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Martin XB-26D Marauder
The Martin XB-26D Marauder was the designation given to a single B-26 that was modified to test a wing de-icing system that used ducts to direct hot air from the engines onto the wings.
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Douglas B 26 Marauder
The designation of the Douglas A-26 was changed to B-26. Concurrent with this change, the Martin B-26 Marauder was withdrawn from service. The Douglas B-26s were used extensively for night interdiction missions flown by the 3rd Bombardment Group from Iwakuni, Japan, during the Korean War The Douglas B-26 Invader had been originally been designated A-26, and was a twin-engine attack bomber intended as a successor to the Douglas A-20 Havoc. In 1948, the newly-independent Air Force decided to eliminate the A-for-Attack series letter as a separate designation, and the A-26 Invader was redesignated B-26, in the bomber series B-26 Marauder Modell Insbesondere in der Rubrik der Modellflugzeuge können wir mit unserer großen Auswahl punkten: Modelle aus Plastik, Modelle aus Holz, Linienflugzeuge und Militärflugzeuge. Sie finden bei uns sowohl ermäßigte Modelle, als auch Accessoires (Detail-Sets, Figuren, Aufkleber), damit Ihr Bausatz optimal umgesetzt werden kann Nachdem die Martin B-26 Marauder ausgemustert worden war, übertrug 1948 die USAF das Kürzel B-26 auf die Invader. In den 1960er Jahren dann wurde die Bezeichnung der in Thailand stationierten. Die Douglas A-26 Invader war ein zweimotoriger leichter Bomber aus US-amerikanischer Produktion, der in mehreren Versionen (unter anderem A-26, B-26, A-26A) sowohl im Zweiten Weltkrieg wie auch im Korea-, im Portugiesischen Kolonial-, im Vietnamkrieg sowie während der Kongo-Krise eingesetzt wurde. Der Erstflug der XA-26 fand am 10
Martin B-26 - Wikipedi
- The Douglas A-26/B-26 bomber was the only American bomber to fly missions in three wars. After World War II, it served as a first-line bomber during the Korean War and during the Vietnam War. Douglas started the A-26 in 1941 to follow the A-20/DB-7 Havoc bomber. Douglas built 2,503 A-26/B-26 Invaders
- Nach der Umstellung des Nummernsystems bei der USAF und dem Ausscheiden der B-26 Marauder erhielten die A-26B und A-26C die neue Bezeichnung B-26B und B-26C. Prototypen gab es als XA-26D, XA-26E..
- Martin B-26 Marauder & Douglas A-26 Invader: In Combat Over Europe (SMI Library) (Englisch) Taschenbuch - 17. Januar 2013 von Tomasz Szlagor (Autor) 4,7 von 5 Sternen 4 Sternebewertungen. Alle Formate und Ausgaben anzeigen Andere Formate und Ausgaben ausblenden. Preis Neu ab Gebraucht ab Taschenbuch, 17. Januar 2013 Bitte wiederholen — — — Taschenbuch — About Scale Model.
- Douglas B-26 Invader von Achim Thomasen (1:48 Revell) Nach Ausscheiden der B-26 Marauder wurde die Invader von der A-26 (A für Attacker) zur B-26. Nach 1945 fand sie viele Nutzer, so beschafften sich die Franzosen aus USAAF Beständen Invader um ihre Luftwaffe zu verstärken. Die Franzosen benutzten sie zur Rebellenbekämpfung in Algerien. Da sie fast nur nachts eingesetzt wurden.
- Douglas B-26C Invader: Der leichte Bomber A-26 Invader von 1942 wurde 1948 in B-26 Invader umbenannt Die Douglas A-26 Invader entstand im Rahmen einer Ausschreibung aus dem Jahre 1940, nach der ein leichter zweimotoriger Bomber mit schwerer defensiver Bewaffnung gefordert wurde
- The Douglas A-26 Invader (designated B-26 between 1948 and 1965) is a twin-engined light bomber and ground attack aircraft that was built by Douglas Aircraft..
- ation de B-26 passe au Douglas Invader. Caractéristiques de l'appareil Les essais officiels montrent que le B-26 affiche des performances supérieures aux exigences du programme, mais au détriment des qualités de pilotage à basse vitesse. Le B-26A bénéficie alors de certaines améliorations jugées nécessaires.
Douglas A-26 Invader - Wikipedi
- During WWII, B-26s dropped thousands of bombs. One of those aircraft survived more missions and dropped more bombs than any other. meet Flak-Bait
- Tous les Martin B-26 Marauder ayant été retirés du service cette année-là, le A-26 fut donc rebaptisé B-26. C'est pourquoi on ne parlera de A-26 que durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Dans l'après-guerre, incluant les conflits de Corée, d'Indochine, d'Algérie et du Viêt Nam, l'appareil sera désigné B-26. Conception. Le Douglas A-26 Invader correspond à une spécification de.
- The Martin B-26 Marauder was a World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. First used in the Pacific Theater in early 1942, it was also used in the Mediterranean Theater and in Western Europe. After entering service with the U.S. Army, the aircraft received the reputation of a Widowmaker due to the early models' high rate of accidents during takeoff and.
- They bombed the gun positions on the Isle d'Oleron, France. The last Martin B-26 Marauder mission was flown by the 1st Pathfinder Squadron when 8 of their B26's led 130 Douglas A26's of the 386th, 391st, 409th and 416th Bomb Groups to the Stod Ammo plant in Czechoslovakia on May 3, 1945. More info..
- Le Douglas B-26 Invader était lors de sa conception un bombardier d'assaut bimoteur à train tricycle, qu'il ne faut pas confondre avec le B-26 Marauder, utilisé par de nombreux groupes de bombardements français à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, sur lequel s'illustrèrent de nombreux équipages des Forces Aériennes Françaises Libres. Durant la Guerre d'Algérie, trois versions.
Martin B-26 Marauder & Douglas A-26 Invader in Combat over
- El B-26 Marauder fue un bombardero medio norteamericano del periodo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. A finales de los años 30 soplaban vientos de guerra en Europa y la fuerza aérea de los Estados Unidos no disponía de ningún bombardero medio moderno, por lo que convocó a varios constructores a que presentaran sus diseños
- Obwohl sie erheblich besser als die Douglas B-18 Bolo war, konnte sie nicht die Leistung einer B-25 Mitchell oder B-26 Marauder erreichen. Aus diesem Grund wurden nur 38 B-23 gebaut und niemals im Kampfeinsatz verwendet. Die Flugzeuge wurden zu Trainings- und Transportmaschinen umgebaut und dann als UC-67 bezeichnet
- Martin B-26 Marauder & Douglas A-26 Invader in Combat over Europe. Details by Tomasz Szlagor Hits: 51821. Print Email Page 2 of 2. The B-26C was the designation given to the B-26Bs manufactured at a new plant constructed at Omaha, Nebraska (it was essentially identical to the Baltimore-built B-26B). The first B-26C was completed in August 1942. The last B-26C (a B-26C-45-MO) was delivered in.
- B-26 Marauder in action, Aircraft No. 50, Steve Birdsall, squadron/signal publication 1981, ISBN -89747-119-9 B-26 Marauder units of the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces, Osprey Combat Aircraft 2, Jerry Scutts, Osprey Publishing 1997, ISBN 1-85532-637-X
Meet the B-26 Marauder: The Most Controversial Bomber of
- Aug 12, 2019 - U.S. Army Air Corps Medium Bombers A- 20 Havoc, B-25 Mitchell, B-26 Invader, B-26 Marauder. See more ideas about wwii aircraft, ww2 aircraft, military aircraft
- Die Douglas Aircraft Company stellte 2503 Exemplare her. 1948 wurde die Bezeichnung von A-26 (A wie Attack = Angriff) auf B-26 (B wie Bomber) umgestellt, nachdem die letzten Martin B-26 Marauder ausgemustert wurden, mit denen dieses Flugzeug nichts zu tun hat
- Next came the 3,760 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses, followed by the 5,157 B-26 Marauders. In Douglas's defence the A-26 was the last of the twelve main Air Force combat aircraft to enter development, and it and the B-29 were the only two to be developed and enter production after Pearl Harbor. Work on the A-26 began before Christmas 1940. It made its maiden flight in July 1942 but didn't enter.
B-26 Bomber, Martin or Douglas? > Air Force Historical
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- With the last Marauder gone, the service re-assigned the B-26 appellation to a different plane, the Douglas A-26 Invader - which remained in service under the B-26 designation well into the 1960s. Both aircraft with the B-26 nomenclature enjoyed distinguished careers, but over the years the Marauder has become the less recognized of the two
- Douglas: Title: Martin B-26 Marauder Solid: Scale: 1:48 : Type: Full kit : Released: 1942 | Initial release - new tool: Packaging: Rigid box (Top opener) Topic: Martin B-26 Marauder » Propeller (Aircraft) Box contents Product timeline . Douglas. 1942. New tool. Full history » Marketplace. None of our partner shops or mates has this currently for sale. In-box reviews. We don't know about any.
- The B-26 saw extensive service during World War II. First used in the Pacific Theater in early 1942, it was also used in the Mediterranean Theater and in Western Europe. A total of 5,288 Marauders were built between 1941 and 1945. After the Marauder was retired, the unrelated Douglas A-26 Invader assumed the B-26 designation, which led to.
- g operational in early 1943. The B-26 also served with 39th, 326th, 327th and 454th Squadrons of the RAF
- Napędzał tak słynne maszyny jak na przykład: Douglas A-26 Invader, Martin B-26 Marauder, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt czy Vought F4U Corsair. Problem melden. Bewertungen unserer Kunden Bewerten Sie das Produkt: B-26 Marauder silnik HAS. Positiv Neutral Negativ. Ihre Bewertung. Voraussichtliches Datum der Zustellung im Inland: GERMANY Postleitzahl: Voreingestellte Adresse ändern. Mittwoch, 5.
The Douglas A-26 Invader was a distinguished twin-engine light bomber whose origins were well-placed in the Second World War. The system proved adept at day and night flying, attacking targets with a bevy of machine guns or drop bombs and operating at low and medium altitudes with equal success Douglas A-26 Invader The B-26 Invader was a larger, more ruggedly built version of the A-20 Havoc with more powerful engines, longer range, and heavier armament with remote power-driven gun turrets. It had a three man crew including a pilot, navigator and bombardier The Successor - Douglas A-26 Invader From the very beginning the A-26 was intended to be the future common successor to the Douglas A-20, Martin B-26, and North American B-25 bombers. In June 1941 the War Department authorized the construction of two prototypes under the designation A-26 (A for Attack)
Next came the 3,760 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses, followed by the 5,157 B-26 Marauders. In Douglas's defence the A-26 was the last of the twelve main Air Force combat aircraft to enter development, and it and the B-29 were the only two to be developed and enter production after Pearl Harbor. Work on the A-26 began before Christmas 1940 After the Marauder was retired the unrelated Douglas A-26 Invader then assumed the B-26 designation which led to confusion between the two aircraft. b26 The B-26 Marauder was used mostly in Europe, but also saw action in the Mediterranean and the Pacific. In early combat, the aircraft took heavy losses, but was still one of the most successful medium-range bombers used by the US Army Air. The aircraft was intended to offer the weight-carrying capability of the Martin B-26 Marauder and the versatility of the Douglas A-20 Havoc - both excellent designs that served with distinction across all theaters. In short the Invader was to be the attack bomber replacement par excellence
As a result, Martin was issued a contract for 201 aircraft under the designation B-26 Marauder on August 10. Since the aircraft was effectively ordered off the drawing board, there was no prototype. Following the implementation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 50,000 aircraft initiative in 1940, the order was increased by 990 aircraft despite the fact that the B-26 had yet to fly. On. In June 1948, after the Martin B-26 Marauder was withdrawn from service, the Douglas A-26 dropped its prefix (A for attack) and became the B-26, a designation more representative of its actual.. Douglas A-26 / B-26 Invader vs Douglas A-20 Havoc / Boston Aviation | Utilities | Side-by-Side Comparison. HOME. AIRCRAFT / AVIATION. MODERN AIR FORCES. COUNTRIES. MANUFACTURERS. COMPARE. BY CONFLICT. BY TYPE. BY DECADE. Direct side-by-side comparison of two aircraft. Your selected aircraft are compared in side-by-side arrangement below. You can always go back and Compare any two aircraft in.
