season two. The teaser now ends with the title card, and the credits themselves run as subtitles under the second act.
        • Easy Amnesia: Averted. "Ava", real name Rebecca Pope, has memory loss following the ferry crash. When combined with her facial reconstruction, the resulting total loss of identity results in severe psychological repercussions. Her husband eventually leaves her, sending her into a downward spiral that lands her in a psychiatric facility after a suicide attempt.
        • The Eeyore: One episode of season 9 has a patient who is depressed about her situation, a gymnast who would never get full movement in her lower body, and makes everyone she talks to sad and cynical.
        • Elevator Conference: Jo Wilson in "You Haven't Done Nothin'" stops the elevator to tell Alex Karev that she is married.
        • Embarrassing First Name: One of Dr. Herman's prenatal patients in "Don't Let's Start" is named Waldo.
        • Adding insult to injury, after she marries George O'Malley, Alex jokes that her married name would be Callie O'Malley (thankfully she remains Torres).
        • In Season 1, George's freezing up during his first surgery earns him the nickname 007 (because he has a "license to kill"). This name turns out to be a Chekhov's Gun later on.
        • In Season 9, Bailey's new nickname becomes BCB - Booty Call Bailey.
        • This is how Meredith perceives Addison the first time her character is introduced. Interestingly enough, after Addison gives up on Derek, leaves for LA, and comes back to Seattle to do a surgery she now is a brunette.
        • The serial killer whom Derek, Cristina, Owen, and Meredith treat in season 5. He tells Meredith that he sliced a woman's neck open one day because he had been fantasizing about it for a while. and then he decided he enjoyed it so much that he would slice open 4 other women's necks.
        • In season 7 episode "Disarm" the college shooter is a redhead.
        • The "Bethany Whisper" lingerie company Izzie modeled for is probably standing in for Victoria's Secret.
        • The "Judy Dolls" seen in "Enough is Enough" are pretty clearly standing in for Barbie.
        • Justine Campbell in "Heart-Shaped Box" is a stand-in for Diana Gabaldon, given her series of books about a time-traveling woman torn between two men.
        • In the Season 14 premiere, Miranda and Ben watch the construction workers and compare them to surgical specialties.
        • The "It's The End of The World/ . As We Know It" two-parter in Season 2 take place over only a few hours, in which time a patient comes in with a bomb in his abdomen, Bailey gives birth, and her husband is injured in a car accident.
        • The three-episode ferry boat arc in Season 3 takes place over less than a day.
        • The hospital shooting plays out over two episodes and only a few hours.
        • Season Seven's "Golden Hour" takes place in real time, covering one hour.
        • The infamous scene of Sloan only barely wearing a towel.
        • Izzie's "Bethany Whisper" lingerie campaign, for which she modeled to pay for med school.
        • Derek, rather notably, gets this due to his famously perfect hair.
        • Avery takes off his shirt at least once every other episode. Stephanie once told him to "never put your shirt on again"
        • Most of the characters (male and female) get pre/post-sexytime scenes in minimal clothing
        • Miranda Bailey is this to her interns.
        • Owen Hunt when Chief of Surgery.
        • Casey, a fire chief seen in "Thing We Lost In The Fire", is more concerned with his men that his own mortal wounds and tells Bailey to take care of his men first.
        • Florence Nightingale Effect: And it never ends well.
          • Izzie falls for heart patient Denny Duquette. This actually ended fairly well, in the sense she used her inheritance to found the Denny Duquette Memorial Clinic.
          • Alex falls in love with "Ava"/Rebeca Pope after the ferry crash.
          • Teddy fell for Henry, whom she initially married just to help him get medical treatment.
          • Stephanie dates a patient in season 12.
          • In the same episode, Meredith asks Zola if she knows what happens when surgeons are late. "People die". The neurosurgeon that could have saved Derek's life was over an hour late and by then he was already brain-dead.
          • In the season 11 episode where Derek is AWOL and the plane crashed in Seattle, Meredith is understandably distressed. As she's distracted, Bailey makes a deal with her that she can call Derek and be scared as much as she wants at 5 o'clock. This means that the tension leading up to 5pm is building throughout the episode with others asking what happens at 5. 5 o'clock is the time that Mark was taken off life support and died after the plane crash in season 9, foreshadowing that when it comes to 5, Derek will die. At 5, as Meredith picks up her phone, police officers arrive at her door. Derek is brain dead.
          • The first thing we learn about Arizona beyond her being a humanrainbow is that she doesn't trust planes and as a kid had nightmares about being in a plane crash. Come season 8.
          • In the later seasons, Arizona is usually seen limping or otherwise drawing attention to her being an amputee for a short period of time &mdash beyond this, the rest of the time she is just as effective running to crashing patients or dodging her co-workers as everyone else despite only having one leg. As much as one can get really good with artificial limbs, they do not jog up floating staircases with ease.
          • A lot of the surgeons have had major operations that should limit them somewhat, but they're totally forgotten. Callie's open heart surgery should definitely restrict her hours, at least.
          • Bailey's OCD is forgotten after a few episodes and not mentioned again.
          • George is mentioned several times after his death, and his mother is warmly received in Season 8. Mer, Alex, and Callie raise a toast to him in Season 11, and "Baby George" is one of the injured in the 300th episode.
          • Mark and Lexie get the hospital named after them, and Meredith proudly tells Riggs about "my kid sister Lexie" during "In The Air Tonight".
          • Derek is mentioned multiple times after his death, and Meredith still considers herself married to him late in Season 13.
          • Meredith's house is a large three-bedroom, justified as being her mother's house before Ellis got Alzheimer's and went to the nursing home. As the only rent-free housing available, it has housed most of the cast at some point.
          • Burke has a quite nice apartment that Cristina later takes over, but then he make $2 million a year.
          • Lexie and George briefly get a place together, but it's roach-infested and not very nice. Lexie only manages to spruce the place up by stealing linens from the hospital.
          • In ". As We Know It", the operating room the bomb patient is in turns out to be on top of the main oxygen line, forcing a Nitro Express down the hall to another OR.
          • In the incredibly dark "Dark Was The Night"/ "Suddenly" two-parter, an ambulance run ends in disaster as the rig breaks down on a blind corner. Then gets hit by another vehicle, ultimately killing half the occupants despite a heroic effort from the doctors. And to top it all off, Teddy's husband dies and she isn't informed until later, destroying her friendship with Owen.
          • Intern Ross in season 9 working under Meredith accidentally orders the wrong test, as a result they don't find out her liver is failing until it is too late. The patient needed a liver transplant, but Ross ends up accidentally destroying the liver so they have to get a second one. When they get to the second liver, they see that it hasa mass on it. Subverted at the end, when a biopsy reveals that the second liver was actually fine and the patient survives.
          • In "Owner of A Lonely Heart", Cristina treats a convict who swallowed razor blades to get out of solitary. She's so scared of going back that, when told that she'll be released back to prison in a few days, the woman swallows a lightbulb. After the resulting damage is fixed, Cristina announces the woman will be kept for observation ten days. on second thought, make it two weeks.
