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Postal Abbreviation: MI
Natives: Michiganian/ Michigander
Legal Driving Age: 18
(*16 w/ Driver's Ed.)
Age of Majority: 18
Median Age: 32.6
Song: “My Michigan”
Lyrics: Giles Kavanagh
Music: H.J. O'Reilly Clint
Median Household Income:$52,668
Entered Union..... Jan. 26, 1837 (26th)
Present Constitution Adopted: 1964
Nickname: Wolverine State
Great Lake State
“Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice” (If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look around you)
Origin of Name:
From the Indian word, Majigan– means “great or large lake”.
AGRICULTURE: apples, blueberries,
cattle, cherries, cucumbers dry beans,
eggs, horses, milk.
MINING: bromine, gypsum, iron ore,
natural gas, petroleum, sand and gravel.
chemicals, electronics, food processing,
furniture, machinery, metals, rubber,
Total Area: 96,705 sq. miles
Land area: 56,809 sq. miles
Water Area: 39,896 sq. miles
Geographic Center: Wexford
5 mi. NNW of Cadillac
Highest Point: Mount Arvon
Lowest Point: Lake Erie
Highest Recorded Temp.: 112˚ F (7/13/1936)
Lowest Recorded Temp.: –51˚ F (2/9/1934)
Michigan is divided into two parts: the upper and lower peninsula, divided by the Great Lakes. The lakes take up two thirds of the physical area of the state. The lower peninsula (where Detroit is located) is mainly flat. The Upper peninsula is mountainous.
New Bedford, 95,072
Fall River, 88,857
1668 The first permanent non-Indian settlement was established by Father
1679 Fort Miami is established.
1701 Fort Pontchartrain is established on the site of the present site of Detroit. 1805 The territory of Michigan is established with Detroit as the capital.
1812 British capture Detroit during the war of 1812. They evacuate Detroit after
Oliver Perry’s victory on Lake Erie.
1837 Michigan is admitted as the 26th state.
1908 Henry Ford produced the first Model T.
1967 A two day race riot kills 34.
2009 Federal Government Saves Auto Industry
William Boeing, Sr.
Francis Ford Coppola film director;
Thomas E. Dewey
Charles A. Lindbergh
Michigan National Sites
1) Isle Royale National Park
This National park is located on a archipelago in Lake Superior.
2) Father Marquette Nation Memorial
This memorial includes a museum and outdoor pavilion that commemorated the French Jesuit missionary Father Marquete who was the first European explorer of Michigan.
The history white people need to learn
By Mary-Alice Daniel
Published February 7, 2014 12:01AM (EST)
Picketers outside Rich's department store protesting against segregated eating facilities at one of its lunch counters in Atlanta, Ga., on Oct. 19, 1960. (AP)
Invariably, around February of each year, coinciding with Black History Month, you'll hear people asking, “Why isn't there a white history month?”
Do these people mean we should condense all the American history centering around white people to just one month and devote the other 11 to people of color? Of course not.
It's readily accepted that white history is taught, year-round, to the exclusion of minority histories. But the literal history of whiteness — how and when and why what it means to be white was formulated -- is always neglected. The construction of the white identity is a brilliant piece of social engineering. Its origins and heritage should be examined in order to add a critical layer of complexity to a national conversation sorely lacking in nuance.
I'm guessing that's not what they mean, either.
In conversations about race, I've frequently tried and failed to express the idea that whiteness is a social construct. So, here, in plain fact, is what I mean:
The very notion of whiteness is relatively recent in our human history, linked to the rise of European colonialism and the Atlantic slave trade in the 17th century as a way to distinguish the master from the slave. From its inception, "white" was not simply a separate race, but the superior race. “White people,” in opposition to non-whites or “colored” people, have constituted a meaningful social category for only a few hundred years, and the conception of who is included in that category has changed repeatedly. If you went back to even just the beginning of the last century, you'd witness a completely different racial configuration of whites and non-whites. The original white Americans — those from England, certain areas of Western Europe, and the Nordic States — excluded other European immigrants from that category to deny them jobs, social standing, and legal privileges. It's not widely known in the U.S. that several ethnic groups, such as Germans, Italians, Russians and the Irish, were excluded from whiteness and considered non-white as recently as the early 20th century.