Martin B-26 Marauder (382) Douglas A-26 Invader (1) Subject (37) Reset. Martin B-26B Marauder (24) Martin Marauder Mk.II (12) Martin B-26C Marauder (9) Martin B-26B-25-MA Marauder (8) Martin B-26B-55-MA Marauder (7) Martin B-26A-1-MA Marauder (5) Martin B-26C-15-MO Marauder (5) Martin B-26B-55 Marauder (4) Martin B-26C-45-MO Marauder (4) Martin Marauder Mk.III (4) Martin B-26B-10-MA Marauder. The aircraft was intended to offer the weight-carrying capability of the Martin B-26 Marauder and the versatility of the Douglas A-20 Havoc - both excellent designs that served with distinction across all theatres. In short, the Invader was to be the attack bomber replacement par excellence. Following a prolonged period of development, the aircraft would eventually see combat in the European. One of the most commonly-asked questions is the difference between the Martin B-26 Marauder and the Douglas B-26 Invader. They were two completely different aircraft and had been designed to completely different requirements. The Douglas B-26 Invader had been originally been designated A-26, and was a twin-engined attack bomber intended as a successor to the Douglas A-20 Havoc. In 1948, the.
The Douglas A-26 / B-26 Invader v1.0.2 / 01 dec 19 / greg goebel * The Douglas Company's A-20 twin-engine bomber proved a significant asset to the Allied cause during World War II -- leading the firm to develop a much-improved follow-on, which emerged as the A-26 Invader. It went into service too late in the conflict to have much effect in the war, but in the postwar period, as the B-26. A re-designation of the type from A-26 to B-26 led to confusion with the Martin B-26 Marauder, which first flew in November 1940, some 20 months before the Douglas design's maiden flight. Although both types were powered by the widely used Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp eighteen-cylinder, double-row radial engine, they were completely different and separate designs — the Martin bomber. Douglas XB-22 Martin B-26 Marauder North American B-25 Mitchell List of aircraft of World War II List of bomber aircraft List of military aircraft of the United States References [edit | edit source] Notes ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Mondey 1982, p. 111. ↑ Stinger Gun in Plane's Tail Guards Vulnerable Spot. Popular Science, January 1941. ↑ UC-67 Dragon/39-031 John Weeks website. Retrieved.
The Douglas A-26 Invader was the last aircraft designated as an attack bomber. In 1944 the A-26 Invader became the fastest US bomber of World War Two, upon its delivery to the 9th Air Force in Europe. Not to be confused with the B26 Marauder. It continued in service after WWII, as a nightfighter, & over 400 served in the Korean War DRY BUILD - ICM 1:48 Douglas B-26B-50 Invader (48281) Much like the A-20 Havoc before it, Douglas designed the Invader to operate with a minimal crew. Sporting a single-pilot station which looked more akin to a fighter cockpit than a twin-engined attack/bomber, the Invader had a standard crew complement of 3, which was half of other contemporary USAF medium bombers such as the B-26 Marauder. Best WW photos - USAF Douglas B-26 Marauder bomber over St. Tropez. France, 1944. Martin B-26-MA Marauder (s/n 40 1510) of the 2nd Bomber Squadron of the 22nd Bombardment Group (Medium) Red Raiders USAAF, Spring 1942. Very rare B-26 Martin Marauder on display at the Utah Beach Landings Museum, Normandy. Houston, Texas / USA - Nov. 1, 2014: B-26 Marauder flies through smoke during the. B-26 Marauder Normdatei Q562167 LCAuth-Kennung: sh94003311 NARA-Kennung: 10648012. Reasonator PetScan Scholia Statistik OpenStreetMap Locator tool Nach diesem Motiv suchen Unterkategorien. Es werden 12 von insgesamt 12 Unterkategorien in dieser Kategorie angezeigt: In Klammern die Anzahl der enthaltenen Kategorien (K), Seiten (S), Dateien (D) Douglas A-26 Invader by location (2 K) A. A strange aircraft-designation swap occurred in 1948, when the Martin B-26 Marauder was deactivated and the Douglas A-26 was re-designated the B-26. (It kept this designation until 1962.) B-26s went on to serve extensively in both the Korean and Vietnam wars. In Vietnam, they were commonly used in the Counter-Insurgency (COIN) role, with very heavy armament and extra power. This version, the B.
Martin B-26 Marauder & Douglas A-26 Invader in Combat over Europe. Kagero's Area. Womens Black 'Eden' Jeggings With Organic Cotton. Our Mid-Rise Pull-On Jeggings Are Flat-Fronted And Has A Smooth Appearance With Non-Functional Front Pockets And Fly Detailing. Due To Popular Demand We Have Added Belt Loops Back Onto This Style. Ultra-Skinny And Ultra-Comfortable, These Are A Wardrobe Essential. The postwar re-designation of the type from A-26 to B-26 has led to popular confusion with the Martin B-26 Marauder which first flew in November 1940, some 16 months before the Douglas design's maiden flight. The last A-26 in active U.S. service was assigned to the Air National Guard that aircraft being retired from military service in 1972 by. .S. twin-engine medium attack bombers of World War II, the Douglas A-26 Invader was originally designed as a replacement for the B-25 Mitchell and Martin B-26 Marauder. First flown in 1942, the A-26 saw combat in the Pacific and in Europe during World War II before continuing in service through the first three decades of the Cold War. In 1948, the A-26 was re. Best WW photos - USAF Douglas B-26 Marauder bomber over St. Tropez. France, 1944. US Army Air Richard brought his father, a veteran of World War II, to the museum to see a Martin B-26 Marauder, the plane Charles worked on as a member of the 320th Bomber Wing, 12th Air Force, U.S. Army. (U.S. Army photo/Spc. John P. Higgins) Estranged Famil. 387th Bombardment Group - Crew of Martin B-26. 02.04.2018 - Klassiker der Luftfahrt zeigt Ihnen Bilder von historischen Flugzeugen, schreibt über technische Meilensteine und berichtet über aktuelle Flugshows Jetzt lesen
The Douglas B-26 (originally designated the A-26) was a World War II attack aircraft used for level bombing, ground strafing, and rocket attacks. It made its first flight in July 1942, and production delivery began in August 1943. The A-26 entered combat over Europe in November 1944. When production halted after the war, 2,502 Invaders had been built. The A-26 was redesignated the B-26 in 1948. 26/B-26 was the only U.S. bomber to take part in three wars, WWII, Korea and Vietnam. The confusion with the use of the designation B-26 began when the Martin B-26 Marauder was retired and in 1948 the USAF dropped the A (Attack) designator so the Douglas A-26 Invader became the B-26 Invader. The A-26 made its first European appearance in late 1944. In early 1967 the B-26K Counter Invader. The Martin B-26 Marauder was a World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company from 1941 to 1945. First used in the Pacific Theater in early 1942, it was also used in the Mediterranean Theater and in Western Europe.. After entering service with the US Army, the aircraft received the reputation of a Widowmaker due to the early models' high accident rate during. Martin B-26 Marauder & Douglas A-26 Invader in Combat over Europe Best.-Nr.: 577/19004 Kagero 16,95 € * Grumman F6F Hellcat. Band 1 Best.-Nr.: 577/19009 Kagero 16,95 € *. B-26, also called Marauder, U.S. medium bomber used during World War II.It was designed by the Glenn L. Martin Company Aviation in response to a January 1939 Army Air Forces requirement calling for a fast heavily-armed medium bomber the result was an exceptionally clean design with a high wing, a torpedo-shaped fuselage, conventional tail surfaces, and tricycle landing gear
In 1941 Douglas Aircraft Company began work on their twin-engine medium-bomber A-26 Invader. By the end of production there were 2,452 aircraft produced for all variants. The A- 26/B-26 was the only U.S. bomber to take part in three wars, WWII, Korea and Vietnam. The confusion with the use of the designation B-26 began when the Martin B-26 Marauder was retired and in 1948 the USAF dropped the. Martin B-26 Marauder - bomber, photo, technical data, development history. Martin B-26 Marauder 1940: BOMBER : Virtual Aircraft and the designation for the Douglas Invader was changed from A-26 to B-26. The Douglas Invader remained in service for many years thereafter, during the 1950s and even into the 1960s, under the designation B-26. reply . Klaatu83, e-mail, 20.04.2013 03:59. Featuring Martin's early production of their B-26 Marauder medium bomber, the film shows the manufacturing processes and some very revealing looks at methods used to build military aircraft at the time. Martin began producing B-26s during February of 1941. By the time production of the Marauder shut down in March of 1945, 5,288 of them had been built. At that point the Douglas A-26 Invader.
The Douglas A-26 Invader became the B-26 after the B-26 Marauder was withdrawn from service. The Invader first entered service during WWII and was in production until 1965 (and used longer). Not many WWII planes had such a long service life. A notable feature is the eight gun nose. In addition there were 3 machine guns built into each wing for a total of 14 .50 caliber machine guns firing. The Douglas B-26 (originally designated the A-26) was a World War II attack aircraft used for level bombing, ground strafing, and rocket attacks. It made its first flight in July 1942, and production delivery began in August 1943. The A-26 entered combat over Europe in November 1944. When production halted after the war, 2,502 Invaders had been built. The A-26 was redesignated the B-26 in 1948.
Martin B-26 Marauder History
Posts Tagged With: Douglas B-26 Invader. Korean Invaders. Posted on March 24, 2015 by John R Bruning. During the Korean War, three USAF bomb wings flew the venerable Douglas B-26 Invader light attack bomber in combat. They were used mainly as night intruders to hunt North Korean and Chinese vehicle convoys or trains, though in one case B-26 pilot Dick Heyman downed a PO-2 biplane, scoring one. Douglas had proposed the design to the U.S. Army Air Corps as a replacement for three different airplanes: The Douglas A-20, the North American Aviation B-25 Mitchell, and the Martin B-26 Marauder. It was to be operated by a pilot, navigator/bombardier and a gunner. Douglas XA-26. The prototype was 51 feet, 2 inches (15.596 meters) long, with a wingspan of 70 feet, 0 inches (21.336 meters) and. Scott Thompson's Douglas A-26 and B-26 Invader book, Appendix: 1 A-26 Production List, Pages 172-176. In the majority of photographs showing a DFN, the number is typically located between the vertical red stripe (which is immediatly in front of the cockpit) and the interchangeable aircraft nose. All of the DFNs in this position that have been cross-referenced to USAAF Serial Numbers were.
B-26 data. Martin B-26 Performance. WAR DEPARTMENT AIR CORPS, MATERIEL DIVISION January 28, 1941. MEMORANDUM REPORT ON Medium Bomber (B-26) Airplane, A.C. No. 40-1361. Subject: Performance Test Section: Flying Branch Serial No.: PHQ-M-19-1184-A A. Purpose 1. Report on flight tests of Martin Medium Bomber (B-26) airplane equipped with two (2) Pratt-Whitney R-2800-5 engines and four-bladed. B-26: Unit: 33rd BS, 22nd BG, USAAF Serial: 44/22B (40-1363) Muroc AFB, California. It was used for anti-submarine patrol duties, December 1941-January 1942. It wheels up landed at Jackson Field, New Guinea June 9, 1942
Vznik A-26 byl motivován snahou vyvinout pro americké armádní letectvo letoun, který by nahradil stroje Douglas A-20, North American B-25 Mitchell a Martin B-26 Marauder.Celá iniciativa vznikla v lednu 1941 v El Segundo Division společnosti Douglas Aircraft Company After the Marauder was retired the unrelated Douglas A-26 Invader then assumed the B-26 designation which led to confusion between the two aircraft. Design and development In March 1939, the United States Army Air Corps issued Circular Proposal 39-640, a specification for a twin-engined medium bomber with a maximum speed of 350 mph (560 km/h) , a range of 3,000 mi (4,800 km) and a bomb load. . Fast delivery, large choice, secure payment The Martin B-26 Marauder was a World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. The B-26 began flying combat missions in the Southwest Pacific in the spring of 1942, but most were subsequently assigned to Europe and the Mediterranean. Development. In March 1939, the US Army Air Corps began seeking a new medium bomber. Issuing Circular Proposal 39-640, it required.