          • In "The Becoming", a patient is stuck in isolation due to a suppressed immune system. She isn't doing well isolated from her family, and when the transplant is cancelled, her husband and kids are allowed in with her in full scrubs.
          • Addison got pregnant with Mark and had an abortion before moving to Seattle. Addison is introduced as somewhat of a villain, but by the point this information is revealed, she is a sympathetic character.
          • Cristina gets an abortion in the season eight premiere.
          • Jo mentions getting an abortion because she was unwilling to have a baby while with Paul.
          • Meredith's house of candles for Derek in the season 4 finale.
          • Meredith urges Riggs to pull one to prove he really does love Megan Hunt So he does. by flying to Iraq to bring back her adopted son.
          • Meredith's Morality is most definitely Grey. She tampers with the Alzheimer's Trial to help Webber's wife, which puts her in a very bad spot with her husband who accuses her of not knowing the difference between Right and Wrong.
          • In the season seven finale, she gives an excellent speech on how she firmly believes the world is this way.
          • In the second episode, the Patient of the Week is a rape victim who, while in surgery, is discovered to have bitten off her rapist's penis. Meredith has to carry the evidence around in a cooler until the authorities take custody of it)
          • Lexie infamously breaks Mark Sloan's penis.
          • In "Crazy Love", a man's wife cuts off his penis as revenge for his cheating. Then when he chooses his wife, the girlfriend cuts off the recently-repaired penis.
          • Maggie Pierce. Although she searches for her birth parents, her home life was happy and in season 13 we see how close and loving she is with her adoptive mother.
          • Zola Grey Shepherd is happily adopted by Derek and Meredith.
          • Callie: Erica aside, Callie seems to date happy, perky, cute, optimistic honorable people who like to use her full name (George, Arizona, Penny)
          • Arizona herself goes for mildly ethnic women (Callie, Eliza, Carina) and, excluding Carina, this is narrowed further to add on 'who are orthopedic surgeons and entice her with ethnic food'
          • Jo seems to go for violent guys (Paul, abs guy, Alex)
          • Leah likes paeds surgeons.
          • Izzie, after Denny's death in season 2, lays on a bathroom floor for a full night and day until she is coaxed out by Meredith.
          • Recovering from this is Owen's major character arc.
          • Derek in Season 5 after accidentally killing a pregnant woman. Such a strong BSOD that he passes it on to Callie and Owen.
          • Cristina in season 7 after the shooting, large enough to last half the season, and she temporarily quits.
          • Alex, who was unable to take elevators after the season 6 finale events until Richard persuades him to do so. Granted, he almost bled to death inside of one.
          • Cristina again after the plane crash. Dehydrated, stressed out, and suffering severe sleep deprivation after remaining awake for four days, she is catatonic for days.
          • Stephanie and Dr. Minnick suffer one in season 13, when they lose a young boy in a seemingly simple surgery, Minnick's first child death.
          • Maggie in Season 16 after her cousin died on Maggie's OR table, which led her to quit her job.
          • Hide Your Lesbians: Was solidly averted from season 5 through 12, when every time a queer main character (all female, note) left the show (none by dying!) they were replaced by another queer character
            • Erica replaced by Arizona, Leah replaced by Penny replaced by Leah, Callie replaced by Eliza replaced by Carina. However, after Commuting on a Bus for a few episodes Leah disappears again in season 13 without replacement, and Arizona is set to leave after season 14.
            • Season 15 ended up doubling down by introducing not only a gay male surgeon (adding yet another sexual self-discovery arc) but a transgender man surgeon as well.
            • When Meredith nearly drowns they put her heart and lungs on bypass. This requires opening the chest to gain access to said organs. Not only does she never get a scar from this, but she is back at work within a week or so. The sternum takes about three to four months to heal, the first few weeks being quite painful, and during the healing process you are not allowed to do heavy lifting or twisting motions, so basic things like vacuuming the house is not okay to do. Returning to work as a surgeon within a week is simply not possible.
            • Derek at least gets a scar from his procedure, though his sternum also heals in the space of a week somehow.
            • Megan Hunt 's abdominal transplant isn't quite done healing when she returns in Season 15, many months later.
            • George is this to Miranda's son Tuck. Helps that George helped with the delivery.
            • Alex is uncle to Meredith's kids.
            • Cristina offers to be Zola's "cool aunt".
            • Given the amount of True Companions and Family of Choice going on, pretty much everyone is honorary aunt/uncle to someone.
            • When the main gang become residents in season 5, they complain about the various antics of their new interns, including love triangles and messing up patients. oblivious to how they were just as bad, if not worse, when they first started.
            • In "I Saw Her Standing There", Meredith shoos off the interns, telling them "this isn't a sideshow". and then invites Jackson and Alex to "Step right up!"
            • It's understandable that George, in a moment of grief, might propose to Callie. It's a bit less understandable why she would think that a couple of days after the death of his father would be a great time for a Vegas wedding.
            • The pharmacy's only security is a combination lock set to "1211". Which would be fine as a default password, but leaving it that way. Oh, and the pharmacist doesn't even bother to take the obvious precaution of not showing people her enter the number.
            • Bailey injecting deactivated HIV into a patient after his parents withdraw consent for the experimental procedure. When she tells them the truth, she is actually surprised that they are pissed off.
            • Dr. Burke leaving a towel inside a patient for five years.
            • In Season 7, Cristina cuts Callie's hair after her breakup with Arizona.
            • In Season 10, Arizona gets her hair cut after Callie leaves her.
            • In the Season 11 premiere, a girl with a head injury takes the excuse to completly shave her head in solidarity with her boyfriend who is bald due to cancer treatment.
            • Cristina has a PhD as well as an MD so she would be older than the average intern since she has four to six (depending on a MA and what program she did) more years of school.
            • It's also outright stated that Meredith didn't necessarily take her education all that seriously until her mother was diagnosed, so it's easy to think that she took longer than the standard four years to finish her undergrad or that she didn't go straight from undergrad to med school. or even straight from high school to college, for that matter.
              • It's noted in the pilot script that Meredith is 32, which means she started med school around 28, which would support this idea.
              • In seasons 9-10, Shane is The One Guy.
              • Bailey said that as an intern, she was the only female in her class. However, a flashback to her intern year in "The Time Warp" shows that she was in a totally gender-even class. It's also a key point of the season 4 fight over Chief Resident that Bailey, Callie, and Sadie Heron were all in the same intern class.
              • First she goes on a rant about people shouldn't be caretakers for those with Alzheimer's if they can't handle it. in front of Richard Webber.
