Pat Nixon

Pat Nixon


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Thelma “Pat” Nixon (1912-93) was an American first lady (1969-74) and the wife of Richard Nixon, the 37th president of the United States. As first lady, Pat Nixon encouraged Americans to donate their time and service to volunteerism, continued preservation efforts begun by Jackie Kennedy and expanded access to the White House for previously marginalized groups, including foreign language speakers and those with physical disabilities. She traveled extensively, visiting nearly 80 countries. Though Pat had eagerly supported her husband’s early political ambitions, she soon grew to resent the public intrusion into her family’s private life. Though she continued to defend her husband from his critics, she was deeply wounded by the scandal that drove him from office, telling one of her daughters, “Watergate is the only crisis that ever got me down.”

The first lady’s experience with nicknames began at an early age. Because she was born on the evening of March 16, her father, William, referred to her as his “St. Patrick’s babe in the morn.” She was subsequently known as “Babe” to her family, and “Buddy” to friends. After William’s death in 1930, she took the name “Pat” to honor her father, though the name change was never formally legalized.

Pat grew up on a farm in Artesia, California., where she assisted the family in planting and harvesting crops. After her mother, Katherine’s death from cancer in 1926, Pat took over the household duties of cleaning and cooking for the family and farm workers. When her father was crippled with an advancing case of tuberculosis a few years later, she worked as a janitor and bookkeeper to pay for the medical bills, while continuing with her regular household and farm chores.

The Nixons were united by a love of the theater. A member of the drama club at Excelsior High School, Pat developed an interest in acting as a young woman. While auditioning for the Whittier Community Players’ production of “The Dark Theater” in 1938, she met a lawyer with a similar extracurricular acting interest named Richard Nixon. Pat rejected the instantly smitten Nixon multiple times before finally agreeing to a date, and gradually became enamored with the future political star. They married on June 21, 1940, in Riverside, California.

Pat knew nothing about her husband’s actions during the Watergate Scandal, finding out only after news first appeared in the press. After learning of the secret tape recordings that revealed Nixon’s involvement and cover-up attempts, Pat suggested he destroy the tapes while they were still private property. With the very real threat of impeachment looming, she tried convincing him to fight the charges instead of submitting his resignation. Although Nixon ended up doing the opposite on both counts, Pat continued to publicly support her embattled husband.

She rarely appeared in public after leaving the White House. Pat suffered a serious stroke in July 1976 that resulted in a temporary loss of speech and paralysis on her left side. Although she regained full use of her motor skills through physical therapy, she was slowed by residual weakness and another stroke in 1983. As a result, the once-active former first lady appeared at just two public events after the mid-1970s: at the dedication of the Richard Nixon Birthplace and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, in 1990, and at the dedication of the Ronald Reagan Library and Museum in Simi Valley, California, the following year.


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Pat Nixon - HISTORY


Patricia Ryan Nixon

Born Thelma Catherine Ryan on March 16 in Ely, Nevada, "Pat" Nixon acquired her nickname within hours. Her father, William Ryan, called her his "St. Patrick's babe in the morn" when he came home from the mines before dawn.

Soon the family moved to California and settled on a small truck farm near Los Angeles--a life of hard work with few luxuries. Her mother, Kate Halberstadt Bender Ryan, died in 1925 at 13 Pat assumed all the household duties for her father and two older brothers. At 18, she lost her father after nursing him through months of illness. Left on her own and determined to continue her education, she worked her way through the University of Southern California. She held part-time jobs on campus, as a sales clerk in a fashionable department store, and as an extra in the movies--and she graduated cum laude in 1937.

She accepted a position as a high-school teacher in Whittier and there she met Richard Nixon, who had come home from Duke University Law School to establish a practice. They became acquainted at a Little Theater group when they were cast in the same play, and were married on June 21, 1940.

During World War II, she worked as a government economist while he served in the Navy. She campaigned at his side in 1946 when he entered politics, running successfully for Congress, and afterward. Within six years she saw him elected to the House, the Senate, and the Vice Presidency on the ticket with Dwight D. Eisenhower. Despite the demands of official life, the Nixons were devoted parents to their two daughters, Tricia (now Mrs. Edward Cox), and Julie (now Mrs. David Eisenhower).

A tireless campaigner when he ran unsuccessfully for President in 1960, she was at his side when he ran again in 1968--and won. She had once remarked succinctly, "It takes heart to be in political life."

Pat Nixon used her position as First Lady to encourage volunteer service--"the spirit of people helping people." She invited hundreds of families to nondenominational Sunday services in the East Room. She instituted a series of performances by artists in varied American traditions--from opera to bluegrass. Mrs. Nixon took quiet pride in adding 600 paintings and antiques to the White House Collection.

She had shared her husband's journeys abroad in his Vice Presidential years, and she continued the practice during his Presidency. Her travels included the historic visit to the People's Republic of China and the summit meetings in the Soviet Union. Her first solo trip was a journey of compassion to take relief supplies to earthquake victims in Peru. Later she visited Africa and South America with the unique diplomatic standing of Personal Representative of the President. Always she was a charming envoy.

Mrs. Nixon met the troubled days of Watergate with dignity. "I love my husband," she said, "I believe in him, and I am proud of his accomplishments." She died at home in Park Ridge, New Jersey, on June 22, 1993. Her husband followed her in death ten months later. She and the former President are buried at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.