The Douglas B-26 Invader was involved in the fighting in Vietnam for nearly twenty years, from 1951 when they were used by the French, until 1969 when the last aircraft in American service were withdrawn. The first aircraft to go to Vietnam were five RB-26s and twenty four B-26s provided to the French during 1951. These aircraft were taken by aircraft carrier to Hawaii and then flown to the. The B-26 designation was then passed on to the Douglas A-26 Invader. The Marauder had provided excellent service and had its champions, but it was and remains in the shadow of the B-25 Mitchell. Only about half as many Marauders were made as Mitchells, partly because Mitchells were cheaper by a substantial fraction, and the Mitchell never had to live down a reputation as bad as the Marauder's.
B-26 Marauder Modell - alle Modelle bei 1001Hobbie
B-26 Invader and the Monument to the Bay of Pigs Aviators — Now Completed II. 25º 38′ 56″ N / 80º 25′ 49″ W. Douglas B-26 Invader restored as ship No. 931 which was flown by Gustavo Gus Ponzoa with navigator Rafael Gárcia Pujol — photo by Joseph May. The south side of the stele, note that Lee Barker should read as Leo Barker — photo by Joseph May . A portrait of each aviator. Douglas B-23 Dragon  Douglas BT2D Destroyer  Douglas SBD Dauntless/A-24 Banshee  Douglas TBD Devastator  Douglas TB2D Skypirate  Fairey Albacore  Fairey Battle  Fairey Barracuda  Fairey Swordfish  Fiat BR.20 Cicogna  Focke-Wulf Fw.191  Focke-Wulf Fw.200 Condor  Fokker T.IX  Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger  Handley Page HP.52 Hampden/HP.53 Hereford. I should point out for any future repliers that my search is for info on the Douglas A-26 Invader, not the Martin B-26 Marauder. But all the suggestions so far will work as well for one as the other. A solid model would be the best possible solution, I think, thus the post to the Solidworks Forum. So if anyone knows where I can get such a model I would really appreciate hearing from you. RHoyt. The Douglas A-26 Invader (designated B-26 between 1948 and 1965) is a twin-engined light bomber and ground attack aircraft built by Douglas Aircraft Company during World War II, which also saw service during several major Cold War conflicts. A limited number of highly modified United States Air Force aircraft served in Southeast Asia until 1969. It was a fast aircraft capable of carrying twice.
Douglas A-26 Invader - Schnell und feuerstark FLUG REVU
The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the mainstay of the US Navy's dive bomber fleet for much of World War II (1939-1945). Produced between 1940 and 1944, the aircraft was adored by its flight crews which praised its ruggedness, dive performance, maneuverability, and heavy armament The Douglas B-23 Dragon is a twin-engined bomber developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company as a successor to (and a refinement of) the B-18 Bolo. 1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Notes 4 Sources Douglas proposed a number of modifications designed to improve the performance of the B-18. Initially considered a redesign, the XB-22 featured 1,600hp Wright R-2600-1 Twin Cyclone. Douglas A-26/B-26 Remote controlled turrets, gunner located in mid-rear section (no dedicated tail turret) Blocky body. They were roughly the same size and utilized the exact same type of engines. Twice as many Martin bombers were produced and delivered compared to the Douglas aircraft. I agree a French version would be cool to have, especially to help flesh out their tech tree, but I also. Douglas A-26C-25-DT Invader (S/N 43-22602 MSN 18726)
The Invaders were the last propeller-driven twin-engine bomber produced for the US Air Force and also unusual for it being a single-pilot bomber. The A-26 was designated the B-26 (to much confusion with the Martin B-26 Marauder) from 1948-1965
Douglas A-26 - Wikipedi
B-26 Marauder Historical Society, Tucson, AZ. 1,646 likes · 28 talking about this · 4 were here. We are an organization dedicated to preserving the legacy of the B-26 Martin Marauder Martin B-26 Marauder. Martin XB-27. North American XB-28. Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Lockheed XB-30 Constellation. Douglas XB-31. Consolidated B-32 Dominator. Martin XB-33 Super Marauder. Lockheed B-34 Ventura. Northrop XB-35 Flying Wing . Convair XB-36 Peacemaker. Lockheed B-37 Lexington. Boeing-Lockheed-Vega XB-38. Boeing XB-39 Spirit of Lincoln. Boeing-Lockheed-Vega YB-40. Consolidated.
The B-26 is a completely different aircraft from the A-20. Both the A-20 and the A-26 were built by Douglas. I wish they would put in the Marauder. With the bomb load and the performance, it would be a nice fit between the B-25 and the B-17. You may have access to a different tree than what I have because I don't see the 26 on there Movie (2019) Starring: Ed Skrein (Dick Best) Patrick Wilson (Edwin Layton) Woody Harrelson (Chester W. Nimitz) Luke Evans (Wade McClusky) The story of the Battle of Midway, told by the leaders and the sailors who fought it. 1 Aichi D3A 2 Aichi E13A 3 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress 4 Douglas SBD Dauntless 5 Douglas TBD Devastator 6 Martin B-26 Marauder 7 Mitsubishi A6M Zero 8 Mitsubishi G3M Nell 9. . Publisher: Kagero Author: Tomasz Szlagor Publishing date: 2012 ISBN: 978-83-62878-35-2. For me, the SMI Library series books from Kagero, represent great value for money, featuring great archive imagery from WWII regarding the chosen subject, many of which I've never seen before. Also. B-26 Marauder Units of the Eight and Ninth Air Forces Details Englischer Text, Paperback, sehr viele sw-Fotos, ca. 30 farbige Flugzeugprofile. 96 Seiten. Reihe Osprey - Combat Airc. Wir empfehlen Ihnen auch diese Artikel Martin B-26 Marauder. The Ultimate Look: From Drawing Board to Widow Maker Vindicated Best.-Nr.: 531/743 Schiffer Publishing 84,95 € * Martin B-26 Marauder Best.-Nr.: 517/40.
Boeing: Historical Snapshot: A-26/B-26 Invader Light Bombe
Airfix B 26, Airfix 1 72, Martin B-26, 1 72 Models, Revell 1 72, 1 72 Scale, B 26 Model Kit, Airfix 1 72 Diorama, B 26 Marauder Model, B-26 Marauder Bomber, B. 26 Marauder Cockpit, Martin B 26 Marauder Art, Airfix B-26 Marauder, B 26 Marauder Paint Schemes, A-26 Invader Model, 1 48 B 26 Marauder, B. 26 Marauder Interior, Martin B 26 Marauder Aircraft, Plastic Model Kits, B 26 Marauder Crew, B. B 26 — steht für: die Bundesstraße 26 in Deutschland die Puchberger Straße in Österreich B 26 steht für: Douglas A 26 Invader, ab 1948 nach Umbenennung Martin B 26 Marauder Siehe auch: ECO Codes, Varianten beim Schach Deutsch Wikipedia. Starship — (engl. für Sternen bzw. Raumschiff) ist der Name eines Flugzeugs des US Herstellers Beech Aircraft, siehe Beechcraft.
Für taktische Kampfflugzeuge wie das P-51 Schwestermodell A-36 oder die Douglas-Modelle A-20 und A-26 gab es die Kennung A für attack. Die A-26 Invader wurde später in B-26 umbenannt, was zu der erstaunlichen Situation führte dass diese Bezeichnung doppelt vergeben war: für die Martin B-26 Marauder (allerdings bis dahin längst nicht mehr im USAF-Inventar) und eben die umbenannte. The Martin B-26 Marauder was in service in the Pacific Theater during the Second World War as a twin-engine medium bomber. It also served in the Mediterranean Theater and as well as in Western Europe. The aircraft was produced by the Glenn L. Martin Company in two headquarters Baltimore, Maryland, and in Omaha, Nebraska. It first flew on November 25, 1940, and was introduced in 1941
B-26K Counter Invader - Italeri - 1/7
The B-26 saw service in the Aleutians in 1942, and in the Western Desert, where it served with the RAF Middle East Command as the Marauder Mk I (B-26A), Marauder Mk IA (B-26B), Marauder Mk II (B-26F) and Marauder Mk III (B-26G). Only two RAF squadrons, Nos 14 and 39, used the Marauder. The total number of Marauders delivered to the RAF included 52 Marauder Mk Is and Mk IAs, 250 Marauder Mk IIs. Doolittle also considered the Martin B-26 Marauder, Douglas B-18 Bolo, and Douglas B-23 Dragon, but the B-26 had questionable takeoff characteristics from a carrier deck and the B-23's wingspan was nearly 50-percent greater than the B-25's, reducing the number that could be taken aboard a carrier and posing risks to the ship's superstructure
Certainly one of the most elegant bomber aircraft to appear in the early years of World War II, Martin’s B-26 Marauder stemmed from a US Army Air Corps high-speed medium bomber specification which had been circulated to US manufacturers in January 1939. This called for a number of characteristics which, together, made the US Army requirement very difficult to meet. To accommodate a crew of five, which meant that it must be fairly large, it was required also to be fast and with good high-altitude performance, to have a range in excess of 2,000 miles (3219 km), and be able to carry good defensive armament plus a worthwhile load of bombs.
Martin’s design, by Peyton M. Magruder, was far in advance of competing submissions, and as the company not only guaranteed that performance would be as good as, or better than performance estimates and also promised early production, it was not surprising that this company was chosen to build the USAAC’s new bomber. The startling feature of the contract, awarded in September 1939, lay in the fact that it was for a substantial number of production aircraft (201) ordered ‘straight off the drawing board’, a course then unprecedented in USAAG history. No prototypes or preproduction aircraft were called for, so the first of the Martin Model 179s, designated B-26 by the US Army, flew for the first time on 25 November 1940.
As then flown it was a cantilever shoulder-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, except that all control surfaces were fabric-covered, and the conventional but small-area wing had plain trailing-edge flaps. The fuselage was a near perfect aerodynamic cigar-shape form of circular cross-section, marred only by the ‘step’ of the windscreen, and with a conventional tail unit which had a high-set tailplane. Landing gear was of the retractable tricycle type, the main units retracting forward and upward into the centre of the engine nacelles, and the nosewheel unit aft into the forward fuselage. To provide the necessary performance a new Pratt & Whitney engine had been selected, the 1,850 hp (1380 kW) R-2800-5 Double Wasp, and the two of these each drove a four-blade constant-speed fully-feathering propeller. An innovation was the use of a ‘cuff’ at the root end of each propeller blade, this enabling the normally useless area of each blade to provide extra airflow for improved engine cooling. Initial armament comprised two 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine-guns, one in the nose position and one in the tailcone, plus two 0.50 in (12.7 mm) guns in an electrically operated dorsal turret, the first powered gun turret to be installed in an American bomber. Maximum bomb load, all carried internally, was as much as 5,800 lbs (2631 kg) for deployment at short range.
Following the first flight, it was not until February 1941 that succeeding production aircraft began to come off the line, and while some of these were diverted for test purposes, there were sufficient available to begin deliveries to the USAAC. This initial equipping of the US Army Air Corps’ squadrons was not without problems, for while they had been supplied with an aircraft which attained the desired high performance specification, this performance had been achieved at the expense of good low speed handling characteristics, leading to what is usually termed a ‘hot’ aeroplane. This made conversion training a difficult and slow process, for even at loaded weights well under maximum the aircraft’s stalling speed was not far below 100 mph (161 km/h), a very high figure for that period.
In spite of this Marauders, as the B-26 had been named in preference to the originally chosen Martian, gradually began to equip USAAF squadrons and as experience was gained a number of modifications were considered to be desirable, resulting in the B-26A of which 139 were built. All had engines of the same power as the B-26, but R-2800-5, -9 and -39 units were installed in different batches. The electrical system was changed from 12-volt to 24-volt, two additional fuel tanks were installed in the bomb bay, provision was made for the carriage of a 22 in (559 mm) torpedo and, as a result of combat reports from the war then being fought in Europe, the nose and tail guns of 0.30 in (7.62 mm) calibre were replaced by similar 0.50 in (12.7 mm) installations. The result of these changes, of course, was to increase the gross weight and also, as a consequence, the problems that were soon to come to a head.