              • Then she starts complaining about the horrible experience of her flight sitting on the ramp for four hours and then being cancelled. on the same day a plane crash gives Mer and Arizona traumatic flashbacks. Alex and April set her straight.
              • When Owen is accidentally given an IV anesthetic, he notes it will take 30 seconds to kick in.
              • When Cristina becomes a teaching resident in season 5, she refuses to let her interns do any work on patients, convinced none of them are smart enough to keep up with her.
              • Orthopedics is sometimes referred to as "carpentry", possibly because both involve heavy use of power saws and drills
              • Plastics is supposedly taking it easy doing tummy-tucks and boob jobs. Never mind how they take point on burn victims.
              • OB/GYN is the "Vagina Squad", and are sometimes said to do nothing but catch. Also, they wear pink scrubs.
              • Very narrowly avoided by Lexie, who also encounters Derek at Joe's the night before she starts work. Fortunately, they didn't go home together.
              • The Season Six Finale has two significant examples.
                • Dramatic/Tragic: During the spree killing, type 2 Dogged Nice Guy Charles Percy, who is dying of a gunshot wound, asks Dr. Bailey to find Reed after everything is over and tell her about how he'd loved her all this time. Unknown to both him and Bailey, Reed was in fact the first person to die when the shooting started.
                • Situational: The shooter, Gary Clark, brought along a flask filled with vodka, just in case he needed some "liquid courage" leaving some ammunition behind instead. As he explains:
                • After McDreamy broke down, he was shown a pile of those whom he killed and those whom he had saved. The ratio was 10:1, dead to alive.
                  • In fairness, McDreamy is known for taking on cases that everybody else says are hopeless. If anything, he should probably be proud of himself for not giving up on them.
                  • Slightly justified in that the surgical program at the hospital is stated to be very good/competitive so it makes sense that many of them are from high-ranking schools.
                  • Jerkass Ball: Meredith in the season 9 premiere. Somewhat justified considering her sister just died, her husband has a hand injury that might compromise his career, and her best friend is halfway across the country and they are unable to visit each other. However, this gives her a Bailey-esque reputation with her interns.
                  • Jerkass Has a Point:
                    • Alex has the absurd capacity to tell the truth in the most offensive way possible.
                    • Mark Sloan refuses to enter the OR in "Wishin' and Hopin'", pointing out that he is the only attending who hasn't been exposed to the neurotoxin and as such he must remain outside.
                    • In Season Six, Alex points out that Meredith simply thinks she's married, but isn't actually or legally wed.
                    • The fact that everyone has inappropriate relationships is lampshaded in a season seven episode.
                    • The Musical Episode lampshaded the high casualty rate. They actually called the hospital "Seattle Grace Mercy Death". (Lampshaded again in the Season 8 finale, somewhat less whimsically.)
                    • In the first episode of Season 5, Cristina loses it over Meredith constantly coming to her with relationship issues, and tells her off. Immediately after, she slips and falls. Oh, and is then struck by a falling icicle.
                    • In season 4 Meredith, after almost blowing up in season 2 and almost drown in season 3, feels even more miserable than before when Derek starts dating another woman, but refuses to undergo psychotherapy for a long time.
                    • In season 5 Izzie discovers she has cancer but doesn't want help because she's too scared to face it.
                    • In season 6 Owen suffers from PTSD but needs to see how Cristina is scared of him after he almost choked her to understand how he needs help.
                    • In season 9 Derek can't use his right hand anymore and when Callie and Meredith explain to him how he can be cured, at the beginning he doesn't believe them. Arizona suffers from phantom limb and confesses to Owen that she cannot bear she's suffering from something that doesn't exist.
                    • In season 10 Richard at the beginning refuses treatment and wants to be let die even though everyone has high hopes for his recover. Bailey begins to show symptoms of OCD and when she's forced to face it she refuses to accept it.
                    • In season 15 Jo is traumatized by her meeting with her biological mother and refuses help from everyone, keeping to claim that she's fine while it's clear that she's not.
                    • Unusual for Grey's, the Season 8 Finale, one of the periodic "disaster" episodes, leaves many loose ends over for the next season the incident wasn't even resolved, and the first two episodes of Season 9 were dedicated to showing the aftermath.
                    • It happened again with the Season 9 finale, which ends with Webber severely injured and left for dead. This time at least Season 10 picked up immediately where it had stopped.
                    • This could be expanded to the hospital itself which seems to only have a surgery department, to the point where the chief of surgery is the head of the entire hospital. Each department only seems to have one attending. This is most notable in the case of orthopedics. Callie is the only ortho surgeon we've met, despite her being a resident at the start of the show. A mere three years out of residency she is now effectively running the department. Another one was mentioned, though he seems to have retired.
                    • At one point, Meredith has a one-night stand mostly because the man didn't work at the hospital.
                    • When Izzie takes Alex to meet her chemo friends, he is genuinely confused at the idea she has friends he hasn't already met.
                    • Tinder is a minor hit among the female surgeons in later seasons as they attempt to meet someone they don't already work with.
                    • Meredith-Derek-Addison is the classic.
                    • Meredith-Finn-Derek was a thing briefly.
                    • Izzie-Alex-Denny was brief and tragic.
                    • Stephanie-Jackson-April-Mathew, as Steph loves Jackson who loves April who loves him but also loves Mathew. April was supposed to marry Mathew but runs away with Jackson on their wedding day, but Japril ultimately divorce and April eventually gets back with Mathew.
                    • Megan Hunt's return results in the very brief Meredith-Nathan-Megan, which lasts until Meredith convinces the others she really is over Nathan and ships Megan-Nathan.
                    • Teddy's return kicks off a really weird Owen-Teddy-Amelia-Tom. Owen and Tom both love Teddy, who loves both men but is pregnant with Owen's baby and mostly hangs out with Tom. Amelia, Owen's ex-wife, is trying to help Betty get clean while Owen fosters (and later adopts) Betty's son Leo.
                    • Meredith is at the center of Meredith-Andrew-Link that ends with her choosing Andrew.
                    • In Season 6, it turns out Dr. Sloan has an 18-year-old daughter. named Sloan. Slightly subverted in that they knew about the pregnancy, but ended the relationship and he assumed there was an abortion.
                    • In season 10, Maggie shows up and reveals that she is Richard Webber's daughter.
                    • In "Dark Was The Night", Meredith and Alex are told to leave a disabled rig because of this. They do not, and fortunately the ambulance does not explode when hit at the end of the episode.
                    • In "All I Want Is You", an improperly secured oxygen tank causes an ambulance to explode and catch fire, shutting down the ambulance bay and closing the hospital to incoming cases.
