Coin from Kashi

Coin from Kashi


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Coin from Kashi - History

For 2000 years, from the reign of Qin Shi Huang ( Shih Huang-Ti, 221-207 BC ), Chinese coins consisted of cast bronzes or brass, with a central square hole. Although inflation necessitated the occasional issue of multiples, such as the 50 cash coins of the emperor Xian Feng ( Hsien Fêng, 1850-1861 ), this was still the system at the start of the reign of Guang Xu ( Kuang Hsü ) in 1875.

By the mid-19th Century international trade with Western powers had grown significantly and was largely conducted in silver dollars such as the American "eagle" dollar and the Mexican 8 reals. Some Chinese silver coins based on the dollar standard were first minted by the military authorities in Zhangzhou ( Changchow ), Fujian Province, as early as 1844, in the reign of Dao Guang ( Tao Kuang ). Other silver coins were issued in the provinces of Taiwan ( Formosa ), Hunan , Jiangxu , Jilin and Xinjiang (note 1) .

In 1888 the Qing ( Ching or Manchu ) government authorised Zhang Zhidong, Governor-General of Guangdong and Guiangxi provinces, to mint silver dollars. These initially weighed 0.73 tael (7 mace and 3 canderins), equivalent to circa 28 grammes, reduced three years later to 0.72 tael (note 2) (25 grammes) and were minted by the Guangdong Silver Dollar Bureau. They were the first official Chinese dollars.

When Zhang Zhidong was appointed Governor-General of Hunan and Hubei in 1893 (year 19 of Guang Xu ), he set up a mint in Wuhan ( Wuchang ) which also minted silver dollars. In 1896 (year 22 of Guang Xu ) Bei Yang ( Pei Yang , another name for Zhili province) produced some trial pieces, and commenced full production the following year. These were minted by the Bei Yang Machine Bureau in Tianjin ( Tientsin ) and were marked "Pei Yang Arsenal". In the 33rd year of Guang Xu (1907) the bureau changed its name to the Bei Yang Mint, with a further change to the General Mint in 1910 (2nd year of the emperor Xuan Tong ). Coins with the inscription in English "Tai-Ching Ti-Kuo Silver Coin" were produced at this mint.

Above: Dragon dollar produced by Bei Yang, Year 34 of Guang Xu (1908)

In 1898, the mints of Nanjing ( Nanking ) and Suzhou ( Soochow ) began producing dollars for the region of Jiangnan ( Kiangnan ), which comprised the three provinces of Jiangsu , Anhui and Jiangxi . The same year the province of Anhui also produced dollars in its own name. The Chengdu mint in Sichuan began minting silver dollars in the 24th year of Guang Xu (1898). It also produced the lighter silver rupees bearing a portrait of the emperor ( see below ). In the same year, the Fengtian Machine Bureau in Shenyang ( Mukden ) also began minting dollars for Manchuria (the north-eastern provinces of Jilin , Liaoning and Heilongjiang ), with others by Jilin in its own right. Circa 1902 silver dollars were minted in Chekiang province.


Conclusion

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11 Things You Need To Know About The Real Kashibai

The love story of Peshwa Bajirao and Mastani caught the eye of director Sanjay Leela Bhansali to translate onto celluloid. But the character of Kashibai, who remained in the background, managed to walk away with all the praise, emerging as the real winner of the love saga. And if you are still drooling over the way Priyanka Chopra pulled off the high octane performance of Bajirao's first wife, the reason can be attributed to Kashibai not giving in to her husband's demands. She doesn't protest or sneer. She is angry but doesn't fight back. She teaches the most important lesson, that acceptance of injustice is sometimes the opposite of cowardice. And PeeCee conveys all these emotions with near-flawless comprehension of her character's inner world. Yes, she is at her best to date.

But who was Kashibai in history? Was she the woman whose face lit up just at the sight of her husband? Or was she the one who refused to surrender to destiny? Some call her portrayal in the film fictionalised, while some say her persona was as unforgiving as projected in the film. We did some research, and here's who she really was.

1. Kashibai belonged to a village, 70 kilometers away from Pune.

Chaskaman village in Maharashtra is the place where Kashibai, fondly called Laadubai, was born and brought up. Her family lived in a massive house. The 300-year-old fort-like haveli still stands strong in the village.

2. Kashibai was the daughter of Mahadji Krishna Joshi.

Her father originally belonged to Talsure village in Ratnagiri. He later shifted to Chaskaman. The descendants of Kashibai's brother still live in their heritage old massive house.