Before that, however, the Japanese on 7 December 1941 attacked Pearl Harbour and, on the following day, the USAAF’s 22nd Bombardment Group was despatched to the Pacific zone, becoming operational initially from northern Australia in April 1942. This unit’s B-26As soon found ready employment in a variety of roles, including unsuccessful torpedo attacks against the Japanese fleet engaged in the Battle of Midway. At about that same time the RAF received three examples of the B-26A for evaluation, these being designated Marauder 1. Successful testing resulted in this type being chosen for tactical use in the North African campaigns, and the additional 48 of this version allocated under Lend-Lease were delivered direct to the Middle East and used first to equip No. 14 Squadron.
While these events had been taking place, a special board of investigation had been set up in the USA, under the chairmanship of Major General Carl Spaatz, to enquire into the abnormally high accident rate associated with the B-26, especially during training, and to decide whether production should be terminated. Fortunately this latter course was not adopted for, with growing experience of how best to handle the Marauder, it was later to have the lowest attrition rate of any American aircraft operated by the US 9th Air Force in Europe. The eventual findings of the investigation board resulted in continuing production, but with some recommendations regarding modifications intended to improve low-speed handling.
During the foregoing enquiry all production had been suspended but soon after it was resumed, in May 1942, Martin began to deliver its first B-26Bs, the major production version of which 1,883 were built. These incorporated initially improvements which combat experience had proved to be necessary, but many other changes were introduced on the line throughout the long manufacturing run. Major items included the installation of 1,920 hp (1432 kW) R-2800-41 or R-2800-43 engines, the introduction of slotted trailing-edge flaps, and a lengthened nosewheel strut to increase wing incidence and so improve take-off characteristics. The most important change, one which had been recommended by the enquiry board, was an increase in wing span/area but this, in fact, achieved nothing because the USAAF immediately upped the gross weight. The comparisons of maximum wing loading are interesting, the B-26’s being 53.16 Ibs/sq ft (259.5 kg/m2), the early B-26B’s 56.48 lbs/sq ft (275.7 kg/m2), and the late B-26B’s 58.05 lbs/sq ft (283.4 kg/m2), which all goes to prove that the initial handling problems were largely those of inexperience. Today little is thought of a wing loading of 149 lb/sq ft (728 kg/m2), and that for a civil transport aircraft, not a ‘hot’ military aeroplane.
The introduction of the larger wing necessitated an increase in vertical tail surface area, achieved by increasing fin and rudder height by 1 ft 8 in (0.51 m). The armament, through a succession of modifications, became almost as potent as that of the USAAF’s heavy bombers, with no fewer than 12 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine-guns. The increasing demand for Marauders resulted in the establishment of a second production line by Martin at Omaha, Nebraska, which built 1,235 aircraft as B-26Cs from late 1942, these duplicating various batches of the B-26Bs built at Baltimore, Maryland. The D and E designations were taken up by two one-off aircraft: the XB-26D was an experiment in thermal wing de-icing and the XB-26E was a ‘weight watchers’ version with some 2,000 lbs (907 kg) weight reduction and with the dorsal turret moved forward to a position adjacent to the wing leading edge.
The final production versions were the generally similar B-26F (300 built) and B-26G (893), plus 57 TB- 26Gs without armament and other purely operational equipment to serve as target tugs or trainers. The major difference between these aircraft and the B-26B/B-26Cs which had preceded them lay in a final attempt to improve take-off performance, wing incidence being increased by 3°30′, so giving a noticeable nose-in-the-air look to the engines. There were also some armament and fuel system changes. Last of the B-26 designations was taken by a single XB-26H with tandem bicycle type landing gear with each of the main units carrying twin wheels and an outrigger, for balancing, was housed in each engine nacelle. This experimental installation was made to evaluate a landing gear of this type which was being developed for the Boeing XB-47.
All of the USAAF’s early deployment of the B-26 had been confined to the Pacific theatre, but B-26Bs and B-26Cs began to appear in North Africa during November 1942, equipping 12 squadrons of the 17th, 319th and 320th Bomb1l.rdment Groups of the 12th Air Force, providing admirable support to the Allied ground forces as they followed the bitter but victorious trail to the south of France via Sicily, Italy, Sardinia and Corsica. However, the B-26’s first operation with the 8th Air Force in Europe was disastrous, all 11 aircraft sent to make a low-level attack on installations in the Netherlands failing to return to base. Subsequently, in a tactical role, Marauders went from strength to strength in operations with the USAAF’s 9th Air Force, also in Europe.
Under Lend-Lease the RAF received a total of 522 Marauders, these comprising the Marauder I mentioned above, plus Marauder IA (B-26B), II (B-26C) and III (B-26F/B-26G). Used by the RAF’s Nos. 14, 39, 326, 327 and 454 Squadrons and the South African Air Force’s Nos. 12, 21, 24, 25 and 30 Squadrons, they were deployed most successfully alongside the B-26s of the US 12th Air Force, after initial failure in a torpedo carrying role.
In 1943 the USAAF converted 208 B-26Bs and 350 B-26Cs for use as high-speed target tugs, stripping out all armament and operational equipment, and these were redesignated initially as AT-23A and AT-23B respectively, but subsequently TB-26B and TB-26C. Of these the US Navy acquired 225 AT-23Bs which they designated JM-1, and 47 TB-26Gs, the last Martin production version, as JM-2s.
Much is made reference to the hazards caused by engine failure in multi-engined aircraft, and in particular to the high accident rates in B-26s, which were very difficult to save from a crash when an engine failed, but nevertheless later went on to become one of the safest bombers in which to serve a tour of duty.
The B-26 was given a mid-career redesign by the manufacturer, with increased wing span and a change in the angle of incidence of the wing, to improve its single-engined flying characteristics. A less-heralded change, but still an important one was from electrically-controlled propellers to hydraulically-controlled propellers. In his autobiography, Paul Tibbets (who piloted the “Enola Gay” B-29 on the Hiroshima mission) described a visit by Brig Gen Jimmy Doolittle to Tibbets’ unit in North Africa, using a B-26 as a personal transport. He invited Tibbets to fly with him, and Tibbets mentioned the need to flip some battery switches inside the nosewheel well doors to the “on” position when entering the B-26 through the nosewheel well. He mentioned that it was common to forget to do this because the switches were so far from the pilots’ seats, and control of the propellers would later become impossible because of draining of the batteries aboard the B-26 during taxi and takeoff. With an engine failure at that time, and no ability to change prop pitch, that would be one more factor contributing to accidents in the type. At the end of a flight, the same switches were to be switched “off” by the exiting crew. During Tibbets’ flight with Doolittle, Doolittle feathered one engine and did loops for fun at low altitude in the B-26! Quite an aviator! Tibbets was caught on the ground in a town in North Africa during a Luftwaffe bombing raid, and had a near-brush with death, so he has some inkling of what a bombing raid is like on the ground.
I remember an interesting book by a former Luftwaffe test pilot, in which he described his assignment to fly a captured B-26 out of a farm field, so that it could be taken to a Luftwaffe test center and evaluated. The surface was soft, and he had the hairiest of possible takeoffs, but made it, and completed the flight. That B-26 had the electrically-controlled propellers and old-style wing.
As for the low loss rate, the B-26 was fast, and generally bombed from an altitude of about 6,000 feet. This was no accident: it was an early example of using Operations Research. Statistically, it had been found to be a safer altitude than other altitudes. It was too high for casual shooting by infantry weapons, but was below the normal altitude for heavy flak explosions. It would have been interesting to try other bomber types at that altitude, to see if their loss rate would have been improved. In the case of the 4-engined heavies, they were designed to achieve their range and bomb load performance at high altitudes, so trying them at 6,000 feet would have been ruled out.
The B-26 had no seats for the crewmembers in the nose: they knelt at their work. A South African pilot’s memoir remarked that it was horribly cold inside, and the intercom system was very poor, garbling a lot of what was said by the crewmen among themselves.
The B-26 Marauder was used mostly in Europe but also saw action in the Mediterranean and the Pacific. In early combat the aircraft took heavy losses but was still one of the most successful medium-range bombers used by the U.S. Army Air Forces. [ 9 ] The B-26 was initially deployed on combat missions in the South West Pacific in the spring of 1942, but most of the B-26s subsequently assigned to operational theaters were sent to England and the Mediterranean area.
By the end of World War II, it had flown more than 110,000 sorties and had dropped 150,000 tons (136,078 tonnes) of bombs, and had been used in combat by British, Free French and South African forces in addition to U.S. units. In 1945, when B-26 production was halted, 5,266 had been built. [ 10 ]
The B-26 began to equip the 22d Bombardment Group at Langley Field, Virginia in February 1941, replacing the B-18 Bolo, with a further two Bombardment groups equipping with the B-26 by December. [ 5 ] [ 11 ] Immediately following the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, the 22d was deployed to the South West Pacific, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] being sent by ship to Hawaii and then flown to Australia. The 22d flew its first combat mission, an attack on Rabaul which required an intermediate stop at Port Moresby, New Guinea, on 5 April 1942. [ 11 ]
A second Group, the 38th Bombardment Group was planned to be sent to the South West Pacific later in the year, to be equipped with B-26Bs fitted with more auxiliary fuel tanks and provisions for carrying aerial torpedos. [ 11 ] Four of these aircraft were deployed to Midway Island in the build-up to the Battle of Midway, and carried out torpedo attack against the Japanese Fleet on 4 June 1942. Two B-26s were shot down with the remaining two badly damaged, while their torpedoes failed to hit any Japanese ships, although they did shoot down one A6M Zero fighter, and killed two seamen aboard the Aircraft carrier Akagi with machine gun fire. [ 11 ] [ 14 ]
Two squadrons of the 38th were deployed to Australia to join the 22d, but it was decided to standardize on the B-25 Mitchell in the South West Pacific theatre, and the B-26 flew its last combat missions in the theatre on 9 January 1944. [ 11 ] Two more squadrons of torpedo armed Marauders were used for anti-shipping operations in the Aleutian Islands Campaign, but there are no records of any successful torpedo attack by a USAAF B-26. [ 11 ]
Three Bombardment Groups were allocated to support the Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942. They were initially used to carry out low-level attacks against heavily defended targets, receiving heavy losses with poor results, before switching to medium level attacks. By the end of the North Africa campaign, the three B-26 groups had flown 1,587 sorties, losing 80 aircraft. This was double the loss rate of the B-25, which also flew 70% more sorties with fewer aircraft. [ 15 ] Despite this, the B-26 continued in service with the Twelfth Air Force, supporting the Allied advance through Sicily, Italy and Southern France. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] . Air Marshall Slessor considered the 42nd Bombardment Group (Marauders) to be the "best day-bomber unit in the world." [ 18 ]
North West Europe
The B-26 entered service with the Eighth Air Force in England in early 1943, with the 322d Bombardment Group flying its first missions in May 1943. Missions were similar to those flown in North Africa with B-26s flying at low level and were unsuccessful. The second mission, an unescorted attack on a power station at IJmuiden, Netherlands resulted in the loss of the entire attacking force of 11 B-26s to anti-aircraft fire and Luftwaffe Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighters. [ 19 ] Following this disaster, the UK based B-26 force was switched to medium altitude operations, and transferred to the Ninth Air Force, set up to support the planned Invasion of France. [ 19 ]
Bombing from medium altitudes of 10,000 to 15,000 feet (3,000 to 4,600 m) and with appropriate fighter escort, the Marauder proved far more successful, striking against a variety of targets, including bridges and V-1 launching sites in the build-up to D-Day, and moving to bases in France as they became available. The Marauder operating from medium altitude proved to be a highly accurate bomber, with the 9th Air Force rating it the most accurate bomber available in the final month of the war in Europe. [ 20 ] Loss rates were far lower than in the early, low-level days, with the B-26 stated by the 9th Air Force as having the lowest loss rate in the European Theatre of Operations at less than 0.5 %. [ 5 ]
The B-26 flew its last combat missions against the German garrison at the Île d'Oléron on 1 May 1945, with the last units disbanding in early 1946. [ 21 ]
In 1942, a batch of 52 B-26A Marauders (designated Marauder I by the RAF) were offered to the United Kingdom under Lend-Lease. Like the earlier Martin Maryland and Baltimore bombers, these were sent to the Mediterranean, replacing the Bristol Blenheims of No. 14 Squadron in Egypt. No. 14 Squadron flew its first operational mission on 6 November 1942, being used for long range reconnaissance, mine-laying and anti-shipping strikes. [ 22 ] Unlike the USAAF, 14 Squadron made productive use of the option for carrying torpedoes, sinking several merchant ships with this weapon. The Marauder also proved useful in disrupting enemy air transport, shooting down considerable numbers of German and Italian transport aircraft flying between Italy and North Africa. [ 23 ]
In 1943, deliveries of 100 long wingspan B-26C-30s (Marauder II), allowed two squadrons of the South African Air Force, 12 and 24 Squadron, these being used for bombing missions over the Aegean, Crete and Italy. A further 350 B-26F and Gs were supplied in 1944, with two more South African Squadrons (24 and 30) joining No 12 and 24 in Italy to form an all Marauder wing, while one further SAAF squadron (25) and a new RAF Squadron (39 Squadron) re-equipped with Marauders as part of the Balkan Air Force supporting Tito's Partisans in Yugoslavia. A Marauder of 25 Squadron SAAF, lost on the unit's last mission of the Second World War on 4 May 1945, was the last Marauder to be lost in combat by any user. [ 24 ] The British and South African aircraft were quickly scrapped following the end of the war, the United States not wanting the return of the Lend-Lease aircraft. [ 22 ]
Following Operation Torch, a number of French bomber squadrons were re-equipped with the B-26, being used to support operations in Italy and the Allied invasion of southern France. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Replaced in squadron service by 1947, two lingered on as testbeds for the SNECMA Atar jet engine, one of these remaining in use until 1958. [ 25 ]
Martin XB-26D Marauder - History
Despite its high landing speed of 130 mph, which remained essentially unchanged throughout the entire production career of the B-26 in spite of numerous modifications made to reduce it, the Marauder had no really vicious flying characteristics and its single-engine performance was actually fairly good. Although at one time the B-26 was considered so dangerous an aircraft that aircrews tried to avoid getting assigned to Marauder-equipped units and civilian ferry crews actually refused to fly B-26s, it turned out that the Marauder could be safely flown if crews were adequately trained and knew what they were doing. It nevertheless did demand somewhat of a higher standard of training from its crews than did its stablemate, the B-25 Mitchell. However, once mastered, the B-26 offered a level of operational immunity to its crews unmatched by any other aircraft in its class.