                    • Callie is the entire othodpedics department, despite starting the show as a resident and lacking an orthopedics attending to teach her.
                    • Until Own becomes Head of Trauma, the ER seems to lack any actual specialists outside the brown-scrubed residents.
                    • The entire oncology department pops into existence when Izzie gets cancer, then vanishes afterward until Maggie's mom needs treatment. Justified as the main characters deal with surgical tumors, while Oncology treats cancer pharmacologically .
                    • In addition, much of what the characters do outside the OR is actually what nurses do in real life (meanwhile the nurses on the show do little more than hand over instruments and spread STDs). The surgeons also tend to do all the internal medicine associated with their specialties.
                    • X-rays tend to be done by actual techs, or at least developed by them. CT and MRI machines may or may not have an actual dedicated operator, it varies between episodes.
                    • Cristina outright refuses to have children. She's been pregnant twice, the first miscarried and she aborted the second.
                    • zigzagged with Callie and Arizona the former wants children and the latter doesn't. They eventually break up over it. However, in the Season Six Finale, all the carnage makes Arizona rethink her position and decide that not having kids wasn't worth not being with Callie. Callie comes to the same opinion, and tells Arizona that not having kids isn't worth losing her, but Arizona overrides her and tells her she can't live without her and their ten kids.
                    • Meredith was initially reluctant to have kids, partially out of a fear of them inheriting Alzheimer's. She and Derek adopt Zola and she gives birth to two more children
                    • Adele leaves Richard because of this (though the whole "Ellis Grey affair" really didn't help).
                    • Bailey's husband Tucker divorced her because she's spending too much time at the hospital, you know, saving lives. She fears this will happen when she marries Ben, though he assures her it won't as he is also busy with work, quitting his job as an anesthesiologist to study medicine and eventually become a surgeon.
                    • Most of the gang has this moment in the Season 5 finale after Meredith finds out that John Doe is George.
                    • "Some Kind of Miracle" had this. Meredith, while nearly drowning, hallucinates an afterlife populated by some notable dead characters, including her dog, the bomb squad guy, and Denny Duquette. Or Was It a Hallucination? Denny at one point tells her that occasionally he and Izzie will happen to be in the same place at the same time, and feel one another's presence, and toward the end of the episode we see this actually happen in the real world.
                    • Izzie's cancer subplot also had this. It sheds new light on Izzie's hallucinations of Denny in Season 5, which were ruled symptomatic of the cancer spreading to her brain. Nothing is confirmed either way, and it's really up to viewer personal preference whether or not the afterlife/ghosts exist in this show's universe or not.
                    • When April is hypothermic late in Season 14, Meredith makes a point of asking about this. April didn't see anything.
                    • The songs used for the episodes surrounding Derek's death are "How To Save A Life", "Chasing Cars" and "Grace". These are all songs that were performed in the musical episode, which was centered around Callie almost dying in exactly the same way.
                    • The song "Into The Fire" plays in the pilot as Derek operates on Katie Bryce. Two hundred fifty-five episodes later, Katie returns in "My Next Life" and the song plays as Katie is wheeled into surgery.
                    • One memorable moment when Owen (newly Made chief) and Cristina are trying to get intimate, go into an on call room (while making out), and jump into the bottom bed of a bunk bed, when a pager goes off. Both check their pagers and are happy to see it was neither of theirs going off. Only for them to realize then it must have been someone else’s. And Dr. Webber (the previous chief) appears from the top bunk, states it was his pager, rolls off the bed, gives Owen a disappointed stare and leaves.
                    • In Season 10, Stephanie is showing off her cheer moves in the locker room. and then Heather's mother arrives to collect her dead daughter's things.
                    • In the season 14 premiere, Amelia decides to take part in an experiment where she masturbates while an MRI tracks her brain patterns. She comes out grinning about the fun time to check the MRI and sees a massive tumor on her brain.
                    • 12 months after this episode aired, Shonda Rhimes put together a benefit concert in Los Angeles, where many of the show's stars performed covers of songs live, many of them having been featured in said musical episode. The concert proved that there were a lot of people in this show's cast who can sing, not just Ramirez.
                    • Derek and Shane's ping-pong match, intended as therapy for Dereek's hand, attracts a huge crowd.
                    • In "Thriller" Derek and Ben fix Zola's butterfly costume wearing surgical magnifying glasses and borrowed surgical thread.
                    • Fruits from the cafeteria are used as a cheap means of practicing surgical stitches.
                    • "Banana bag" IVs with extra vitamins are sometimes used to treat hangovers and regular versions to help surgeons work through their flu.
                      • Bites Owen in the butt in "Help, I'm Alive" He accidentally he gets injected with a paralytic when the anesthesiologist confuses his IV for the patient's.
                      • Names to Run Away from Really Fast: The doctors have nicknamed the hospital "Seattle Grace Mercy Death" because of their awareness of one's inexplicably likely chances of dying or being seconds from death if you work there. Thankfully it doesn't extend to the patients, who actually have a pretty good survival rate because the (remaining) doctors are really good at saving lives. After the plane crash, Cristina curses it, and Alex refrains from asking a girl out with this excuse, completely seriously.
                      • Meredith has a habit of nicknaming the men she finds attractive.
                      • Cristina starts naming her interns after the names of The Seven Dwarfs or names that are close enough. The interns themselves do this, such as calling Meredith "Medusa" and Bailey BCB (Booty Call Bailey).
                      • Callie has nicknames for Sofia's babysitters like "Curly Hair", "Art Student", and "Unibrow".
                      • Possibly subverted with Leah Murphy too, though it seems more like she has a pathological pattern of falling for people who are bound to reject her, and doesn't really care if they're men or women.
                      • Variant. In Season Six, one of the Mercy West doctors notes that he "lost a patient". When a colleague sympathizes, he clarifies - he physically misplaced the patient.
                      • While teaching interns on informing families of their loved one's death, Owen specifically notes that you must state they are dead, presumably to avoid this sort of confusion.
                      • Alex and his new intern Jo who he calls "princess" because he thinks she's rich and spoiled. It turns it that, like him, she spent most of her childhood in various foster homes and had to work hard to get where she is.
                      • Cristina also realizes that Dr. Thomas and her are a lot alike, both having survived fatal plane crashes.
                      • In the "Crash Into Me" two-parter, a patient ruptures his carotid artery, squirting large amounts of blood everywhere. While waiting for an operating room to become available, they're pumping blood in as fast as it's going out, and poor Lexie ends up wearing most of it.
                      • When Dr. Reed Adamson is killed during the hospital shooting, she bleeds massively from her head wound. After April literally stumbles across her friend's body, she gets covered in blood and starts gibbering to Derek about how she didn't realize humans even had that much blood