Members of these groups sometimes sued the state in order to be legally recognized as white, so they could access a variety of rights available only to whites -- specifically American citizenship, which was then limited, by the U.S. Naturalization Law of 1790, to "free white persons" of “good character.” Attorney John Tehranian writes in the Yale Law Journal that petitioners could present a case based not on skin color, but on “religious practices, culture, education, intermarriage and [their] community's role,” to try to secure their admission to this elite social group and its accompanying advantages.
More than color, it was class that defined race. For whiteness to maintain its superiority, membership had to be strictly controlled. The “gift” of whiteness was bestowed on those who could afford it, or when it was politically expedient. In his book “How the Irish Became White,” Noel Ignatiev argues that Irish immigrants were incorporated into whiteness in order to suppress the economic competitiveness of free black workers and undermine efforts to unite low-wage black and Irish Americans into an economic bloc bent on unionizing labor. The aspiration to whiteness was exploited to politically and socially divide groups that had more similarities than differences. It was an apple dangled in front of working-class immigrant groups, often as a reward for subjugating other groups.
A lack of awareness of these facts has lent credence to the erroneous belief that whiteness is inherent and has always existed, either as an actual biological difference or as a cohesive social grouping. Some still claim it is natural for whites to gravitate to their own and that humans are tribal and predisposed to congregate with their kind. It's easy, simple and natural: White people have always been white people. Thinking about racial identity is for those other people.
Those who identify as white should start thinking about their inheritance of this identity and understand its implications. When what counts as your “own kind” changes so frequently and is so susceptible to contemporaneous political schemes, it becomes impossible to argue an innate explanation for white exclusion. Whiteness was never about skin color or a natural inclination to stand with one's own it was designed to racialize power and conveniently dehumanize outsiders and the enslaved. It has always been a calculated game with very real economic motivations and benefits.
This revelation should not function as an excuse for those in groups recently accepted as white to claim to understand racism, to absolve themselves of white privilege or to deny that their forefathers, while not considered white, were still, in the hierarchy created by whites, responsible in turn for oppressing those “lower” on the racial scale. During the Civil War, Irish immigrants were responsible for some of the most violent attacks against freedmen in the North, such as the wave of lynchings during the 1863 Draft Riots, in which “the majority of participants were Irish,” according to Eric Foner's book “Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877” and various other sources. According to historian Dominic Pacyga, Polish Americans groups in Chicago and Detroit “worked to prevent the integration of blacks into their communities by implementing rigid housing segregation” out of a fear that black people would “leap over them into a higher social status position.”
Behind every racial conversation is a complex history that extends to present-day interactions and policies, and we get nowhere fast if large swaths of our population have a limited frame of reference. An understanding of whiteness might have prevented the utter incapability of some Americans to realize that “Hispanic” is not a race — that white Hispanics do exist, George Zimmerman among them. This knowledge might have lessened the cries that Trayvon Martin's murder could not have been racially motivated and might have led to, if not a just verdict, a less painfully ignorant response from many white Americans.
This comprehension of whiteness could also dissuade many white people of such detrimental and pervasive racial notions, such as, “Why is black pride OK but white pride is racist?” If students are taught that whiteness is based on a history of exclusion, they might easily see that there is nothing in the designation as “white” to be proud of. Being proud of being white doesn't mean finding your pale skin pretty or your Swedish history fascinating. It means being proud of the violent disenfranchisement of those barred from this category. Being proud of being black means being proud of surviving this ostracism. Be proud to be Scottish, Norwegian or French, but not white.