A total of 5157 B-26 Marauders were built. Although on paper the B-26 was a more advanced aircraft than its stablemate, the North American B-25 Mitchell, it was built in much fewer numbers because it was more expensive to manufacture and had a higher accident rate.
One of the most commonly-asked questions is the difference between the Martin B-26 Marauder and the Douglas B-26 Invader. They were two completely different aircraft and had been designed to completely different requirements. The Douglas B-26 Invader had been originally been designated A-26, and was a twin-engine attack bomber intended as a successor to the Douglas A-20 Havoc. In 1948, the newly-independent Air Force decided to eliminate the A-for-Attack series letter as a separate designation, and the A-26 Invader was redesignated B-26, in the bomber series. There was no danger of confusion with the Martin B-26 Marauder, since this aircraft was by that time no longer in service with the US Air Force.
The history of the Martin Marauder dates back to early 1939. Both the North American B-25 Mitchell and the Martin B-26 Marauder owe their origin to the same Army Air Corps specification. On March 11, 1939, the Air Corps issued Proposal No. 39-640 for the design of a new medium bomber. According to the requirements listed in the specification, a bombload of 3000 pounds was to be carried over a range of 2000 miles at a top speed of over 300 mph and at a service ceiling exceeding 20,000 feet. The crew was to be five and armament was to consist of four 0.30-inch machine guns. The proposal called for either the Pratt & Whitney R-2800, the Wright R-2600, or the Wright R-3350 radial engine.
Requests for proposals were widely circulated throughout the industry. Proposals were received from Martin, Douglas, Stearman, and North American. The proposal of the Glenn L. Martin company of Middle River, Maryland (near Baltimore) was assigned the company designation of Model 179. Martin assigned 26-year-old aeronautical engineer Peyton M. Magruder as Project Engineer for the Model 179. Magruder and his team chose a low-drag profile fuselage with a circular cross section. Since the Army wanted a high maximum speed but hadn't specified any limitation on landing speed, the team selected a high-mounted wing with a wingspan of only 65 feet. Its small area gave a wing loading of more than 50 pounds per square foot. The wing was shoulder-mounted to leave the central fuselage free for bomb stowage. The wings were unusual in possessing no fillets. The engines were to be a pair of 1850 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 Double Wasp air-cooled radials, which were the most powerful engines available at the time. Two-speed mechanical superchargers were installed in order to maintain engine power up to medium altitudes, and ejector exhausts vented on each side of the closely-cowled nacelles. The engines drove four-bladed 13 foot 6 inch Curtiss Electric propellers. Large spinners were fitted to the propellers, and root cuffs were added to aid in engine cooling.
The armament included a flexible 0.30-inch machine gun installed in the tip of a transparent nose cone and operated by the bombardier. Two 0.50-inch machine guns were installed in a Martin-designed dorsal turret located behind the bomb bay just ahead of the tail. This was the first power-operated turret to be fitted to an American bomber. Another 0.30-inch flexible machine gun was installed in a manually-operated tunnel position cut into the lower rear fuselage. There was a 0.50-inch manually-operated machine gun installed in a pointed tail cone. The tail gunner had enough room to sit in an upright position, unlike the prone position that had been provided in the early B-25.
There were two bomb bays, fore and aft. The bomb bay doors were unusual in being split in tandem, the forward pair folding in half when opened and the aft set being hinged normally to open outward. Two 2000-LB bombs could be carried in the main bomb bay, but up to 4800 pounds of smaller bombs could be carried if the aft bay was used as well.
Detailed design of the Model 179 was completed by June of 1939. On July 5, 1939, the Model 179 was submitted to a Wright Field Board. The Martin design was rated the highest of those submitted, and on August 10, 1939, the Army issued a contract for 201 Model 179s under the designation B-26. This contract was finally approved on September 10. At the same time, the competing North American NA-62 was issued a contract for 184 examples under the designation B-25. Since the design had been ordered "off the drawing board", there was no XB-26 as such.
Although the first B-26 had yet to fly, orders for 139 B-26As with self-sealing tanks and armor were issued on September 16. Further orders for 719 B-26Bs on September 28, 1940 brought the total B-26 order to 1131 aircraft.
Early wind tunnel test models of the B-26 had featured a twin tail, which designers thought would provide better aerodynamic control. This was dropped in favor of a single fin and rudder so that the tail gunner would have a better field of view.
The B-26 had a semi-monocoque aluminum alloy fuselage fabricated in three sections. The fuselage had four main longerons, transverse circular frames, and longitudinal stringers covered by a metal skin. The mid section with the bomb bays was built integrally with the wing section. The retractable tricycle landing gear was hydraulically actuated. The nose wheel pivoted 90 degrees to retract into the nose section, and the main wheels folded backwards into the engine nacelles. The tail fins were of smooth stressed skin cantilever structure. The elevators were covered with metal skin, but the rudder was fabric covered.
The first B-26 (c/n 1226, USAAF serial 40-1361) took off on its maiden flight on November 25, 1940, with chief engineer and test pilot William K. Ebel at the controls. The first B-26 initially flew without any armament fitted.
The first 113 hours of flight testing went fairly well, and there were few modifications needed. However, a slight rudder overbalance required that the direction of travel of the trim tabs be reversed.
Since there was no prototype, the first few production aircraft were used for test purposes. On February 22, 1941, the first four B-26s were accepted by the USAAF. The first to use the B-26 was the 22nd Bombardment Group (Medium) based at Langley Field, Virginia, which had previously operated Douglas B-18s.
A series of failures of the front wheel strut resulted in a delay in bringing the B-26 to full operational status. Although the forward landing gear strut was strengthened in an attempt to correct this problem, the true cause was an improper weight distribution. The manufacturer had been forced to deliver the first few B-26s without guns, and had trimmed them for delivery flights by carefully loading service tools and spare parts as ballast. When the Army took the planes over, they removed the ballast without replacement and the resultant forward movement of the center of gravity had multiplied the loads on the nose wheel, causing the accidents. The installations of the guns corrected the problem.
Specification of Martin B-26 Marauder
Two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 Double Wasp air cooled radial engines, rated at 1850 hp each.
Maximum speed 315 mph at 15,000 feet. Cruising speed 265 mph. An altitude of 15,000 feet could be attained in 12.5 minutes. Service ceiling 25,000 feet. Range was 1000 miles at 265 mph with a 3000-pound bombload.
21,375 pounds empty, 32,025 pounds gross.
Wingspan 65 feet 0 inches, length 56 feet 0 inches, height 19 feet 10 inches, wing area 602 square feet.
A Little More History
The first Allied bomber to carry out 200 combat missions was a 9th Air Force B-26B christened "Flak Bait". This record is even more enviable if one considers that it was achieved by an aircraft that in the initial stages of its career, was not liked by its crews, because its excellent performance made it difficult to fly. However, once it was better known, the B-26 "Marauder" proved to be an extremely effective aircraft. In all, 5,157 were manufactured between February 1941 and March 1945. They served on all fronts and in all theaters of operation. In particular, 522 of them served in the units of the British Royal Air Force and in those of the South African Air Force, in the Mediterranean.
The B-26 project was launched in 1939, in response to specifications issued by the USAAC on January 25th, calling for a fast medium bomber with particular qualities as far as range and ceiling were concerned. In September, the Glenn L. Martin Company presented its Model 179, and the proposal was considered so superior to its rivals that it was accepted "on the drawing board", with an initial order being placed for 201 aircraft. The new planes design was supervised by Peyton M. Magruder with William K. Ebel as chief engineer. It had a rounded fuselage, and nice aerodynamic lines with a retractable, rearward folding, tricycle landing gear. It was powered by a pair of large Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp 18-cylinder engines.
The first B-26 made its maiden flight on November 25, 1940, and in the course of this flight confirmed the expectations of its technicians in achieving a maximum speed of 305 mph (508 km/h). However, in order to guarantee the high performance requested the design was characterized by a high wing load, much greater than that of any other military aircraft to date. It was not, therefore, and easy plane to fly (especially during landing), and this did not facilitate training or the launching of its operative career. There were many accidents, and although the "A" version aircraft (139 built in all) were delivered in 1941, they did not see combat until April of 1942 in the Pacific. The B-26A also saw service as a torpedo bomber during the Battle of Midway (June 1942) and as an anti-ship type in the hands of the 73rd and 77th Bomb Squadrons operating in the Aleutian Islands. Production was even halted, and a specific inquiry launched to investigate the actual danger of the aircraft. Nevertheless, the commission decided to continue to build the B-26, introducing a series of modifications to improve its performance at low altitude and to perfect its maneuvering capabilities.
In May 1942, production of the B-26B was started. This was the version of which most of the aircraft were built (1,883) and in which, apart from improvements to the armament, and various other equipment, a substantial modification was made with an increased wingspan of 6 feet (183 cm). With this modification in place the aircraft had a lower wing load, aiding in solving the earlier wing loading problem. The surface area of the tail fins and rudder were also increased.
The next variant, the B-26C, was characterized by having more defensive armament, but also an increase in weight. 1,235 of these aircraft were built, and they went into service in the USAAF toward the end of 1942 in North Africa. The final versions were the B-26F and G, which differed only slightly in their equipment. An attempt was made in both aircraft to further improve the takeoff and landing characteristics by increasing the angle of attack of the wing by 3.5 degrees. The last Marauder was delivered on March 30th, 1945, and the aircraft that survived the conflict remained in service for another three years.
The B-26 - Firsts
(J.K. Havener piloted more than 50 combat missions in B-26 Marauders during WWII and was also a B-26 transitional training instructor. The following was taken directly from his book The Martin B-26 Marauder (Copyright 1988 by TAB BOOKS Inc)
It was the first aircraft of WWII vintage to use four-bladed propellers. These were 13-foot 6-inch Curtis electrics that were driven by Pratt and Whitney R-2800-5 Wasp engines, which developed 1850 hp at takeoff and 1500 hp at 15,000 feet. A two-stage blower was employed for a supercharging effect at higher altitudes.