                      • In "Out of Nowhere", an ECMO (blood oxygenator) machine has a hose come loose on a helicopter, drenching Jackson and Maggie in blood. They arrive at the next hospital looking like they "stepped off the set of Carrie", and Maggie notes they very definitely traumatized the man's daughter.
                      • A girl who is an expy of the eponymous character in My Sister's Keeper tried to say No and have her own life, teaching one of the doctors to make a clean break(up).
                      • A character managed to get hornet stings on a sensitive area, requiring a catheter. His wife knows about his odd habit, but feels that "500 other wonderful things" outweigh one (Head-Tiltingly Kinky) flaw. This gave another doctor the dialogue she needed to deal with her boyfriend's mother, who before The Teaser had caught them in a delicate situation.
                      • Oh, and the third patient might be someone's father, though that doctor's Parental Abandonment issues are getting in the way of any real communication.
                      • When Paul returns to the hospital to confront Jo, Meredith pages security to their location. As she admits to Jo afterwards, the phones are down due to the hack but Paul doesn't know that.
                      • As Meredith and Alex bet on how fast she can get out of a date in "Momma Knows Best", Alex informs her that faking a page is cheating.
                      • Seasons 1 through 3 supposedly cover a one year span, with Season 3 covering prom time to med school graduation time, a whopping 3 months.
                      • The beginning of Season 4 to the beginning of Season 6 equates another 10 months, though Season 6 may actually be a year, given that a number of episodes elapse weeks in time (including one that features Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's all rolled in one).
                      • In an episode in season four, Alex ends up on a week's probation after allowing Rebecca Pope into the OR gallery, yet he is back after his probation the next episode, which is repeatedly said to take place the day following the previous ep.
                      • Season 9 has veered practically into Timey-Wimey Ball territory here. In the premiere, someone dies and gets an epitaph closing card: "Mark Sloan, 1968-2012." The same episode has videotaped flashbacks to other moments in the deceased's life, including a wedding marked "2009"&mdashthough the episode that depicted this wedding aired in May 2011. In the second episode (itself a Whole Episode Flashback), Meredith claims to Cristina that they first met (in Season 1) five years ago. Then in the 7th episode Meredith discovers she's three weeks pregnant she gives birth in the finale. This means the entire season is a minimum of about 10 months long, covering more Plot time than it does Real Life time!
                      • Season 11's "She's Leaving Home: Part 1/Part 2" covers an entire year as Meredith flees Seattle after Derek's death. This is how the show has pretty much ended up set in 2017 airing in 2017, by having some seasons show a period of 3 months and others 3 years.
                      • The police response to the hospital shooting is to guard the exits and wait for a six-man SWAT team to clear the entire hospital while shutting down the elevators. Worse, one officer does manage to shoot Gary, but fails to follow up on it and allows the man to escape. Ultimately, the police response gets at least one more person (Dr. Hunt) shot and dooms Percy to bleed out in a hallway. It should be noted that ever since the 1999 Columbine massacre, standard procedure has been for police to enter the building without waiting for SWAT and confront the gunman as soon as possible.
                      • During the hack in Season 14, the FBI seems more interested in figuring out who did it than actually fixing the issue. Dr. Parker manages to undo the hack in a few minutes.
                      • Averted in cases where the hospital is not directly involved, such as Officer Thompson in "Sympathy For The Parents", who takes on three armed robbers by herself and wins.
                      • Mark, in the same episode, says that since Derek was shot he finally understands what it feels like to be the families of their patients. "It feels like shit."
                      • Surprisingly for a show set in Seattle, Starbucks is never mentioned.
                      • Done in horrific fashion in "Suddenly", as on her eighteenth birthday Lily Anderson watches her grandmother and mother die, orders her father be removed from life support, and informs her younger siblings of the deaths.
                      • Rage Against the Heavens:
                        • In "Wish You Were Here", patient Margret has taken to yelling at the sky to deal with her frequently breaking bones.
                        • Season 6's "I Saw What I Saw", an after-the-fact investigation into how a patient managed to be overlooked to death. An interesting version in that the stories are almost completely consistent, just fragmented, and by the end one full narrative is pieced together.
                        • Season 12 has "There's A Fine, Fine Line" as Bailey investigates the circumstances behind Ben's crash C-section during a lockdown that ultimately kills both mother and child.
                        • When first introduced, Callie is living in the hospital basement to save on rent and be closer to the action. Upon discovering this, Richard informs her that this is illegal and orders her to move out.
                        • April claims her first time was on a beach, which everyone immediately points out is a bad idea because (among other things) sand will get where it shouldn't. Two seasons later, Miranda has sex on the beach on her honeymoon and gets an infection from the sand.
                        • So the characters who won the lawsuit in season 9 are all set buy the hospital, only they don't have enough money. The investor they hoped to get last minute rejected their proposal on the grounds that none of them have any kind of experience running a hospital. When they get Richard, who has many years of experience as the chief, to help them out, the investor still rejects them because he just isn't that interested.
                        • Happens again in Season 10. Attendings sleeping with interns has become so common (four of the five interns introduced in Season 9 have seduced or been seduced by their bosses) that nobody batted an eye about it. until HR instituted a strict no-fraternization policy, something they should've done in the pilot episode. (If it weren't for the fact that, if they did, we wouldn't have a show.)
                        • Ben tries to to surgery on the Pysch floor and can't find a scalpel. The Psych attending reminds him that they are are on the Psychiatric Ward - of course there aren't any knives.
                        • Alex walks into the apartment he shares with Jo and finds her nearly naked with DeLuca lying on top of her and reaches the wrong but understandable conclusion. He proceeds to beat the crap out of DeLuca so badly that he has to be hospitalized. Rather than let it go, DeLuca files a police report and Alex is arrested and charged with felony assault he also is suspended from his job and has to work in the clinic.
                        • Izzie convinces a cancer patient to go for a long-shot surgery because her own long-shot cancer surgery saved her life. As predicted, the patient's extensive tumor is inoperable and he dies on the table, robbing him and his wife of the remaining months they had together.
                        • In a more direct version of this trope, Episode 9x19 is a Very Special Episode involving a mother, played by Sarah Chalke, who is convinced her child has Kawasaki's Disease but can't get any doctors to listen. This is based on Chalke's own panicked experiences with getting a diagnosis for her son Charlie, and she essentially plays herself.