Above all, such an education might help answer the question of whose problem modern racism really is. The current divide is a white construction, and it is up to white people to do the necessary work to dismantle the system borne from the slave trade, instead of ignoring it or telling people of color to “get over” its extant legacy. Critics of white studies have claimed that this kind of inquiry leads only to self-hatred and guilt. Leaving aside that avoiding self-reflection out of fear of bad feelings is the direct enemy of personal and intellectual growth, I agree that such an outcome should be resisted, because guilt is an unproductive emotion, and merely feeling guilty is satisfying enough for some. My hope in writing this is that white Americans will discover how it is they came to be set apart from non-whites and decide what they plan to do about it.
So, yes, for one month, let's hear about white history, educating ourselves and others. Let's expose whiteness as a fraudulent schema imposed as a means to justify economic and physical bondage. Let's try to uncover the centuries-old machinations that inform current race relations and bind us in a stalemate of misunderstanding. Then let's smash this whole thing to pieces.
This piece is the latest in a series by feminists of color, curated by Roxane Gay. To submit to the series, email [email protected]
Mary-Alice Daniel is a Zell Fellow at the University of Michigan's MFA Program, where she writes poetry and travel essays. She was born in Nigeria and raised all over the world.
The Art of Anime
Probably the most readily apparent differences between Japanese animation and other places is the artwork. Huge eyes, brightly colored hair, well-endowed female characters, and exaggerated emotional expressions and gestures are typical of anime style. Early anime artists were largely influenced by early Disney characters like the Seven Dwarves from Snow White, Mickey Mouse, and the non-Disney Betty Boop. All of these characters had large eyes, and Betty Boop was certainly well-endowed. If you want to know more about anime's artistic conventions, take a peek at our General Information section.
NAFTA Pros and Cons
To determine if the pros outweigh the cons, it depends on who you are and how NAFTA has affected you. American workers who lost their jobs to NAFTA are against it. On the other hand, the jobs outsourced to Mexico lowered prices for gas and food. This is something everyone benefits from, but most don’t realize it's because of NAFTA.
Enslavement as a Part of Life
It might be tempting to assume that African traders of enslaved people did not know how bad European plantation enslavement was, but they weren't naive. Not all traders would have known about the horrors of the Middle Passage or of what lives awaited enslaved Africans, but others at least had an idea. They simply didn't care.
There are always going to be people willing to ruthlessly exploit others in the quest for money and power, but the story of the trade of enslaved Africans by Africans goes much further than a few bad people. Enslavement and the sale of enslaved people were parts of life. The concept of not selling enslaved people to willing buyers would have seemed strange to many people up until the 1800s. The goal was not to protect enslaved people, but to ensure that you and your family were not reduced to enslaved people.
The plot to kidnap a US governor: Everything you need to know
A group is accused of planning to detonate explosives to divert police, before abducting Gretchen Whitmer from her holiday home.
Friday 9 October 2020 12:09, UK
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Thirteen people have been arrested and charged in a takedown of suspected plots to kidnap the governor of Michigan, attack the State Capitol building and incite violence.
Gretchen Whitmer, the governor who was allegedly targeted, has linked the plots with President Trump's rhetoric - saying his past comments had been a "rallying cry".
Seven of those charged have been found to be associated with the "boogaloo" movement - whose self-described members have said they want to incite a second US civil war.
Here's what we know about the suspected plots in Michigan.
Who are the people who allegedly wanted to kidnap Ms Whitmer and attack the State Capitol building?
Six of the suspects - Adam Fox, Barry Croft, Ty Garbin, Kaleb Franks, Daniel Harris and Brandon Caserta - were arrested on Wednesday and face life in prison if convicted.
They were charged with plotting to overthrow Michigan's government and kidnap the governor.
They had allegedly been training with seven militiamen - who planned to target law enforcement and attack the State Capitol building.
It is not clear if the first group has a name - but the seven militiamen who were also arrested are associated with the Wolverine Watchmen group.
Wolverine Watchmen believes in the "boogaloo" movement, which is largely dedicated to eradicating the government and killing law enforcement officers.
Self-described members of the movement have committed acts of violence and killed police officers in the US in recent months, often in attempts to ignite what they believe will be a second civil war.
Who is the governor of Michigan?
Gretchen Whitmer has been the Democrat governor of the state since 2019.