It embodied the first horizontal tailplane with a marked dihedral. ( 8 degrees. )
It was the first aircraft to carry a power-operated gun turret. The original armament called for four flexible .30-caliber guns, but Martin designed the 250CE dorsal-mounted, electrically operated turret with twin .50-caliber guns for increased firepower. These turrets were also later used on B-25, B-17, and B-24 American bombers as well.
It was the first medium bomber in which the tail gunner could sit in an upright position. Original armament included a flexible .30-caliber gun in the tail position, but this was later replaced (in the B models) with twin flexible .50s, and later (in March 1943) by an electric-hydraulic Martin-Bell turret still containing twin .50s.
It was the first WWII aircraft to use weapons pods. Two fixed .50-caliber machine guns were mounted in package pods on both sides of the forward fuselage belly, beginning with the B models.
It incorporated the first all-plexiglass bombardier's nose-a Martin innovation.
It was the first combat aircraft in which the designers used butted seams for the skin covering as opposed to the conventional lapped seams. This enhanced the flow of air over the streamlined torpedo-like fuselage, which increased the speed of the craft.
It was the first combat bomber to employ an all-electrical bomb release mechanism.
It was the first combat aircraft to have rubber self-sealing fuel tanks installed as regular equipment. These were another Martin innovation and invention called "Mareng Cells."
It employed the first flexible tracks for transferring ammunition from the bomb bay storage areas back to the tail gun position. Lionel, the famous toy train manufacturer, furnished these tracks.
It was the first combat aircraft to use plastic materials as metal substitutes on a grand scale. Martin had been pioneering the use of plastics to replace metal, and the B-26 contained over 400 such parts.
It was the first (and last) Army bomber to use torpedoes in the WWII conflict. An external rack was installed along the keel to carry a standard 2000-pound Naval aerial torpedo.
It was the first Allied bomber in the European Theater of Operations to complete 100 operational missions. This was accomplished by Mild and Bitter on an afternoon raid on a Nazi airfield at Evreux/Fauville, southwest of Rouen, France, on 9 May 1944. She was a B-26B-25, Serial Number 41-31819, of the 450th Squadron in the 322nd Bomb Group (M) of the 9th Air Force and had flown her first mission on 23 July 1943. She did all this on her original engines, amassing a total of 449 hours and 30 minutes on them, 310 hours and 40 minutes of that in combat! During this time she never aborted due to mechanical failure, and not one of her many crewmen was a casualty. She was taken off operations after her 100th mission and flown back to the States to conduct War Bond selling tours.
Even more amazing was the fact that a B-26 was the first Allied bomber in the European Theater of War to fly 200 operational missions! In fact, Flak Bait, Serial Number 41-31733, actually flew 202 combat missions over a 21 month period. She was assigned to the 449th Squadron of the same 322nd Bomb Group and flew her first mission on 16 August 1943 when Mild and Bitter had completed her 100th, Flak Bait had 99. She never did get the press coverage that Mild and Bitter received, but she persevered and it paid off in the end. She flew her 202nd and last mission in early May 1945 from Airfield Y-89 at Le Culot, Belgium, from which she had also flown the now-famous 200th. (Sgt. W.J. Johnston, now of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the engineer-gunner on the third crew assigned to Flak Bait, and, although he didn't realize it at the time that it was to be her last mission, he was on it. His crew flew approximately 30 missions in Flak Bait, including numbers 199, 201, and 202. Why not number 200 when it was "their" airplane? The old military truism "Rank has its privileges" reared its ugly head for this historic event, and Sgt. Johnston's crew had to stand down that day so the top brass of the outfit could receive the glory. At least the Sarge flew on that last one and now gloats over the fact that Flak Bait is probably the most famous Marauder of them all. She was appropriately named, having absorbed over 1000 enemy hits during her combat days. Her nose section -well preserved but unrestored and in original condition- now resides in a place of honor at the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. After the war, Devon Francis even wrote a book about her, appropriately titled Flak Bait.
Another B-26 may have been the first American bomber to complete 300 combat missions -and probably the only one of any type in the USAAF to do so. A photo of this unnamed ship shows her after 336 missions, during which none of her many crew members had been injured. (Unfortunately, the negative for that photo, which is the only print in the Martin Photo Library, had been destroyed by deterioration, and attempts to discover the identity of the ship or to which group she was assigned proved futile.)
The army was anxious to get into production and although the first order included a prototype, none was built, and the first production model was the first of the line to fly!
It had the first aerodynamically perfect fuselage. One of its early nicknames was "The Flying Torpedo".
It was the first twin - engine bomber to carry more payload of bombs than the B-17 of the time.
Lastly, the B-26 was the first aircraft to test the bicycle-type landing gear that would later be adopted for use by the Air Force on the B-47 and B-52 jet bombers. The test bed was a G-25 model, Serial Number 44-68221, and was called the XB-26H. It carried the name Middle River Stump Jumper.
It is doubtful that any other World War II aircraft could lay claim to that many firsts.
Although Mild and Bitter was the first B-26 to complete 100 missions in the ETO and Flak Bait 200, the honor of the first B-26 to complete 100 missions anywhere has to go to Hells Belle II of the 17th Bomb Group in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations. She was a B-26B-10, Serial Number 41-18322, and beat Mild and Bitter by eight days in racking up her 100th mission on 1 May 1944, bombing the Calaviria rail viaduct in Italy. At that time she had flown a total of 724 hours, 450 to 500 of which were in combat.
The 336-mission mystery ship was undoubtedly from a Mediterranean Theater outfit also, substantiated by the fact that B-26s had been flying combat in that theater since late 1942.
Unfortunately, many of the pilots trying to master the Marauder at these fields had no previous twin-engine experience. In 1942, a series of training accidents took place stateside which placed the future of the entire Marauder program in doubt. Most of these accidents took place during takeoff or landing. The increases in weight that had been gradually introduced on the B-26 production line had made the wing loading of the Marauder progressively higher and higher, resulting in higher stalling and landing speeds. Veteran pilots in combat overseas had enough experience that they could handle these higher speeds, but new trainees at home had serious problems and there were numerous accidents, causing the Marauder to earn such epithets as "The Flying Prostitute", "The Baltimore Whore", "The Flying Vagrant", or "The Wingless Wonder", these names being given because the B-26's small wing area appeared to give it no visible means of support. Other derisive names being given to the B-26 were "The Widow Maker", "One-Way Ticket", "Martin Murderer", "The Flying Coffin", "The Coffin Without Handles", and the "B-Dash Crash". In particular, there were so many takeoff accidents at MacDill Field during early 1942 that the phrase "One a Day Into Tampa Bay" came to be a commonplace lament.
The USAAF was concerned about the high accident rate and seriously considered withdrawing the Marauder from production and service. The US Senate's Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program (better known as the Truman Committee, after its chairman, Sen. Harry S. Truman of Missouri), which had been charged with ferreting out corruption, waste, and mismanagement in the military procurement effort, also began looking into the Marauder's safety record. By July, the Committee had heard so many Marauder horror stories that they recommended that B-26 production be stopped. However, combat crews in the South Pacific, who were more experienced, were not reporting any particular problems with the airplane, and they went to bat for the Marauder. They exerted pressure, and the USAAF decided to continue with production of the Marauder.
However, by September of 1942, the situation had gotten even worse and training accidents had become even more frequent. By that time, the reputation of the Marauder had gotten so bad that civilian crews contracted to ferry USAAF aircraft to their destinations were often quitting their jobs rather than having to ferry a B-26. The Air Safety Board of the USAAF was forced to initiate an investigation into the cause. In October, the Truman Committee was again on the warpath and once again recommended that production of the B-26 be discontinued.
USAAF commanding General Henry H. Arnold directed that Brig. Gen. James H. Doolittle (fresh from his famous Tokyo raid) investigate the problem with the B-26 personally. Doolittle had recently been given command of the B-26-equipped 4th Medium Bombardment Wing, which was scheduled to take part in the invasion of North Africa.
Both General Doolittle and the Air Safety Board concluded that there was nothing intrinsically wrong with the B-26, and there was no reason why it should be discontinued. They traced the problem to the inexperience of both aircrews and ground crews, and also to the overloading of the aircraft beyond the weight at which it could be safely flown on one engine only. Almost immediately after the Marauder had entered service, it had been found necessary to add more and more equipment, armament, fuel, and armor, driving the gross weight steadily upwards. By early 1942, the B-26 had risen in normal gross weight from its original 26,625 pounds to 31,527 pounds with no increase in power. It had been found that many of the accidents had been caused by engine failures, which were in turn caused by a combination of poor maintenance by relatively green mechanics and a change from 100 octane fuel to 100 octane aromatic fuel, which damaged the diaphragm of the carburetors. Many of the B-26 instructors were almost as green as the pilots they were trying to train, and did not know themselves how to fly the B-26 on one engine only, and so could not teach the technique to their students.
General Doolittle sent his technical adviser, Captain Vincent W. "Squeak" Burnett, to make a tour of OTU bases to demonstrate how the B-26 could be flown safely. These demonstrations included single-engine operations, slow-flying characteristics, and recoveries from unusual flight attitudes. Capt. Burnett made numerous low altitude flights with one engine out, even turning into a dead engine (which aircrews were warned never to do), proving that the Marauder could be safely flown if you knew what you were doing. Martin also sent engineers out into the field to show crews how to avoid problems caused by overloading, by paying proper attention to the plane's center of gravity.
The End of The Marauder
Soon after VE-Day, some B-26 groups were demobilized, but others moved to Germany to serve with the occupation forces.
The Following Bombardment Groups Flew the B-26 Marauder in the ETO:
322nd Bombardment Group: May 14, 1943 to April 24, 1945
323rd Bombardment Group: July 16, 1943 to April 25, 1945
344th Bombardment Group: March 6, 1944 to April 25, 1945
386th Bombardment Group: June 20, 1943 to May 3, 1945
387th Bombardment Group: June 30, 1943 to April 19, 1945
391st Bombardment Group: February 15, 1944 to May 3, 1945
394th Bombardment Group: March 23, 1944 to April 20, 1945
397th Bombardment Group: April 20, 1944 to April 20, 1945
After the war in Europe was over, most of the Marauder-equipped units were quickly disbanded and their planes were scrapped. In the late fall of 1945, all of some 500 Marauders operating in the ETO were ferried to a disposal site near Landsberg, Germany where they were all scrapped.
In the fall of 1945, a gigantic aircraft disposal operation began at Walnut Ridge, Arkansas and handled the disposal of nearly 1000 surplus USAAF Marauders. In the beginning, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation handled the disposal task, but this was later taken over by the General Services Administration. The surplus aircraft were first offered for sale and many were bought by France, China, and South American countries for military or airline use. The remainder were scrapped.
Because of the massive scrapping effort immediately after the war, very few Marauders ended up in postwar service, and very few survive today. I am aware of only three Marauders that are still in existence today.
Flak Bait, a B-26 serial number 41-31773 of the 449th Squadron of the 322nd Bombardment Group was the first Allied bomber in the ETO to fly 200 combat sorties. Its nose section is now on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington.
B-26G-10 serial number 43-34581 ended up in France as a ground-based aircraft for use in training Air France mechanics. In 1965, 43-34581 was donated to the US Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, where it is currently displayed painted as a 387th Bombardment Group B-26B-50 serial number 42-95857.
The third was B-26 serial number 40-1464, the 103rd Marauder, which had crash-landed in northern Canada and had remained more or less intact out on the tundra for many years. It was recovered by the Military Aircraft Restoration Corporation, a subsidiary of Specialty Restaurants Corp., of Anaheim, California, whose president is David Tallichet.
Von größter Wichtigkeit waren die Anforderungen an die Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 300 mph, entsprechend 480 km/h und eine große Bombenlast. Diese Forderung wurde durch Berichte aus Europa über die Fähigkeiten der deutschen Luftwaffe ausgelöst, insbesondere durch die detaillierten Nachrichten und Ansichten von Charles Lindbergh.