3. The haveli still has the room where Kashibai was born.

The haveli in Chaskaman was built in the wada style and is spread across nearly two acres of land. It still has the delivery room where Kashibai was born. Today, the delivery room is used as a store room.

"The newborn and the mother stayed in the same room for four months to keep away from infection." - a daughter-in-law of the family.

4. The descendants of Kashibai claim that a moneylender helped in the alliance between her and Bajirao.

The 11th generation descendant of Kashibai's brother, Krushnarao, says a wealthy owner of 300 acres of land, who was also the subedar of the Maratha empire, played a strong role in the wedding between Bajirao and Kashibai. They were married in 1711, when Bajirao was 11 years old, and Kashibai, only eight.

5. Kashibai's village still remains a favourite spot for tourists.

With visitors pouring in to see Kashibai's parental home, every weekend is a busy one for the family. PK Ghanekar's book titled Sahali Ek Divasyachya Parisaraat Punyachya serves as a travel guide for the places one can visit in and around Pune, and it lists the house as a tourist spot.

6. Kashibai was the first wife of Bajirao I.

Bajirao I was a highly influential and brave Maratha chief. He was an immensely successful military general who never saw defeat in more than 40 battles that he fought. He was also the Prime Minister of Shahuji Bhonsle, the fourth emperor of the Marathas. Bajirao was just 20 when he became a Peshwa.

7. Historians say Kashibai was a soft-spoken lady.

Historian Pandurang Balkawade calls her a quiet woman and Bajirao treated her with love and respect. She even had a great rapport with her mother-in-law and sister-in-laws. She never had any malice against Mastani. Yes, we saw that in the film too!

"Kashibai was ready to accept Mastani but couldn't go against her mother-in-law Radhabai and brother-in-law Chimaji Appa. Besides, 18th century women did not have a say in important matters and Kashibai was no exception." - Pandurang Balkawade

8. Kashibai ran the daily affairs when her husband fought wars.

She controlled the day-to-day running of the empire, due to her social nature. After the death of Mastani, she made sure that her son, Shamsher Bahadur got his initial weapon training at Shaniwarwada, and took care of his overall well-being.

9. Kashibai had three sons.

The first lady in the life of Bajirao I bore three sons. They were named Nana Saheb, Rahunath Rao and Janardhan Rao. Nana Saheb, also called as Balaji Baji Rao, was made the Peshwa by Shahu in 1740. Rahunath Rao became the Peshwa a few years later. The youngest son Janardhan Rao died very young.

10. After the death of Bajirao I, Kashibai immersed herself in religious activities.

Over a kilometre away from Kashibai's parental home, the Someshwar Temple stands tall. This temple was built in 1749, on Kashibai's suggestion. Spread across an area of 1.5 acre, it has a tall structure called the 'Deepmala', on which 256 diyas can be placed at a time.

"In 1747, when Kashibai returned from a pilgrimage to Rameshwar, she suggested to her brother that a temple like the one in Rameshwar should be built in Chaskamaan also. The brother instantly began the work on Laadubai's suggestion." -Mahendra Peshwa, the ninth descendant of Bajirao Peshwa

11. Both Kashibai and Mastani attended the funeral of Bajirao.

Bajirao I died in the year 1740 near Delhi. Both Mastani, the mother of Shamsher Bahadur, and Kashibai attended the last rites. Mastani either plunged into the pyre of her husband or consumed poison and succumbed to death following the Peshwa. Shamsher Bahadur, an orphaned child at the age of six was then fostered by Kashibai along with her own sons.

While the film has already touched the audience with its story and performances, it wasn't an easy task for Sanjay Leela Bhansali to get his film to the big screens. While protests continued even on its release day, many descendants of Bajirao, Mastani and Kashibai are yet to watch the film. Some have a problem with the depiction of Bajirao's life, others say the love story is too fictionalised. They even feel the songs, 'Pinga' and 'Malhari', are not in sync with history.

"Back then, if a woman wanted to speak to a man, she would have to speak from the room itself, and not step out. It would not have been possible for Kashibai to dance the way her character does in the film."

While such historical films remain open for debate every time they hit the big screen, they succeed in opening some chapters of our history that have been covered in dust for centuries. That, in itself, is a step forward.


The Western Kshatrapas: From Governors to Kings (35 CE – 405 CE)

Below the Girnar Rock Edict (inscription) of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (r. 269 – 232 BCE) in Gujarat’s Junagadh, five and a half feet tall and 11 feet long, and written in 2nd century CE Brahmi characters, is a fascinating record dating to the time of Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman I (reigned c. 130 CE), grandson of Kshatrapa Chashtana. Here, among other things, Rudradaman talks about repairing the embankments of the great Sudarshana Lake built by the local governor, Vaishya Pushyagupta, during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya (r. 321 – 297 BCE) in the 3rd century BCE.