The 49-year-old was praised by some for her response to the coronavirus outbreak after she imposed major restrictions on personal movement and on the economy.
However, she has also been the target of extreme vitriol from far-right groups over her handling of the pandemic.
Ms Whitmer has linked the suspected plot to kidnap her to President Trump's rhetoric.
Just hours after the arrests were announced on Thursday, she said that the president's words had been a "rallying cry" for extremists.
"When our leaders speak, their words matter," Ms Whitmer said. "They carry weight."
There is so far no indication in the criminal complaint that the men arrested were inspired by Mr Trump.
Why did the men want to abduct Ms Whitmer?
The FBI has quoted one of the accused as saying Ms Whitmer "has no checks and balances at all. She has uncontrolled power right now. All good things must come to an end".
In a video livestreamed to a private Facebook group in June, Adam Fox was seen complaining about the judicial system and restrictions against gym openings due to COVID-19.
According to a criminal complaint, he said: "I don't know, boys, we gotta do something. You guys link with me on our other location system, give me some ideas of what we can do."
The criminal complaint stated: "Fox said that after kidnapping the governor, the group would remove her to a secure location in Wisconsin for 'trial'."
FBI ɿoils plot' to kidnap US governor as six 'violent extremists' charged
How did the group allegedly plan to carry out the kidnapping?
The suspects are said to have plotted it for months.
They are even said to have rehearsed the attack in August and September, after having training with the Wolverine Watchmen group.
Fox and Croft have been accused of being the ringleaders, and footage of a basement where Fox was living has been posted on Twitter by Susan Samples, from WOODTV in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
At a 27 July meeting, Fox and an informant are said to have discussed a possible kidnapping of Ms Whitmer, with the defendant allegedly saying: "Snatch and grab, man. Grab the f****** governor. Just grab the b****. Because at that point, we do that, dude - it's over."
@WOODTV Adam Fox had been living in basement of vac shack. Owner let him stay because Fox was homeless and had dogs. Fox had been employee off and on at vac shack for 17 years. Owner fielding calls from CNN, NY Times pic.twitter.com/WGd0ZByFLu&mdash SusanSamples (@SusanSamples) October 8, 2020
Fox had initially said he needed 200 men to storm the Capitol building in Lansing and take hostages, including the governor, the FBI has said.
It is claimed he wanted to execute the plan before the US election on 3 November.
However, the group later shifted its focus to targeting the governor's holiday home.
Prosecutors have said two members of the group had discussed detonating explosive devices to divert police from Ms Whitmer's residence.
The prosecutors allege one of the two men had even inspected the underside of a bridge for places to put an explosive.
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How did the FBI foil the alleged plot?
The arrests grew out of an inquiry that began in March and focused on militia groups discussing the "violent overthrow" of certain government and law enforcement officials.
Informants and undercover agents were involved in the investigation.
Michigan Attorney General Dana Nessel told a news conference: "Our efforts uncovered elaborate plans to endanger the lives of law enforcement officers, government officials and the broader public."
What is the president saying?
White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany said Donald Trump "has continually condemned white supremacists and all forms of hate".
"Governor Whitmer is sowing division by making these outlandish allegations," she said. "America stands united against hate and in support of our federal law enforcement who stopped this plot."
Later, the president tweeted: "Governor Whitmer of Michigan has done a terrible job. She locked down her state for everyone, except her husband's boating activities.
"The Federal Government provided tremendous help to the Great People of Michigan. My Justice Department and Federal Law Enforcement announced today that they foiled a dangerous plot against the Governor of Michigan.
"Rather than say thank you, she calls me a White Supremacist-while Biden and Democrats refuse to condemn Antifa, Anarchists, Looters and Mobs that burn down Democrat run cities.
". I do not tolerate ANY extreme violence. Defending ALL Americans, even those who oppose and attack me, is what I will always do as your President! Governor Whitmer-open up your state, open up your schools, and open up your churches!"