                        • Meredith when Derek breaks up with her, which makes him jealous and tells her that she and Alex should get together, since he also likes to get around a lot.
                        • Arizona when she was a resident, and briefly after her separation from Callie.
                        • In Season 11, Alex discovers he is now Meredith's "person" due to Cristina's departure.
                        • Jo promotes Ben to chief confidant in Season 14 after Steph's departure.
                        • Derek's thing for ferryboats. He even has a ferryboat-print scrub cap that Mer takes as her own following his death.
                        • Mystery VIP patients are always assumed to be Bono.
                        • After having to operate on a genuine white supremacist, she asks not to be called this anymore.
                        • In Season 14, Webber and Carina DeLuca, watching a pistol being extracted from a woman's vagina, compare Ass Shoves they've treated in what amounts to a Seen It All-off.
                        • In "Let The Angels Commit", Meredith treats a woman who burned her hand to avoid taking the bar exam. She gets committed to Psych on a 72-hour hold.
                        • Rebeca Pope is committed as well after she cuts her wrists in the Season 4 finale.
                        • Cristina suspects Lexie is a cutter in Season 5, though it turns out she was just part of the intern cabal that was practicing on themselves.
                        • Interestingly, an unusually large percentage of the songs on the soundtrack are sentimental and slow covers of songs that are originally more upbeat, or at least faster/rockier/dancier. Sometimes trying to recognize the song can distract from the drama of the scene.
                        • In "17 Seconds", a Jerkass boss managed to escape a shooting by diving through a window and winds up with glass in him.
                        • Again in "From a Whisper to a Scream", a woman is tossed through a window by a car and has massive amounts of glass in her for Alex to pick out.
                        • Private Practice follows Addison Montgomery, after she leaves Seattle Grace for a new life.
                        • Station 19 follows Ben Warren as he becomes a firefighter at the titular station.
                        • Though Webber isn't the chief of staff anymore, he keeps trying to retire but doesn't stick to it.
                        • At the end of season 8, Meredith, Derek, Cristina, Alex, Jackson, and April are all preparing to leave Seattle Grace. As of the beginning of season 9, only Teddy and Cristina have actually left, and after five episodes in Minnesota, Cristina is back. Somewhat justified considering the repercussions of the plane crash.
                        • No matter how many times April gets fired, it doesn't stick. Until season 14, after Sarah Drew got fired from the show.
                        • Alex, after the Season-8-finale plane crash &mdash especially since one of the most-injured parties (Arizona) was there to replace him after she finds out he's seriously considering leaving to work elsewhere, and pissed off, she takes him off the case and boards the plane in his place. It's made worse when Arizona tells Alex that she wishes it was him who was on the plane when it crashed, because in her own words, she "kept thinking about her wife and baby, and how he had no one."
                        • Owen, after he put his sister on a helicopter and it crashed and she died but didn't actually , and after he put his wife and friends on a plane and it crashed and two died, one lost a leg, one lost motor control, one suffered massive PTSD and none of them wanted to get on a plane again. Oh, Owen.
                        • Ross, after he has Heather look for Webber rather than do so himself. Heather dies of her injuries after being shocked and Ross starts having a breakdown over it.
                        • Izzie was notably the only one of the original interns who could cook, and would bake up a storm at any excuse. After Denny's death she baked so many muffins she gave several baskets worth to Joe's Bar.
                        • DeLuca is put on bed rest for the entire day after slipping on a severed ear and hitting his head in "Games People Play". He is noted to have a fairly severe concussion.
                        • Mark's daughter Sloan Riley was the product of a teen pregnancy and is 18 years old and pregnant when she reunites with her father. She ultimately decides to place the baby for adoption after he's born.
                        • A Bottle Episode in season 13 shows Bailey, Jo and Arizona treating a violent pregnant inmate at a maximum security prison. She is 16 years old.
                        • Season 9 has the hospital hire someone to help them save money to keep it running, this person brings in a guy to teach the surgeons a standard way of doing a specific procedure. When Dr. Webber still wants to do it his way, saying it would be good for the patients, the guy says the patients don't matter. He tries to Verbal Backspace, but the reason he was there in the first place was not to help the patients.
                        • At a New Year's Party, Maggie suggests they leave early:
                        • Izzie and George, finally free to sleep with each other without commitments (like his wife) looming over their heads, find that the chemistry has disappeared, and no matter how hard they try, it isn't any good.
                        • In the two-part finale, boyfriend-and-girlfriend brain-tumor patients, facing a risky experimental treatment, enlist Meredith and Derek to stand guard against their parents while they play "Must Not Die a Virgin" totally straight.
                        • Discussed in "Superfreak" as the cast talk about their first times, which leads to the revelation that April is still a virgin.
                        • A nestedTime Skip occurs in Season 9, with the first episode setting up a Character Death and the second resolving (IE setting up) both that and the Season 8 Cliffhanger.
                        • Happens again in Season 10 for the mid-season premiere. This time of only three weeks.
                        • "She's Leaving Home" in season 11 features multiple skips and spans nearly an entire year.
                        • In "What I Am", a patient on oxygen decides to have a cigarette. George has just enough time to scream for him to stop before the man is on fire.
                        • Five seasons later in "Can't Fight This Feeling", another smoker lights up while covered in gasoline. The resultant explosion rocks the ER.
                        • Honorable mention goes to April. Returning from a year in Jordan with the military, she has changed so much Miranda dubs her "Kepner the reboot".
                        • A Season 3 episode had a trans woman who transitioned despite the hormones feeding her breast cancer.
                        • Ben Waren's brother turns out to be a transgender woman. Ben doesn't take it very well, partially because she never told him.
                        • Dr. Casey Parker, introduced in Season 14, is transgender.
                        • April and Jackson's daughter Harriet is born this way. The baby is breech with no pulse and a storm means an ambulance cannot get there in time, so Ben carries out a C-section on the kitchen table, without anaesthetic.
                        • In the early seasons Meredith is kind of like this. She inherited a big house and lets her friends live with her, and possibly doesn't even charge rent (though she does at least require that they do household chores and the like).
                        • Jackson is incredibly rich, and at one point casually hands over his AmEx card to secure a $25,000 slot on a private jet for an urgently need medical device.