Die Glenn L. Martin Company bot auf die Ausschreibung ein stromlinienförmiges Flugzeug mit relativ kleinen Tragflächen und zwei starken Motoren an. Den Zuschlag erhielt das Modell 179 von Martin, dies erhielt die Bezeichnung B-26 Marauder. Aufgrund der Dringlichkeit wurde auf die üblichen Prototypen zur Erprobung verzichtet. Im September 1939 wurden vom Reißbrett 201 Flugzeuge bestellt der Jungfernflug war am 29. November 1940.
Diese ersten Exemplare des Flugzeugs hatten eine Flügelspannweite von 19,81 Metern und wurden mit B-26 bezeichnet, angetrieben von zwei Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5-Double-Wasp-Doppelsternmotoren mit je 1850 PS. Die Bewaffnung bestand aus drei 12,7-mm-Maschinengewehren und zwei 7,62-mm-MGs sowie einer Bombenlast von 2179 Kilogramm.
Es folgte das Modell B-26A, von dem 139 Exemplare gebaut wurden. Dieses Modell hatte unter anderem ein etwa 100 Kilogramm höheres Abfluggewicht, Zusatztanks im Bombenschacht und eine stärkere Bug- und Heckbewaffnung sowie eine Aufhängung für einen Torpedo. Als Antrieb dienten zwei Pratt & Whitney R-2800-9 bzw. -39 mit ebenfalls 1850 PS (1380 kW).
Die B-26B war die nächste Entwicklungsstufe, sie war zunächst noch mit den 1850 PS starken Motoren ausgerüstet, diese wurden aber bald durch die stärkeren R-2800-43-Motoren mit 1920 PS Startleistung ersetzt. Erneut wurde die Bewaffnung verstärkt so erhielt die B-26B ein 7,62-mm-MG in einem Tunnel unter dem Rumpf, und die Heckbewaffnung wurde auf zwei 12,7-mm-MGs verdoppelt. Außerdem wurde die Besatzung durch eine stärkere Panzerung geschützt. Zusammen mit der Umrüstung auf die stärkeren Motoren wurde das Tunnel-MG durch zwei 12,7-mm-MGs zur seitlichen Verteidigung ersetzt. Um die Langsamflug-Eigenschaften zu verbessern, wurde ab dem Los B-26B-10 eine einschneidende Veränderung durchgeführt: Im Bemühen um eine Verringerung der Tragflächenbelastung und somit der Probleme bei der fliegerischen Handhabung im Langsamflug wurde die Spannweite um 1,83 Meter auf 21,64 Meter verlängert, wodurch die Flügelfläche um 5,2 Quadratmeter vergrößert wurde. Ebenso wurde das Leitwerk vergrößert.
Wiederum wurde die Bewaffnung verstärkt, die B-26B erhielt vier starre 12,7-mm-MGs seitlich am Rumpf sowie ein zweites Bug-MG der Heckstand wurde durch einen von Martin-Bell ersetzt. Insgesamt wurden 1883 B-26B gebaut.
Die B-26C waren prinzipiell B-26B-10 und wurden im neuen Werk Omaha in Nebraska gebaut. 1235 Maschinen wurden hergestellt.
Von der B-26D bzw. E wurden nur jeweils ein Exemplar gebaut, sie waren Versuchsflugzeuge.
Eine tiefgreifende Änderung wurde bei der B-26F eingeführt. Um die Start- und Landeeigenschaften zu verbessern, wurde der Einstellwinkel der Tragflächen um 3,5 auf 7 Grad erhöht, dadurch erhöhte sich gleichzeitig geringfügig der Abstand der Propellerblätter vom Boden, was auf unbefestigten Flugplätzen von Vorteil war. Es wurden 300 Exemplare der F-Version gebaut.
Die letzte Produktionsvariante war die B-26G, sie unterschied sich nur in Details von der B-26F. Es wurden 893 Exemplare gebaut.
Weitere Varianten der B-26 waren die AT-23A, eine Schützentrainerversion der B-26B, die AT-23B, eine Trainerversion der B-26C, und die TB-26G, ein unbewaffneter Trainer und Zielschlepper. Außerdem gab es noch eine einzelne XB-26H zur Erprobung eines Vierrad-Fahrwerkes mit zwei Doppelrädern unter dem Rumpf, wie es später bei der Boeing B-47 verwendet wurde.
Auch die United States Navy flog die Marauder, jedoch fast ausschließlich als Zielschleppflugzeug. 225 AT-23B übernahm die Marine von der USAAF unter der Bezeichnung „JM-1“, von denen einige wenige zu „JM-1P“-Aufklärungsflugzeugen umgebaut wurden. Darauf folgten noch 47 neu gebaute „JM-2“, die im Wesentlichen der TB-26G entsprachen.
Auch die Royal Air Force flog die Marauder. Im Rahmen des Leih- und Pachtgesetzes wurden 52 Marauder Mk I (B-26A), 19 Mk IA (B-26B), 100 Mk II (B-26C) und 350 Mk III (B-26F/G) an Großbritannien geliefert.
Anfänglich war der Einsatz der nicht ausreichend getesteten Maschinen bei der Truppe problematisch. Die hohen Anforderungen der Ausschreibung bedingten eine hohe Flächenbelastung, wodurch sich hohe Start- und Landegeschwindigkeiten ergaben. Dies bedeutete für unerfahrene Piloten ein kritisches Flugverhalten bei niedrigen Geschwindigkeiten, und am Anfang ihrer Karriere erwarb sich die B-26 den schlechten Ruf als Todesfalle für ihre Besatzungen („Witwenmacher“). Als sich die Schulungsunfälle häuften, wurde ein Untersuchungsausschuss eingerichtet, der die Einstellung der Produktion erwägen sollte. Der Ausschuss schlug jedoch Änderungen vor, die die Langsamflugeigenschaften verbesserten, was zum Modell B-26B-10 führte. Danach war die B-26 innerhalb der US 9th Air Force in Europa das Flugzeug mit der niedrigsten Verlustquote.
Die erste mit B-26 Marauder ausgerüstete Einheit wurde im Dezember 1941 einsatzbereit. Ihre „Feuertaufe“ erhielt die B-26 am 5. April 1942 bei einem Angriff auf das von der japanischen Armee besetzte Rabaul. Später wurde sie auf allen Kriegsschauplätzen eingesetzt.
Da die Marauder wegen ihrer hohen Geschwindigkeit bei der Truppe zunächst hauptsächlich bei Tiefflug-Angriffen eingesetzt wurden, waren die ersten Kampfeinsätze durch erhebliche Schwierigkeiten und Verluste gekennzeichnet. Nach einem verlustreichen Einsatz am 17. Mai 1943 bei einem Angriff auf Ijmuiden waren von elf B-26 zehn Maschinen von deutscher Flak abgeschossen worden (die verbliebene Maschine hatte den Angriff wegen technischer Probleme abgebrochen). Deshalb wurde die Taktik geändert, und B-26 wurden nur noch in mittleren Höhen eingesetzt.
In der Endphase des Krieges war die Marauder wegen ihrer hohen Geschwindigkeit und schweren Bewaffnung ein gefürchtetes Mittel der taktischen Luftunterstützung. Ihre hohe Flächenbelastung blieb problematisch, aber mit zunehmender Kriegsdauer hatten die Piloten genug Erfahrung, um damit zurechtzukommen. Die Verluste an B-26 waren in der Summe die relativ geringsten aller amerikanischen Kampfflugzeuge.
Caractéristiques de l'appareil
Les essais officiels montrent que le B-26 affiche des performances supérieures aux exigences du programme, mais au détriment des qualités de pilotage à basse vitesse. Le B-26A bénéficie alors de certaines améliorations jugées nécessaires, toutefois l'augmentation de la masse en charge qui en résulte entraîne des accidents de plus en plus nombreux (ces incidents lui valent le surnom de la part des pilotes de « Widow Maker » (faiseur de veuves). Une commission d'enquête est nommée en vue de déterminer s'il convient ou non d'interrompre la production. À la suite de cela, les spécialistes se prononcent pour des modifications destinées à accroître la tenue de vol à basse vitesse et pour une révision des techniques de pilotage, ce qui est obtenu à partir de la version « F » par augmentation de l'angle de calage de l'aile (angle d'incidence de l'aile plus élevé par rapport à la ligne de vol de l'appareil).
Baptisé par la suite Marauder, cet avion se présente comme un monoplan à aile haute cantilever au fuselage spacieux, de section circulaire, dans lequel prend place un équipage de cinq hommes (puis sept). Équipé d'un train d'atterrissage tricycle, l'appareil est propulsé par deux moteurs en étoile Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 de 1 850 ch (1 380 kW ) chacun. Poursuivant sa carrière, le Marauder doit enregistrer le taux de pertes le plus bas de tous les avions américains employés en Europe par la 9th USAAF.
In March 1939, the United States Army Air Corps issued Circular Proposal 39-640, a specification for a twin-engined medium bomber. Six months later, Glenn L. Martin Company was awarded a contract for 201 planes. This design, Martin Model 179, was accepted for production before a prototype even flew. The B-26 went from paper concept to working plane in approximately two years. The lead designer was Peyton M. Magruder.
Once the first aircraft came off the production line in November 1940, Martin conducted tests, the results of which were promising. The first B-26, with Martin test pilot William K. "Ken" Ebel at the controls, flew on 25 November 1940 and was effectively the prototype. Deliveries to the U.S. Army Air Corps began in February 1941 with the second plane, 40-1362. In March 1941, the Army Air Corps started Accelerated Service Testing of the B-26 at Patterson Field, Ohio.
The Martin electric turret was retrofitted to some of the first B-26s. Martin began testing a taller vertical stabilizer and revised tail gunner's position in 1941.
While the B-26 was a fast plane with better performance than the contemporary B-25 Mitchell, its relatively small wing area and resulting high wing loading (the highest of any aircraft used at that time) required an unprecedented landing speed (120-135 mph/193-217 km/h indicated airspeed depending on load). At least two of the earliest B-26s suffered hard landings and damage to the main landing gear, engine mounts, propellers and fuselage. The type was grounded briefly in April 1941 to investigate the landing difficulties. Two causes were found: insufficient landing speed (producing a stall) and improper weight distribution. The latter was due to the lack of a dorsal turret the Martin power turret was not ready yet.
Some of the very earliest B-26s suffered collapses of the nose landing gear. It is said that they were caused by improper weight distribution but that is probably not the only reason. They occurred during low-speed taxiing, takeoffs and landings. Occasionally the strut unlocked.
The Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engines were reliable but the Curtiss electric pitch change mechanism in the propellers required impeccable maintenance. Human error and some failures of the mechanism occasionally placed the propeller blades in flat pitch and resulted in an overspeeding propeller, sometimes known as a "runaway prop". Due to its sound and the possibility that the propeller blades could disintegrate, this situation was particularly frightening for aircrews. More challenging was a loss of power in one engine during takeoff. These and other malfunctions, as well as human error, claimed a number of planes and the commanding officer of the 22nd Bombardment Group, Col. Mark Lewis.
The Martin B-26 suffered only two fatal accidents during its first year of flights, November 1940-November 1941: a crash shortly after takeoff near Martin's Middle River plant (cause unknown but engine malfunction strongly suggested) and the loss of a 38th Bombardment Group plane when its vertical stabilizer and rudder separated from the plane at altitude (cause unknown, but accident report discussed the possibility that a canopy hatch broke off and struck the vertical stabilizer).
The B-26 was not an airplane for novices. Unfortunately, due to the need to quickly train many pilots for the war, a number of relatively inexperienced pilots got into the cockpit and the accident rate increased accordingly. This occurred at the same time as more experienced B-26 pilots of the 22nd, 38th and 42nd Bombardment Groups were proving the merits of the airplane.
For a time in 1942, pilots in training believed that the B-26 could not be flown on one engine. This was disproved by a number of experienced pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle.
In 1942, Senator Harry Truman was a leading member of the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program (the so-called Truman Committee), which was investigating defense contracting abuses. When Truman and other committee members arrived at the Avon Park Army Air Field in Florida, they were greeted by the still-burning wreckage of two crashed B-26s. Truman criticized both Glenn L. Martin and the B-26. Indeed, the regularity of crashes by pilots training at nearby MacDill Field—up to fifteen in one 30-day period—led to the only mildly exaggerated catchphrase, "One a day in Tampa Bay."