So who was this Rudradaman, grandson of Chashtana, and where did he come from? Rudradaman was a Kshatrapa, a dynasty often called the Western Kshatrapas to differentiate them from the Northern Kshatrapas like Rujuvula (most probably governors of the Kushanas). The Western Kshatrapas ruled Kutch, Saurashtra, mainland Gujarat, parts of Madhya Pradesh and parts of Western Maharashtra at their peak. The empire of the Kshatrapas lasted from the first half of the 1st century CE all the way to 405 CE, when they fell to the Gupta expansions under Chandra Gupta II (reigned c. 380 – 415 CE).

There were two distinct branches of the Western Kshatrapas – the Kshaharathas and the Kardamakas. Pliny, the famous Roman historian, calls them Indo-Scythians (locally known as ‘Sakas’) in the 2nd century CE. As far as their origins in India are concerned, the word ‘Kshatrapa’ has its etymology in the word ‘satrap’, which is Persian for ‘governor’ and is perhaps a leftover from the time the Kshatrapas were governors of the Partho-Scythians in Western Punjab. British Archaeologist and former Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India, John Marshall describes the word as the title of the heir-apparent and ‘Mahakshatrapa’ as being the title of the king or ruler as ‘Satrap of Satraps’.

The origins of the Kshatrapas are shrouded in mystery. Some believe they were Scythio-Persians, while others are convinced they were Scythians and Indo-Scythian governors originally appointed by the Indo-Scythian dynasties of North-Western South Asia.

The earliest use of the word ‘Kshatrapa’ in the South Asian context is seen in the Moga Copper Plate found in Taxila (now in Pakistan) and it refers to the Kshaharatha (and) Kshatrapa of Chukhsa-Liaka Kusulaka, who was most probably the Governor of Kapisa (now in Afghanistan). We then hear of the Satraps of Mathura – Hagana, Hagamasa, Sodasa and Sivdatta – and their names are seen on coins from Mathura. Next in the order are the Northern and then the Western Kshatrapas led by Abhiraka and Bhumaka.

The Sakas or Kshatrapas – the words are often used interchangeably – are more of a titular word in some cases, a dynastic term in others, and an identifier of race elsewhere. The Kshatrapas of all kinds are referred to as ‘Sakas’, pointing to their very obvious Scythian antecedents.

Their North-West Frontier antecedents are very obvious when one looks at the coins of the Kshaharatha ruler, Abhiraka. They follow Greek norms, weigh 10.3 g, and have a winged Nike (the Greek goddess of Victory) on the obverse surrounded by a clear Greek legend, and on the reverse a lion and elephant head standard and a spoked wheel standard with a Kharosthi legend that reads: ‘Kshaharatha Kshatrapa Jayasa Abhirasa’. When you add the Greek legend, Nike and the Kharosthi legend to the reference in the Moga Copper Plate (now in the British Museum), it seems obvious that the antecedents of the Kshaharatha Kshatrapas lie in the lands of the Sakas.

Kshaharatha Kshatrapas

The Kshaharathas (approx 100 BCE – 78 CE) were the first Western Kshatrapa dynasty and we know of their rulers, Abhiraka, Bhumaka and Nahapana, from their coins.

Of these rulers, Nahapana was by far the most famous. He was based in what is present-day Bharuch in Gujarat, and his capital city was Ujjain, and we know of him from coins and from the inscriptions of his son-in-law, Ushavadatta seen in present-day Maharashtra at Nashik, Karla and Manmodi (Junnar). His dominion extended across Malwa, Gujarat, the West coast of India (from Bharuch to Sopara and perhaps Mandad), and the districts of Nashik and Poona (modern Pune).

He finds mention in the Nashik cave inscription of Ushavadatta, and this is clearly evidence of his victory over the Early Satavahanas, who ruled over this region with their first capital at Junnar near Nashik. The silver coinage of Nahapana is found in large numbers and clearly points to a deep monetisation of the economy. There are numerous coin hoards with Nahapana’s coins. The symbols on the reverse of his coins are suddenly seen replacing the Satavahana symbols of the coins of the Mahabhojas, and this seems to show that he not only defeated the Satavahanas but also extended his rule over their vassals.