The Potawatomi and Ottawa Indians lived in the area for centuries and used the river as a trade route into the interior of Michigan. Some of the long culture of the Ottawa tribe is being revealed through the excavation of archeological artifacts. [ citation needed ]
The city dated its European-American founding to French colonial settlers. A fur trading outpost called Gabagouache was first established by Madeline La Framboise and her husband Joseph. [ citation needed ]
After the War of 1812, this area became more settled by Americans. The first permanent resident was a Presbyterian minister, William Montague Ferry, who founded in 1834 the first area church and neighboring town of Ferrysburg. Residents named the town as "Grand Haven" in 1835. Sheldon Tannery was founded in 1838, developing to process leathers from the fur trade and cattle. The second church was organized in 1850. Ferry founded the city's first bank in 1851 in the Ferry & Son building on Harbor Drive. He also started a school, Ferry Elementary, which continues to operate. The city was incorporated in 1867. 
In the mid-to-late 19th century, Grand Haven developed as a logging, lumber mill and shipping town, as well as a shipbuilding center. 
The city was served by the Grand Trunk Railway, which ran along the waterfront near the river. Its depot and offices have been adapted for use as a historical museum. The Story and Clark Piano Company built pianos in the city from 1900 to 1984. The smokestack at the piano factory collapsed during the Southern Great Lakes Derecho of 1998. In August 2006, Eagle-Ottawa Leather Co., which developed from the 1838 Sheldon Tannery, announced it would close its local operations that year.
Given the importance of shipping and water trade to the city, the Grand Haven Lighthouses were built in 1839 on the south pier, to mark the most navigable channel into the river. The current lighthouses, painted red, were built in 1875 (outer light) and 1905 (inner). They were connected by a lighted catwalk, which runs along the pier to the shore. 
George "Baby Face" Nelson and Homer Van Meter, who became notorious 1930s criminals, committed their first bank robbery at a Grand Haven bank.
The Grand Haven port community was an active beach resort with boating, fishing, sailing, biking, skating etc. along with connecting campgrounds and recreational areas. The city had over 100 miles (160 km) of bike trails, a state beach, boardwalk, two lighthouses, a pier, wharf, large charter fishing fleet and a Great Lakes port, where it imports limestone, slag, cement and coal while exporting sand. Grand Haven was a destination point for residents of inland cities of West Michigan, as well as many from the other side of the state. Grand Rapidians regularly visited to take advantage of the close proximity to the Lake Michigan beaches, State campgrounds, restaurants, bars, attractions with many even owning cottages in the area as their home away from home.
Grand Haven State Park contains beaches which, in summer, water temperatures reach the low 70s°F (2013 had 19 days in the 70s),  bringing tens of thousands of visitors as a boon to the local economy.
The state park also included a campground on Lake Michigan, near the pier and lighthouses. In addition, the city featured a ski park (Mulligan's Hollow Ski Bowl) and a skate park. The waterfront locations brought tourists from all over the state and region for activities which include, boating, sailing, jet skiing, tubing, wind surfing, and an annual kite festival.
Grand Haven was home to the United States Coast Guard's "Sector Field Office Grand Haven." The first Coast Guard presence in the city was in 1924. The Coast Guard cutter Escanaba was based in the city until the Second World War. After it was sunk by a U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, the citizens of Grand Haven raised more than $1,000,000 in bonds to build a replacement cutter bearing the same name several pieces of wreckage remain displayed on the city's waterfront. Grand Haven hosted the annual Coast Guard Festival, a celebration based on Coast Guard Day, which drew U.S. and Canadian vessels along with parades of bands and other activities, including a memorial to the 101 sailors lost in the Escanaba sinking. The yearly attendance for this event exceeds 300,000 people over the two-week period of the festival. Grand Haven was the first city officially designated as Coast Guard City, USA by an act of Congress signed by President Bill Clinton. The act was Public Law 105-383 enacted by the United States Congress and signed by the president on November 13, 1998. 
The Grand Haven Musical Fountain was built on the opposite bank of the Grand River from the city center in 1969. It plays nightly during the tourist season. When it was built, it was the world's largest such fountain. Today, the overall largest fountain was in Las Vegas.