The B-26 received the nickname "Widowmaker". Other colorful nicknames included "Martin Murderer", "Flying Coffin", "B-Dash-Crash", "Flying Prostitute" (so-named because it had "no visible means of support," referring to its small wings) and "Baltimore Whore" (a reference to the city where Martin was based). [ 3 ]
The B-26 is said [who?] to have had the lowest combat loss rate of any U.S. aircraft used during the war. Nevertheless, it remained a challenging plane to fly and continued to be unpopular with some pilots throughout its military career.
Martin Project List
Model 179B Marauder: new version designated B-26B with uprated engines, large airscoops/filters, lengthened nose-wheel struts, slotted flaps and enhanced armor.
- 81 aircraft built as B-26B (1942).
- 225 aircraft built as B-26B-1 (1942).
- 96 aircraft built as B-26B-2 (1942).
- 28 aircraft built as B-26B-3 (1942-43).
- 211 aircraft built as B-26B-4 (1943).
- 150 aircraft built as B-26B-10 (1943).
- 100 aircraft built as B-26B-15 (1943).
- 100 aircraft built as B-26B-20 (1943).
- 100 aircraft built as B-26B-25 (1943).
- 100 aircraft built as B-26B-30 (1943).
- 100 aircraft built as B-26B-35 (1943).
- 101 aircraft built as B-26B-40 (1943).
- 91 aircraft built as B-26B-45 (1944).
- 200 aircraft built as B-26B-50 (1944).
- 200 aircraft built as B-26B-55 (1944).
- 19 of the above B-26B aircraft were allotted to the RAF as the Marauder Mk IA.
- 208 aircraft built as the AT-23A gunnery training/target towing version (redesignated as TB-26B in 1944).
World War II
The Douglas company began delivering the production model A-26B in August 1943 with the new bomber first seeing action with the Fifth Air Force in the Southwest Pacific theater on 23 June 1944, when they bombed Japanese-held islands near Manokwari. [ 9 ] The pilots in the 3rd Bomb Group's 13th Squadron, "The Grim Reapers" which received the first four A-26s for evaluation, found the view from the cockpit to be poor for low level attack. General George Kenney, commander of the Far East Air Forces stated that, "We do not want the A-26 under any circumstances as a replacement for anything." [ 10 ] Until changes could be made, the 3rd Bomb Group requested additional A-20 Havocs, although both types were used in composite flights. [ 11 ] The 319th Bomb Group worked up on the A-26 in March 1945, joining the initial 3rd BG, with the 319th flying until 12 August 1945. The A-26 operations wound down in mid-August 1945 with only a few dozen missions flown. [ 11 ]
A-26s began arriving in Europe in late September 1944 for assignment to the Ninth Air Force. The initial deployment involved 18 aircraft and crews assigned to the 553rd Squadron of the 386th Bomb Group. This unit flew its first mission on 6 September 1944. The first group to fully convert to the A-26B was 416th Squadron which entered combat on 17 November, and the 409th became operational on the A-26 in late November. [ 12 ] Due to a shortage of A-26C variants, the groups flew a combined A-20/A-26 unit until deliveries of the glass-nose version caught up. Besides bombing and strafing, tactical reconnaissance and night interdiction missions were undertaken successfully. In contrast to the Pacific-based units, the A-26 was well received by pilots and crew alike, and by 1945, the 9th AF had flown 11,567 missions, dropping 18,054 tons of bombs, recording seven confirmed kills while losing 67 aircraft. [ 12 ]
The USAF Strategic Air Command had the renamed B-26 (RB-26) in service from 1949 through 1950, the Tactical Air Command through the late 1960s, and the last examples in service with the Air National Guard through 1972. The US Navy also used a small number of these aircraft in their utility squadrons for target towing and general utility use until superseded by the DC-130A variant of the C-130 Hercules. The Navy designation was JD-1 and JD-1D until 1962, when the JD-1 was redesignated UB-26J and the JD-1D was redesignated DB-26J.
B-26 Invaders of the 3d Bombardment Group, operating from bases in Southern Japan, were some of the first USAF aircraft engaged in the Korean War, carrying out missions over South Korea on 27 and 28 June, before carrying out the first USAF bombing mission on North Korea on 29 June 1950 when they bombed an airfield outside of Pyongyang. [ 13 ]
On 10 August 1950, the 452nd Reserve Bomb Wing was activated for Korean Service.  This was the first time that an entire air force unit had ever been activated.  It flew its first missions in November 1950 from Itazuke Japan doing daylight support with the 3rd Bomb Wing flying night missions. Because of the Chinese intervention it was forced to find another base and moved to Miho Air base on the west coast of Honshū. In early 1951 it moved to East Pusan Air Base and continued its daylight as well as night intruder missions. In June 1951, it joined the 3rd Bomb Wing in night activity only, dividing the target areas with the 452nd taking the eastern half and the 3rd the western. For its efforts in the Korean Conflict, it was awarded 2 Unit Citations and the Korean Presidential Citation.  It also received credit for 8 Campaign Operations.  In May 1952 it was inactivated and all of its aircraft and equipment along with its regular air force personnel were absorbed by the 19th Bomb Wing. During its time as an active unit,the 452nd flew 15,000 sorties (7000 at night) with a loss of 85 crewmen. 
B-26s were credited with the destruction of 38,500 vehicles, 406 locomotives, 3,700 railway trucks, and seven enemy aircraft on the ground. On 14 September 1951, Captain John S. Walmsley, Jr. attacked a supply train. When his guns jammed, he illuminated the target with his searchlight to enable his wingmen to destroy the train. Walmsley was shot down and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Invaders carried out the last USAF bombing mission of the war 24 minutes before the cease fire was signed on 27 June 1953. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
First Indochina War
In the 1950s, the French Air Force's (Armée de l'Air) Bombing Groups ( Groupe de Bombardement ) including GB 1/19 Gascogne and GB 1/25 Tunisia used USAF-lent B-26 during the First Indochina War. [ 16 ]
Cat Bi (Haiphong) based Douglas B-26 Invaders operated over Dien Bien Phu in March and April 1954 during the siege of Dien Bien Phu. In this period, a massive use of Philippines based USAF B-26s against the Viet Minh heavy artillery was planned by the U.S. and French Joint Chief of Staff as for Operation Vulture, but it was eventually cancelled by the respective governments.
In 1958, the CIA started Operation Haik in Indonesia, concerned about the Sukarno regime's communist leanings. [ 17 ] At least a dozen B-26 Invaders were committed in support of rebel forces. On 18 May 1958, American contract pilot Allen Pope's B-26 was initially hit by anti-aircraft ground fire and then brought down by a P-51 Mustang flown by Capt. Ignatius Dewanto (the only known air-to-air kill in the history of the Indonesian Air Force). [ 18 ] The capture and trial of Lieutenant Pope brought a quick end to Operation Haik, but the capabilities of the Invader were not lost on the Indonesian government. In 1959, the government purchased six aircraft at Davis-Monthan AFB and these were ferried to Indonesia in full military markings during mid-1960. These aircraft would have a long career and were utilized in a number of actions against rebels in various areas. The last operational flights of the three survivors was in 1976 supporting the Indonesian invasion of East Timor. In 1977, the last two flyers were retired. [ 19 ]
Service with the USAF in Southeast Asia
The first B-26s to arrive in Southeast Asia were deployed to Takhli RTAFB, Thailand in December 1960. These unmarked aircraft, operated under the auspices of the U.S. CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), were soon augmented by an additional 16 aircraft, 12 B-26Bs and B-26Cs plus 4 RB-26Cs under Operation Mill Pond. The mission of all of these aircraft was to assist the Royal Lao Government in fighting the Pathet Lao. The repercussions from the Bay of Pigs invasion meant that no combat missions are known to have been flown, though RB-26Cs operated over Laos until the end of 1961. The aircraft were subsequently operated in South Vietnam under Project Farm Gate. [ 20 ] The only other deployment of B-26 aircraft to Laos prior to the introduction of the B-26K/A-26A, was the deployment of two RB-26C aircraft, specifically modified for night reconnaissance, deployed to Laos between May and July 1962 under Project Black Watch. These aircraft, initially drawn from Farm Gate stocks, were returned upon the end of these missions. [ 21 ]
The aircraft from Laos participated in the early phase of the Vietnam War with the USAF, but with Vietnamese markings as part of Project Farm Gate. Though Farm Gate operated B-26Bs, B-26Cs, and genuine RB-26Cs, many of these aircraft were operated under the designation RB-26C, though they were used in a combat capacity. [ 22 ] During 1963, two RB-26C were sent to Clark AB in the Philippines for modifications, though not with night systems as with those modified for Black Watch. The two aircraft returned from Black Watch to Farm Gate were subsequently given the designation RB-26L to distinguish them from other modified RB-26C, and were assigned to Project Sweet Sue. [ 21 ] Farm Gate's B-26s operated alongside the other primary strike aircraft of the time, the T-28 Trojan, before both aircraft types were replaced by the A-1 Skyraider. [ 23 ] The B-26s were withdrawn from service in February 1964 after two accidents related to wing spar fatigue, one during combat in Southeast Asia in August 1963 and one during an airpower demonstration at Eglin AFB, Florida in February 1964. [ 24 ]
On 11 February 1964, two pilots from the 1st Air Commando Wing stationed at Hurlburt Field, Fla., died in the crash of a B-26 on Range 52 at Eglin AFB when it lost a wing during pull-out from a strafing pass. The aircraft was participating in a demonstration of the Special Air Warfare Center's counter insurgency capabilities and had completed a strafing run when the accident occurred. SAWC had presented the demonstration on an average of twice each month for the previous 21 months. [ 25 ] B-26 aircraft used by USAF Commandos in Vietnam were grounded 8 April 1964, following an official investigation into the 11 February accident. B-26 aircraft in use by the Vietnamese Air Force were also grounded in accordance with the U.S. ruling. [ 26 ]
In response to this, the On Mark Engineering Company of Van Nuys, California was selected by the Air Force to extensively upgrade the Invader for a counterinsurgency role. The first production flight of the B-26K was on 30 May 1964 at the Van Nuys Airport. On Mark converted 40 Invaders to the new B-26K Counter-Invader standard, which included upgraded engines, propellers, and brakes, re-manufactured wings, and wing tip fuel tanks, for use by the 1st Air Commando Group. In May 1966, the B-26K was re-designated A-26A for political reasons and deployed in Thailand to help disrupt supplies moving along the Ho Chi Minh trail. Two of these aircraft were further modified with a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR system) under project Lonesome Tiger, as a part of Operation Shed Light. [ 27 ]
Bay of Pigs Invasion
In early 1961, about 20 B-26Bs, most converted from B-26C configuration, were 'sanitized' at Duke Field (aka Auxiliary Field Three at Eglin AFB). They had defensive armament deleted, and were fitted with the Eight-gun nose, underwing drop tanks, rocket racks, etc. They were flown to a CIA-run base in Guatemala where training was underway of B-26, C-46 and C-54 Cuban exile air crews by personnel from Alabama ANG (Air National Guard). After transfer to Nicaragua in early April 1961, they were painted in the markings of the FAR (Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria), the air force of the Cuban government. On 15 April 1961, crewed by Cuban exiles, eight B-26s of the FAL (Fuerza Aérea de Liberación) attacked three Cuban airfields, in an attempt to destroy FAR combat aircraft on the ground. On 17 April 1961, FAL B-26s supported the seaborne Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba. The conflict ended on 19 April, after the loss of nine FAL B-26s, 10 Cuban exiles and 4 American aircrew in combat. The FAR flew B-26Cs in the conflict, one of which was shot down by a CIA 'command ship' with the loss of 4 Cuban aircrew. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ]
Africa in the 1960s
CIA contracted pilots, some previously employed during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, flew B-26Ks for ground attack against Simba rebels in the Congo Crisis. New production B-26K Counter-Invaders were delivered to the Congo via Hurlburt Field in 1964. [ 7 ] .
The Portuguese Air Force purchased Invaders covertly for use in Portuguese Angola in 1965, during the Portuguese Colonial War. [ 28 ]
Biafra used two provisionally armed B-26s in combat during Nigerian Civil War in 1967, flown among others by Jan Zumbach.