                        • Meredith started the show as an only child, discovering over many seasons that she has at least three half-siblings that her parents didn't even hide from her (Molly and Lexie from her dad, Maggie from her mom). She visited her dad a few times before meeting his daughters, apparently just never bumping into them or seeing photos, and was there for Maggie's birth but (being all of five), confused the birth with her mother's suicide attempt. So that Maggie could dramatically reveal it when she gets hired as Cristina's replacement and give Meredith the realization that Maggie's father is Richard Webber, which neither of them know. It's surprising that Ellis didn't reveal all due to Alzheimer's
                        • On that note, her father Thatcher didn't know about Maggie until Meredith told him the day he died.
                        • Arizona picks up a girl at Joe's and takes her home, and it looks like it could be a successful one night stand for her to get over Eliza and finally uncomplicate her love life. until her long-time roommate and good friend, Andrew, comes home and scurries past &mdash but the girl notices him and calls his name. She reveals that he is her little brother , something you would imagine Andrew would have probably mentioned to Arizona (since they have lived together for a few years and he testified for her at her daughter's custody hearing), or if not to have at least had a photo around that Arizona would have recognized.
                        • "McDreamy was doing the McNasty with McHottie. That McBastard!" This one, at least, was a deliberate parody on the part of George.
                        • Seriously? Seriously! SERIOUSLY!?
                        • You're my person.
                        • Wake Up Fighting: Owen Hunt, thanks to his PTSD.
                        • We Hardly Knew Ye:
                          • From Season 2: Dylan Young, that bomb squad guy who was introduced in one episode, then blown up (literally) in the next episode. He did come back later for a couple episodes . as a ghost.
                          • A couple characters (Reed and Charles) are introduced early in Season Six and then killed off in the Wham Episode finale. Charles later comes back in flashbacks and alternate future episodes.
                          • A number of new interns are introduced in the Season 9 premiere. One of them (Heather) croaks exactly a year later.
                          • The Season Two Finale, a three-part episode that begins with multiple gunshot injuries arriving at the hospital after a disgruntled employee attacks his place of work. The first of three parts end with Izzie cutting the LVAD wire in an attempt to get her ill boyfriend at the top of the transplant list. "[Heart surgeon] Burke will be here soon," she promises. just as the gunman shoots Burke down. And that's just the first Drama Bomb.
                          • The Season Five Finale, in which George gets hit by a bus and comes in as a John Doe and Izzie codes from her stage four brain cancer. George dies, just as they find out who he is.
                          • The Season Six Finale. Looking it over, there exactly one character that were never in direct mortal danger: Teddy Altman.
                          • The Season 8 finale: Lexie's death, Owen firing Teddy, and&mdashoh yeah&mdashthe plane crash, with five main characters stranded in the middle of somewhere-between-Seattle-and-Idaho, all of them injured.
                          • The Season 9 premiere. Meredith and Cristina are cut off from each other, save FaceTime, because neither of them can stand to take plane trips anymore. Derek's injuries have resulted in his left hand going numb, which may do nothing less than end his career as a surgeon. Arizona coded and her broken leg had to be amputated&mdashby Alex, because Callie is operating on Derek's hand. Mark has reached the end of his living will and is taken off life support. And Meredith has transformed from Grumpy Bear into full-on Broken Bird.
                          • A season ten episode, "Sorry Seems To Be Hardest Word" flashes back to late season nine and reveals Callie and Arizona decided to have another baby, but Arizona miscarried her pregnancy.
                          • "How to Save a Life" in season 11, in which Derek is killed.
                          • In general, if it's a season finale, expect it to be a Wham Episode
                          • The Season 5 finale: Meredith is busy talking to John Doe, whose face is disfigured after being dragged by a bus. He takes her hand and "writes" a message on her palm:
                          • In season 7, when Arizona returns and wants to reconcile with Callie, Callie delivers a line that changes their relationship:
                          • Shortly after this moment, Callie gets her own, painfully sentimental one to the hospital staff (who were in denial). She goes to check that it really is George, recounting his cute birthmark, and then she comes back out of the room in front of them looking completely devastated as she says Yes.
                          • The season 14 premiere has Amelia looking at an MRI of her own brain. Arizona and Carina's expressions cement the scene.
                          • Joe, who runs the bar across from the hospital where everyone hangs out after shift, vanishes with no explanation mid-Season 7. Especially noticeable since the bar is still a setting about a decade after his disappearance.
                          • The Season 8 finale involves a plane crash, and the plane's pilot is a character. It takes several episodes of Season 9 before he's even mentioned again. As it turns out, he broke his back in the crash and is paralyzed. This information comes to light when one of the lawyers representing Seattle Grace Mercy West suggests suing a number of people and organizations, including the pilot, for the plane crash.
                          • Dr. Stark. When Arizona is rehired, it's with the express understanding that she will report to him, and then we have only a few episodes of them coming into conflict before he disappears and she's right back to running the department with never a word about him. To be fair, his contract was only a year and she was gone for at least a few months, and he's a decent enough guy underneath to stand back and let her charm the department into working hard when none of the staff really like him. He's also a bit heartbroken over April, too, so might have left because of that.
                          • Dr. Russell, who has had three scenes since Cristina came back and has told her that she will run the cardiothoracic surgery department in all but name. She certainly does!
                          • Cristina gives one to Bailey for calling her out of a major surgery to tend to a white supremacist patient just because she's Asian and for the purpose of making the supremacist uncomfortable. She points out that denying her an educational experience just to prove a point about ethnicity is its own form of discrimination.
                          • Alex gets one after telling the chief that Meredith was tampering with the Alzheimer's trial, which gets her (temporarily) fired. What she did was illegal and ruined her husband's credibility, though he's seen as being more in the wrong because she was trying to help a friend and he told on her out of spite and to ruin her chances of becoming Chief Resident.
                          • Owen gets one from Meredith after he cheats on Cristina.
                          • Richard gets one from a staff member from the nursing home calls him out when he stops visiting his wife.
                          • Alex gives one to Meredith and Cristina in Season 9: the plane crash lawsuit, followed by their resignations, are threatening to drag the hospital under.
                          • A very distraught and heartbroken Amelia to Meredith in season 11, for very good reasons: Meredith pulled the plug on Derek and didn't tell Amelia, preventing her from saying goodbye to her brother. Understandably, Amelia feels resentful towards Meredith for doing so.
                          • April and Matthew get married in the season 14 finale after Jo and Alex's wedding goes horribly.
                          • An unnamed intern is #1, Dr. Mostow #2, Lexie #3, Dr. Mandvi #4, and Dr. Spalding becomes #4.2 after Dr. Mandvi is reassigned to George.