Renowned historian and archaeologist, Prof M K Dhavalikar, cites the evidence of the vast number of Nahapana’s coins being overstruck by Satavahana king, Gautamiputra Satakarni (1st or 2nd century CE), to point out that Nahapana was finally defeated by a coalition of forces welded together by Gautamiputra. But far from being decisive, this started a feud that lasted the next 200 years, between the Satavahanas and the Kshatrapas.

Nahapana was the last of the Kshaharathas. He was a patron of Buddhism and his economy flourished thanks to trade with the Roman Empire. He and his family left behind numerous inscriptions at the Nashik Caves there is an inscription by him at the Karla Caves and an inscription by one of his ministers at the Manmodi Caves (Junnar). Many Buddhist caves belonging to this period have ‘Yavana’ (Greek) donative inscriptions too. These sets of inscriptions further consolidate the fact that there was great overseas trade, which implies productivity and local trade and the creation of wealth. The control of this trade was the reason for the wars between the Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas.

The Kardamaka Kshatrapas

A new Kshatrapa dynasty was founded by Chashtana, the Satrap of Ujjain, in 78 CE. During his 52 years at the helm, till 130 CE, he skillfully held and nurtured an empire engaged in overseas and inland trade, and in competition with the Satavahanas. He was the grandfather of Rudradaman I and was succeeded by his grandson in 130 CE.

Rudradaman I immediately defended his kingdom from assault by the Satavahanas. The wars were so fierce and both sides so unyielding that ultimately a marital alliance was formed to help cease hostilities and for both sides to save face. Rudradaman gave Vashishthiputra Pulumavi his daughter’s hand, which is mentioned in an inscription in the Kanheri Caves in Mumbai.

In the Girnar Rock Edict inscription in Junagadh in Gujarat, Rudradaman claims to have twice defeated Vashishthiputra in battle but did not kill him on account of their familial ties. Rudradaman regained many of the territories of Nahapana but was probably unable to conquer Nashik and Pune. He then went on to subjugate the Yaudheyas in North India in 150 CE.

The Rise of Ujjain

Ujjain in present-day Madhya Pradesh rose to great prominence during the reign of the Kshatrapas. The capital of the Kshatrapas under Chashtana and Rudradaman, it became a great seat of Sanskrit learning and was a very important trade emporium. The city is called ‘Ozene’ by Greaco-Roman writers, and both Nahapana and Chashtana are mentioned in their works. Ujjain, a major administrative centre during the pre-Mauryan and Mauryan eras as well, remained incredibly important in the subsequent Kshatrapa-Satavahana epoch.

It was a place where semi-precious stones, fine cotton and many other products were gathered and then shipped to the coast for export to the Mediterranean world. It also housed an advanced steel-making industry as is obvious from the steel wedges under the Pillar of Heliodorus at Besnagar, which was a part of the Malwa region controlled directly from Ujjain.

Rudradaman was a patron of the arts, an able administrator and an accomplished poet. He employed many experts, among whom was a Yavana who translated the Greek treatises on astrology for him. He was succeeded by Jivadaman, whose only real claim to fame is that he started printing Saka Era dates on his coins, thereby helping us date his reign from 178 CE. Rudradaman too seems to have had a long reign of 48 years.

Rudradaman’s reign saw the translation of the very important text in astrology, the Yavanajataka of Sphujidhwaja, from Greek to Sanskrit, by Yavaneshwara, a Graeco-Roman scholar who is also credited with being the first to distinguish between astronomy and astrology. In his own words, he was a Greek living in India. His treatise was the first formal introduction of Western Astrology to India and a work referred to often in the ensuing centuries.

Rudradaman was also a very unique ruler as he vowed never to kill any human except in battle and he is said to have kept that vow, which is mentioned in his Girnar Inscription, to the very end.

The succession after Rudradaman is not very clear, and Jivadaman and Rudrasimha seem to have ruled either simultaneously, in tandem or alternatively. Jivadaman first ruled from 178-181 CE (as seen from the dated coins). We then have the coins of Rudrasimha, who ruled from 180-198 CE. We also have an inscription by Rudrasimha from Setkhedi in Shajapur District of Madhya Pradesh, dated to 185 CE. Jivadaman once again took the throne, reigning from 197-198 CE.

The sun partially set on the Kshatrapa Empire after Rudrasimha. Yajnashri Satakarni (170-199 CE) brought sword and fire to the Kshatrapas and defeated them in the late 2nd century CE. He left behind numerous inscriptions at Nashik, Kanheri and Guntur, testifying to the expansion of his territories. Yajnashri was sadly the last great scion of the Satavahanas, and after him the dynasty declined. His successor Vijay was the last ruler of the dynasty.