Grand Haven used to be one of many technology leaders in West Michigan and throughout the country, having been featured in the national media, including on ABC, in PCWorld, ComputerWorld and Forbes magazine.     The city was the first municipality in the country to feature a citywide wireless internet service.  The wireless service is designed to work throughout the city and up to 15 miles (24 km) offshore for boaters. In 2004, the city started offering wireless internet service for residents, businesses and visitors for payment on varying cost-time scales.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 7.36 square miles (19.06 km 2 ), of which 5.77 square miles (14.94 km 2 ) was land and 1.59 square miles (4.12 km 2 ) is water. 
Primary and secondary schools Edit
- Grand Haven Public Schools
- Grand Haven High School
- Central High School
- White Pines Intermediate School
- Lakeshore Middle School
- Voyagers School
- Rosy Mound Elementary
- Robinson Elementary
- Peach Plains Elementary
- Mary A. White Elementary
- Lake Hills Elementary
- Griffin Elementary
- Ferry Elementary
- Grand Haven Christian School
- St. John's Lutheran School
- US 31 runs through the city along a boulevard and utilizes a drawbridge over the Grand River at the northern city limit.
- M-104 runs easterly from US 31 in Ferrysburg, through Spring Lake and toward I-96.
Historical population Census Pop. %± 1870 3,147 — 1880 4,862 54.5% 1890 5,028 3.4% 1900 4,743 −5.7% 1910 5,856 23.5% 1920 7,205 23.0% 1930 8,345 15.8% 1940 8,799 5.4% 1950 9,536 8.4% 1960 11,066 16.0% 1970 11,844 7.0% 1980 11,763 −0.7% 1990 11,951 1.6% 2000 11,168 −6.6% 2010 10,412 −6.8% 2019 (est.) 11,047  6.1% U.S. Decennial Census 
2010 census Edit
As of the census  of 2010, there were 10,412 people, 4,769 households, and 2,721 families living in the city. The population density was 1,804.5 inhabitants per square mile (696.7/km 2 ). There were 5,815 housing units at an average density of 1,007.8 per square mile (389.1/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 95.0% White, 0.7% African American, 0.9% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population.
There were 4,769 households, of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.9% were non-families. 37.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.82.
The median age in the city was 42.9 years. 20.7% of residents were under the age of 18 7.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24 24.2% were from 25 to 44 28.5% were from 45 to 64 and 19.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female.
2000 census Edit
As of the census  of 2000, there were 11,168 people, 4,979 households, and 2,892 families living in the city. The population density was 1,923.5 per square mile (742.2/km 2 ). There were 5,532 housing units at an average density of 952.8 per square mile (367.6/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 96.35% White, 0.45% African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, and 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.58% of the population.
There were 4,979 households, out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.81.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.1% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.0 males.
The area was served by the daily newspaper Grand Haven Tribune, headquartered in Grand Haven. The Tribune has a circulation of 8,813. 
The city had several radio stations, including WGHN (AM), WGHN-FM, WMPA, Oldies 94.9, and WAWL.
- When the British government became involved, members of the colonies worried that they would lose their freedom and be persecuted.
- Members of the colonies didn’t agree with paying taxes to Britain. This lead to their motto ‘No Taxation Without Representation.’
- The colonies didn’t like the laws imposed on them by Britain, including the Sugar Act, the Tea Act, and the Stamp Act.
- Members of the colonies were constantly being punished by the British for rioting, which made them even angrier.
- The Boston Port Act forced the colonies to pay for the tea they had destroyed, in what came to be called the Boston Tea Party, before the port would be reopened, which angered the locals and scaring others. was imposed on the American colonies by the British government. The Act intended to subsidize the struggling East India Company, which was very important for the British economy, and the Tea Act would raise money from the 13 colonies for it.