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                          Researcher Lucy Skinner, said: 'It was possible to see abrasion along the edges of the leather scales, meaning that the armour had seen considerable use.

                          'That suggests that Tutankhamun had worn it, and that perhaps he had even seen battle.

                          'If this is true, it would be an amazing revelation, countering the idea that Tut was a weak and sickly boy-king.'

                          Her research involves studying ancient Egyptian and Nubian leather objects to understand how they were made, used, and what they would have looked like.

                          Despite being excavated almost a century ago, it is still a mystery how the overlapping leather scales (pictured) used in the armour were made, or whether the garment had a military use

                          Researcher Ms Skinner from the University of Northampton (pictured) was filmed as part of a Channel 5 documentary to uncover secrets about the mysterious Egyptian pharaoh

                          Tutankhamum was eight or nine when he acceded to the throne in 1,332BC and died 10 or so years later. His intact tomb was discovered in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes in 1922 by Howard Carter's famous excavation

                          The PhD candidate was contacted by programme-makers after she was one of only a handful to have had contact with the 3,000-year-old object outside of Egypt.

                          Ms Skinner examined the fragile remnants of the garment, a tunic-like object, which was housed in the new Grand Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

                          During the programme 'Secrets of Tutankhamun's Treasures' she also attempted to recreate the ancient leather at the University's tanneries in Northampton, housed within its Institute of Creative Leather Technologies.

                          Despite being excavated almost a century ago, it is still a mystery how the overlapping leather scales used in the armour were made, or whether it had a military use.

                          The battle-jacket was damaged when first discovered but the remnants remain in good condition to allow researchers to use a cutting-edge form of photography to find new details about the hard leather tunic

                          Ms Skinner (pictured) also attempted to recreate the ancient leather at the University's tanneries in Northampton, housed within its Institute of Creative Leather Technologies

                          Ms Skinner said: 'I have been working on some experimental tanning to create replicas of the individual scales.

                          'The ancient methods used for making this type of leather are not really well understood and it rarely survives at archaeological sites because it is really vulnerable to damage caused by moisture.

                          'Materials will invariably change chemically and physically after being buried for thousands of years, so there are a lot of complicated scientific processes involved in finding these things out.'

                          This computer-generated image of the leather scales were made using the Reflectance Transformation Imaging technique. Leather is not normally found at archaeological sites as it perishes easily in the presence of moisture

                          Leather rarely survives at archaeological sites because it is vulnerable to moisture damage.

                          Tutankhamun was eight or nine when he acceded to the throne in 1,332BC and died 10 or so years later.

                          His intact tomb was discovered in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes in 1922 by Howard Carter's famous excavation.


                          The face of Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, and ruled between 1332 BC and 1323 BC. Right, his famous gold funeral mask

                          Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, and ruled between 1332 BC and 1323 BC.

                          He was the son of Akhenaten and took to the throne at the age of nine or ten.

                          When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten.

                          He died at around the age of 18 and his cause of death is unknown.

                          In 1907, Lord Carnarvon George Herbert asked English archaeologist and Egyptologist Howard Carter to supervise excavations in the Valley of the Kings.

                          On 4 November 1922, Carter's group found steps that led to Tutankhamun's tomb.

                          He spent several months cataloguing the antechamber before opening the burial chamber and discovering the sarcophagus in February 1923.

                          When the tomb was discovered in 1922 by archaeologist Howard Carter, under the patronage of Lord Carnarvon, the media frenzy that followed was unprecedented.

                          Carter and his team took 10 years to clear the tomb of its treasure because of the multitude of objects found within it.

                          For many, Tut embodies ancient Egypt's glory because his tomb was packed with the glittering wealth of the rich 18th Dynasty from 1569 to 1315 BC.

                          Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass (3rd L) supervises the removal of the lid of the sarcophagus of King Tutankhamun in his underground tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in 2007.

                          The battle-jacket was damaged, probably while it was being removed from the original box in which it was placed in the tomb, and when the excavators attempted to unfold it.

                          Today, only a small portion of it survives and experts hope to help find funding to allow the conservators at the Cairo museum to dedicate some time to restore the unique object.

                          The hour long 'Secrets of Tutankhamun's Treasures' programme is due to be broadcast at 7:00pm GMT (3:00pm ET) on Wednesday.


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                          Watch the video: Vorausschauende Prothese