Taking advantage of this, the Kshatrapas soon began to expand their empire and the greatest extent of their power came now, under Rudrasena II (256-278 CE). Rudrasena brought about a Kshatrapa resurgence and once again the Kshatrapas rose to prominence in Western and Central India. He was the 19th Kshatrapa ruler and made marital alliances with the Ikshavaku Dynasty that ruled Andhra Pradesh. At Nagarjunakonda (a very important Buddhist site in Andhra Pradesh), the Ikshavaku ruler, Mathariputra Virapurushadatta, names his wife Rudradhara-Bhattarika, daughter of the King of Ujjain. This king, most historians believe, was Rudrasena II, whose reach extended deep into Madhya Pradesh and many of his coins are found in the Sanchi-Vidisha region. His sons followed him to the throne but the heyday of Chashtana’s lineage was finally at an end.

The reins of the empire were now in the hands of another cadet branch of the Kardamakas, and Rudrasimha II took over the kingship. He claimed to be a ‘son’ of Jivadaman but this would have been impossible as Jivadaman was had been dead for over a century by then. This was either a symbolic way of asserting his legitimacy or this is another ‘Jivadaman’ he was referring to.

Rudrasimha II ruled along with his sons, and coins of Rudrasimha and his sons have overlapping dates. Rudrasimha II was a great patron of the arts and of Buddhism, and during his reign (304-348 CE), the Buddhist heartland of Sanchi and Vidisha continued to be firmly ruled by the Kshatrapas. His coins are found inside the stupas at the great Buddhist complex of Devnimori (in Northern Gujarat), where we also see a very interesting influence of the Graeco-Buddhist/Gandharan style of art.

End of an Empire

The second half of the 4th century CE saw the eastward expansion of the Persian Sassanian Empire and the complete collapse of the Kushana vestiges. It is believed that their inroads into the Kutch had already shaken the Kshatrapas when Samudragupta (the second emperor of the Gupta Dynasty) made his westward expansion into Gujarat. His son finished the conquest and issued the Lion Slayer coins which are an indirect reference to his conquests in Gujarat, the home of the Asiatic lion.

Shridharavarman, Mahadandanayaka (paramount-general) of the Kshatrapas, and perhaps its last ruler, paid homage to Samudragupta upon his defeat. This event is clearly mentioned, with Shridharavarman’s name mentioned in the Samudragupta inscription on the Allahabad Pillar, one of the Pillars of Ashoka. The inscription says that Shridharavarman “self-surrendered and offered his daughters in marriage to the emperor”.

There are coins by Rudrasimha II (388-395 CE), who is mentioned in an inscription from Eran as the Saka king who stopped the subsequent advances of Ramagupta (heir of Samudragupta), who was forced to offer his wife Dhruvadevi to the clutches of the “Saka King”. Ramagupta’s brother Chandra Gupta II went in her place and killed Rudrasimha he then killed his brother, married Dhruvadevi and became the Emperor. He totally subjugated Gujarat in 412-413 CE, made it a part of his empire and proceeded to mint coins in the same style as the Kshatrapas, for local circulation.

These coins were minted here in this manner to preserve continuity. In the Ganga Valley, the heartland of the Gupta Empire, the Guptas minted gold and copper coins in the denominations minted by the Kushanas. Western India was used to silver, copper and lead coins. The silver coinage was built on much earlier Indo-Greek standards and the Guptas were forced to mint coins according to the local tradition to maintain a sense of continuity.

Chandra Gupta II’s campaigns brought an end to four centuries of Saka rule and set the stage for the Guptas and their contemporaries.

This article is part of our ‘The History of India’ series, where we focus on bringing alive the many interesting events, ideas, people and pivots that shaped us and the Indian subcontinent. Dipping into a vast array of material – archaeological data, historical research and contemporary literary records, we seek to understand the many layers that make us.

This series is brought to you with the support of Mr K K Nohria, former Chairman of Crompton Greaves, who shares our passion for history and joins us on our quest to understand India and how the subcontinent evolved, in the context of a changing world.