- The people of the colonies did not agree with the unfair taxes they had to pay and, as a result, destroyed over £90,000 worth of tea in the Boston Tea Party of 16 December 1773. The American protesters boarded three trade ships in the Boston Harbor and threw 342 wooden chests of tea into the water. In today’s money, that tea would have been worth roughly a million dollars. was another tax imposed on the American colonies by the British in 1775. The tax covered printed materials, specifically newspapers, magazines, and any legal documents.
- It was named The Stamp Act because, when these materials were purchased, they were given an official stamp (pictured above) to show that the buyer had paid the new tax. started because the local people were taunting British soldiers – shouting and threatening them – because they did not agree with the British Army having a place in their city.
- During the Boston Massacre, British soldiers stationed in Boston killed five men and injured six others. Two of the injured men later died because of their wounds.
- The five men who died were Crispus Attucks, Samuel Gray, James Caldwell, Samuel Maverick, and Patrick Carr. Crispus Attucks is thought to be the first American casualty of the American Revolution.
- All eight soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre were arrested. Six of them were released, and two were charged with manslaughter. Their punishment was ‘branding of the thumb’.
- The British called the massacre the ‘Incident on King Street’.
- The American Revolution, also known as the Revolutionary War, officially began in 1775.
- British soldiers and American patriots started the war with battles at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.
- Colonists in America wanted independence from England.
- The colonies had no central government at the beginning of the war, so delegates from all of the colonies were sent to form the first Continental Congress. , a former military officer and wealthy Virginian, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army.
- Members of the Continental Congress wrote a letter to King George of England outlining their complaints and declaring their independence from England.
- On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, in which the colonies declared their independence from England.
- On October 17, 1777, the Battles of Saratoga brought a huge victory for the Americans after the defeat and surrender of General John Burgoyne.
- The winter of 1777 to 1778 became a huge challenge for General Washington as they spent winter training at Valley Forge.
- By February 16, 1778, France honored the Treaty of Alliance with America and recognized them as an independent country from Britain.
- The official government of the United States was defined through the Articles of Confederation on March 2, 1781.
- The last major battle of the American Revolutionary War took place at the Battle of Yorktown. General Cornwallis surrendered, marking the unofficial end of the war.
- The war ended in 1783, and the United States of America was born. By April 9, 1784, King George III ratified the treaty.
Adding to arrays
At this point, you're starting to wonder how to add items to an array. The quick answer is that you can't. An array is a fixed size in memory. If you need to grow it or add a single item to it, then you need to create a new array and copy all the values over from the old array. This sounds like a lot of work, however, PowerShell hides the complexity of creating the new array. PowerShell implements the addition operator ( + ) for arrays.
PowerShell does not implement a subtraction operation. If you want a flexible alternative to an array, you need to use a generic List object.
We can use the addition operator with arrays to create a new array. So given these two arrays:
We can add them together to get a new array.
Plus equals +=
We can create a new array in place and add an item to it like this:
Just remember that every time you use += that you're duplicating and creating a new array. This is a not an issue for small datasets but it scales extremely poorly.
You can assign the results of any pipeline into a variable. It's an array if it contains multiple items.
Normally when we think of using the pipeline, we think of the typical PowerShell one-liners. We can leverage the pipeline with foreach() statements and other loops. So instead of adding items to an array in a loop, we can drop items onto the pipeline.
Henry Ford, Anti-Semite
Despite Ford’s philanthropic leanings, he was a committed anti-Semite. He even went as far as to support a weekly newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, which furthered such views.
Ford published a number of anti-Semitic pamphlets, including a 1921 pamphlet, "The International Jew: The World&aposs Foremost Problem.” Ford was awarded the Grand Cross of the German Eagle, the most important award Nazis gave to foreigners, by Adolf Hitler in 1938.
In 1998, a lawsuit filed in Newark, New Jersey, accused the Ford Motor Company of profiting from the forced labor of thousands of people at one of its truck factories in Cologne, Germany during World War II. The Ford company, in turn, said the factory was under the control of the Nazis, not the American corporate headquarters.
In 2001, Ford Motor Company released a study which found that the company did not profit from the German subsidiary, at the same time promising to donate $4 million to human rights studies focused on slavery and forced labor.
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