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Common Arabic/Persian Words used in Indian Islamic Coins

à Illahi

or

or
à Muhammad

à Ghazi

or
à Badshah

à Alam

à Zarb

à Mubarak

à Shah Jahani (Of Shah Jahan)

à Falus

à Akbar

à La (Not)

or
à Allah

or
à Wa (And)


à Shah

à Jalus (Reign)

or
à Sanat (Year)

à Jahan

à Tughlak

à Deen

à Jafar

à Ali

à Nawab

à Manus

à Mihir

à Firoz

à Qiran

à Al (The)


Beldeu’s Weblog

One often comes across coins of China with different weights even when they are of the same design – eg Yuan Shih Kai silver dollar or Hung Shien dollar with the flying dragon on the obverse. The Krause catalogs tend to state the ‘correct weight” as 27.0 grams but this is not always so, and these may be official weights. The weights of China coins tends to vary . Some coins may weigh at 27.18 while others only weigh around 26.67 grams or 26.68 grams and some weigh 26.7 grams (eg dragon coin with large clouds). Some Chinese catalogs catalogs state the different weights (for coins with diameter varying from 38.0mm to 39.5mm). For instance the Hung Shien Flying Dollar is listed as weighing at 28.82 grams, 27.0 grams, 26.68 grams and 26.4 grams. Some of these coins come within the tolerance limit while others may weigh at 26.38 – 26.45 grams. The Yun-Nan mint also made crown size dollars on a thinner planchet sometimes weighing only 22.6 grams. Yet other struck coins appear at around 25.0 grams, though the official weight is 25.8 grams. After the death of Yuan Shih Kai, mints associated with certain warlords also produced dollar coins using base silver of fineness at .884 and some of these weigh only 24.6 grams.

While coin dealers usually talk about a standard weight such as 26.7 grams and a variation as within an acceptable limit called the tolerance limit, a numismatic study of small hoards of coins from attics ranging from 30-290 showed that China coins have a range from 26.1 grams to 27.14 grams with three peaks, at 26.45, 26.67 and 26.95 grams. Most of the coins are distributed around 26.67 and at around 26.45-26.56 grams. Such studies reveal that there is a significant variation in standard deviation of coin weights about the mean, which is not, strictly speaking, the tolerance limit. This is simply because, for a long time, mints struggled to produce coins of a standard weight with a small tolerance limit, which is in fact, a small standard deviation about the standard weight, but there are other factors that influenced coin weights over time.

In China, the dollar (yuan) system prevailed side by side with the Tael (liang) system until the Tael system was abolished. In addition to the silver dollar, a number of large silver coins were minted on a trial basis at a weight of one tael at Tianjin (Tientsin) during 1903. The Taels measure at around 44-45 mm. Some Taels are at 40-41 mm but come on a slightly thicker planchet. Many other Taels weigh at around 37.5 grams (Shanghai Tael) and others weigh at around 37.67 grams. Some earlier Taels weight 40-41 grams. There is great variation in the weight of the coins of the Tael System. The crown size taels weighed at around 26.67 – 27 grams. The large Taels show the weight in Chinese characters, the name of the Minstry of Finance, HU POO and bear the date 29th YEAR OF KUANG HSÜ. More one tael coins were minted in 1904 (30th year of Guang Xu) with HU PEH PROVINCE and the weight stated in English ONE TAEL. Patterns from the Heaton mint exists with the words One Tael. Even the Hu Peh Taels comes in two sizes. Others were minted in 1906 (32nd year of Guang Xu) with the intention that they would become the standard coin and compete with the Reales and Mexican silver Dollar. Accordingly, a complete set of coins based on the one tael standard were produced with values of one tael, 5 mace, 2 mace and the legend TAI-CHING-TI-KUO (Great Ching Empire) SILVER COIN. Even this coin has large variations in size from 38.5 mm produced at the Central Mint, including large Taels of 44-46 mm in diameter. One pattern, probably struck at the Heaton Mint has an interesting design at the edge on the obverse that serves as a security edge. The Kouping Tael also comes in two sizes, one of which is the crown size and probably exists only as a pattern with the mint mark in the center on the obverse, And with the branch mint mark is even more rare. A complete set of Taels is a good investment.

The Hu Peh Tael is of a different and attractive design, with two beautiful dragons and was probably first proposed by the engravers at the Heaton Mint, which was also visited by one of the ministers. A large medal was designed to commemorate his visit. The Heaton Mint patterns probably are part of the exercise of the Central Mint in 1929 that invited new pattern designs but sadly the local mints did not come up with anything really new. The Berlin mint produced patterns for Hei Lung Kiang province in the north, bordering the Soviet Union and also produced the pattern for Shantung province with the usual Chinese dragon. These Berlin patterns, including the tael for Hei Lung Kiang province are beautiful but the dragon design for Shantung province exists only as a pattern. The Sungarei Tael is mispelt as One Teal.

In conjunction with these coins a large gold coin, also with a weight of one tael, was minted in 1907, together with smaller denominations of two and one mace, all bearing their weight in Chinese characters. Allegedly, most of these coins were used to pay the army. Very large coins were minted either on a trial basis or in limited quantities that include Five Dollars and possibly with significant variations in weight and were not ideal for commercial transactions. Gold five dollars patterns exists for some provinces. Xinjiang also minted silver coins of one tael at Kashi (Kashgar) in 1905 together with a gold coin of 5 mace.

Several mints also produced large tael size (44-45mm) silver medals with interesting and creative designs which were accepted in trade and in transactions and are now listed, not as fantasy coins, but as medallic coins and are accepted as part of medallic coinage and are becoming popular with numismatists.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED COIN WEIGHTS

There are several factors that influenced coin weights. The key factors are listed below.

1. The value of the Tael itself was not fixed but was accepted as within a range of 800-1600 (Chinese) cash. This was one of the major factors that influenced the weight of the Tael silver coin in different parts of China.
2. New coinage laws and changes in coinage laws played its own role to influence coin weights. By a Notification No.14, dated, 10 January 1874, the American Trade Dollar and the Japanese Yen or Dollar were admitted to the Straits Settlements as unlimited legal tender. On 21 October 1890 by order of Her Majesty the Queen in Council, the silver Mexican dollar was declared the standard legal tender coin of the Straits Settlements. The silver dollar of Hong Kong and the Japanese Yen or Dollar were also acceptable provided they were not below the minimum weight and fineness. The Silver dollar of Spain, Peru and Bolivia were declared non legal tender. By an Order dated 11th Feb 1907, the standard weight of the Straits Settlement Dollar was set at 26.957 grams and its least acceptable weight was set at 26.633 grams. Colonial coinage regulations also stipulated the weights of the American Trade Dollar, Yen, Mexican Dollar and the HongKong Dollar. The New Currency Act, 1871, of Japan defined the Yen as 24.26 grams of pure silver or 1.5 grams of pure gold. The very early Yen of very fine silver weighed 24.26 grams but later the weight increased slightly by adding some copper and later after 1899 the coins were standardized to 26.96 grams. Very few of the early silver coins survived as they were recycled by several mints in and outside Japan.
3. Monetary reforms that aimed to create standards or uniformity for the convenience of trade and the merchant community played an important role that influenced coin weights.
4. While the Central Mints attempted to create uniformity and standards, mints controlled by the military and warlords very often did not abide by such regulation. Issiung coins of a lower weight turned out to be very lucrative indeed.
5. Fluctuations in the price of silver and wars (eg WWI) greatly affected coin weights. For instance, the Straits Settlements One Dollar 1904 is much larger that the 1903 issue. It was decided that due to the increase in the price of silver, the weight of the 1903 dollar be reduced with the same finess of silver. The 20 cents Straits SettlementS coins of 1918, when silver was scarce due to WWI for a short period, the copper content was increased and the weight of the coin reduced.
6. Remote mints in China did not produce coins to meet the requirements of mintage laws of far away places such as the Straits Settlements or to meet the requirement of the international merchant community but instead minted coins for use within their own remote regions. The Kweichow and Taku mints, which were rather small mints, produced the silver yuan weighing 24.8 grams while the Yun Nan mint produced coins weighing 25.8 grams but occassionally one may find coins with 26.4 grams (or thereabout) minted in these mints. It is not unusual to find coins weighing 22.6 grams along with coins that weigh 24.8 grams or slightly more in the same hoard minted in such remote mints, including those minted at the China-Soviet border, collectively called the Soviet issues of Chinese coins to facilitate trade in the remote border region.

Standardization of the currency system was advisable and appeared useful in a large country especially when the wieghts of taels varied in a very wide rage, some going up to 51.2 grams. The two units of silver currency – the tael and the dollar – circulated side by side for decades. Since the tael unit differed in weight from one locality to another, beside which existed a number of fictitious taels used only for accounting purposes calculating their relative exchange rates presented an exceedingly complicated problem. In 1930, the government proposed the weight of 30.25 grams for the ‘market tael’ but later, the mints produced taels that came under 30.0 grams. This chaotic situation came to an end when the tael system was abolished in 1933. Many were melted and turned into dollar coins. Hence taels are scarce or rare. The Standard Silver Dollar Coinage Law was promulgated to establish a silver dollar of .880 fineness, containing 23.49 grams of silver. This new national dollar was to be known as the yuan and was to replace all provincial silver dollars then in circulation. These moves brought about the first notable monetary reform in China’s history.

CONCLUSION
Since the last 25 years, there have been a large number of fakes but these are mostly produced with cast or high pressure casting technology. They do not have the sheen or the mint luster expected from striking coins at mints and can be easily picked out. Fortunately, this fake industry is shrinking. Coin weights alone do not serve as a definitive rule in authentication and one has to study the coin to determine if it was indeed struck and if it is a silver coin keeping in mind that some warlord issues have silver content as low as 75%. It was a practice of the Central Mint to produce master dies for other mints to produce silver coins, yet there are differences in weights and mint variations and die varieties as in the case of the British Trade Dollar or Morgan Dollar, with slight variations in script or tail feathers or junk or size of head of Yuan Shi Kai or size of neck or forearms of Britannia etc and in some China Taels, the hyphen may be missing as in rare Fen-Tien One Tael or the denticles in the rim are replaced by dots. Coins struck in Tibet for use in trade in China may show some variations. It appears that the coinage laws of the Straits Settlements, especially the requirement of “least current weight” set at 26.633 grams, greatly influenced weights of coins in trade in the Far East as it was one of the most important trading region in the world at that time.

TAELS OF CHINA : The Longevity Tael. Two different sizes. There is great variation in the weight of the large tael ranging from 30.25 to 51.2 grams while the smaller one is about 26.7 grams.


Kellogg Diversity & Inclusiveness Transparency

As part of our effort to improve the awareness of the importance of diversity in companies, we have highlighted the transparency of Kellogg’s commitment to diversity, inclusiveness, and social responsibility. The below chart illustrates how Kellogg reports the diversity of its management and workforce. This shows if Kellogg discloses data about the diversity of its board of directors, C-Suite, general management, and employees overall, across a variety of markers. We have indicated that transparency with a ✔.


Coin from Kashi - History

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Sushi Coin Price & Market Data

Sushi price today is $7.91 with a 24-hour trading volume of $185,482,291 . SUSHI price is down -8.0% in the last 24 hours. It has a circulating supply of 190 Million SUSHI coins and a max supply of 225 Million. If you are looking to buy or sell Sushi, Sushiswap is currently the most active exchange.

Sushi is a DeFi protocol that is completely community-driven, serving up delicious interest for your held crypto assets.

On Sushi, you can take advantage of passive-income providing DeFi tools such as liquidity providing, yield farming and staking. Furthermore, due to the decentralized nature of being an AMM (Automated Market Maker), Sushi has fewer hurdles to execute your cryptocurrency trades and all fees are paid to the users who provided liquidity, just as it should be!

Sushi is host to many hidden gems that are unavailable on other, similar exchanges, so it is a great way to discover new, exclusive opportunities. Sushi, serving DeFi&rsquos best!

What is the SUSHI token?

SUSHI is a governance token that enables community governance over the Sushi ecosystem. This means that SUSHI holders can use their tokens to vote for platform proposals to further ecosystem initiatives.

The SUSHI token can be farmed by participating in the yield farming program on sushi.com.

The SUSHI token may also be staked across various platforms such as Sushi's very own, SushiBar, or can be used as collateral on platforms such as Sushi's Yearn ecosystem partner, Aave. When SUSHI tokens are staked, users receive xSUSHI in return. xSUSHI holders receive 0.05% of each and every swap completed on sushi.com!

Sushi was announced in September of 2020 by an anonymous developer going by the name of, Chef Nomi. Upon its release, Sushi, also known as SushiSwap, attracted a lot of industry attention for labelling itself a community-driven AMM (Automated Market Maker). It was an exciting platform idea that spoke to the ethos of true decentralization.

Upon gaining quite a lot of traction in the DeFi community, Chef Nomi felt his work was done and made his exit by removing $14 million in SUSHI tokens from the Sushi development fund, which is the amount he personally felt he deserved for developing the platform. Many people felt this was in direct contrast to his community-driven platform vision, so he gave the funds back and asked the community to decide the amount he deserved.

When this event took place, many industry members believed that it had damaged Sushi&rsquos reputation too much for the platform to continue. However, an early Sushi believer, 0xMaki, stepped up to fill the empty role of Sushi lead and built the platform to incredible heights, even overtaking Uniswap in total platform liquidity on more than one occasion. Due to this unbelievable comeback, many people admire the Sushi community and team for growing the platform back and beyond the platform it was in its early days.

Sushi, still led by 0xMaki, now has a bigger team than ever, of talented individuals, creating innovative products such as BentoBox, Kashi, MISO, Mirin and Shoyu. Sushi's history has only just begun.


Watch the video: Kashi Vishwanath Dham, a key project of PM Modi heres what it will look like


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