Featuring Craig Shirley, Author and Historian

President of the White House Historical Association

As President of the White House Historical Association Stewart McLaurin leads the nonpartisan, nonprofit in its mission to preserve, protect, and provide access to White House history. As a lifelong student of history, Stewart is an avid reader and storyteller. His first book, White House Miscellany was published this past year and he authors a quarterly column in the White House History Journal. Drawing on his own experiences, relationships, and knowledge he provides listeners with a front row seat to history at the White House.


More Comments:

Maarja Krusten - 3/5/2011

An interesting essay and I look forward to reading your book. I came of age during the Nixon administration, indeed, I campaigned for him as a senior in high school and attended the Youth Ball at his 1969 inauguration. (My late sister and I are pictured as teenagers in the book issued in 1969 to mark the Inaugural activities, The Inaugural Story.) During my college years in Washington, I was a member of Young Americans for Freedom and attended some Young Republican events, including at the Nixon White House.

After graduate studies in history, I worked as an employee of the National Archives, screening Nixon’s then secret tapes to see what could be released to researchers. I also reviewed textual collections. My team did some oral history interviews, including with some members of Mrs. Nixon’s East Wing staff. My former employer also holds some interesting exit interview transcripts. I’m sure you drew on many of these materials.

You write “Pat’s low-key actions were not enough to please the feminists, who characterized her as the epitome of the suppressed wife who did her husband’s bidding. What they overlooked was her choice to adopt the job of political wife and her efforts to expand that position.” As someone who turned 21 during the Nixon administration, I represented a third group—the feminist (yes, there were some of us who voted GOP in the 1970s) who enjoyed the new field of women’s studies, who aspired to do paid work outside the house, but who did not disdain or lack understanding of those who chose not to or did not need a paycheck.

It’s important also to remember that because of the Vietnam war and Watergate, Nixon’s family suffered through uncommon vilification of a family member they undoubtedly loved. (Interestingly, one of Nixon’s former chiefs of staff in the post-presidency period recently said that what the left did to Nixon in terms of vilification and attempts at delegitimization was not as extreme as what some elements of the right now are trying to do to Barack Obama.)

The emotional toll that attacks on a loved one take, day in and day out, is an important element in considering the lifef of the political wife. In this day and age, where the Internet enables people to share their loves, hatreds, anxieties, fears, and enthusiasms – letting it all hang out, to use a Nixon era term – it’s important to step back and to note (with admiration in my case) the discipline and repression of expression of human reactions that is required of political spouses such as Mrs. Nixon.


First Lady Feature: Pat Nixon

In honor of Women’s History Month, History First is going to spend some time talking about the women standing beside American presidents. First–one of our favorites: Pat Nixon.

Pat Nixon, who holds the honor of being the first First Lady with a college degree, had a remarkable life long before meeting Richard Nixon. Born Thelma Ryan, she went by the nickname “Buddy” as a girl and “Pat” when she got older–apparently changing to Pat after the death of her father, who’d often referenced her birth being only a few hours before Saint Patrick’s day. By the time she was seventeen, both her parents had died–leaving her to care for her brothers.

When she graduated high school, Pat moved to New York City and worked in a Catholic hospital in the Bronx. Upon returning to California, she worked her way through college and earned a degree from the University of Southern California. Her tuition cost 240$. Pat worked 40 hours a week to pay it.

Having worked for this degree, and having attained a job as a teacher in Whittier, California, Pat Ryan had no desire to find a husband and settle down. But her acting partner in a local theatre group had other ideas. Richard Nixon pursued her with a persistence that many would see today as over the top and creepy. When he first asked her out, she said no. When he asked her again, she laughed. “Don’t laugh,” he told her, according to John A. Farrell’s Nixon biography, Nixon, The Life, “someday, I’m going to marry you.”

Indeed, Richard Nixon went to great lengths to keep Pat in his life, including driving her to dates with other men. When she moved without telling him her new address, he sent a letter to her school, writing that he had to see her again–anytime “that you might be able to stand me!”

Still, the two came from similar backgrounds of hard work and tough luck, and Pat seems to have changed her mind. Two years after they met, she accepted his proposal of marriage.

As First Lady, she encouraged Americans to volunteer their time to good causes, and continued Jackie Kennedy’s project of preservation of the White House. She had the first wheelchair ramps installed at the White House (which is remarkable, since twenty years earlier, the president himself used a wheelchair). She also created White House tours for visitors with trouble seeing or hearing.

Many within Richard Nixon’s inner political circle saw Pat as the human side of the president they needed to project to the public. Charles Colson, a White House aide who would later be incarcerated for charges relating to Watergate, wrote a memo to the president about First Lady Nixon’s recent humanitarian trip to Peru. (Pat Nixon would be the most traveled first lady until Hillary Rodham Clinton entered the White House):

“As you know we have tried hard…to project ‘color’ about you, to portray the human side of the President…because of the hostility of the media, it has been an exceedingly difficult, frustrating and not especially successful undertaking. Mrs. Nixon has now broken through where we failed. She has come across as warm, charming, graceful, concerned, articulate and most importantly–a very human person. It would be hard to overestimate the political impact…She is an enormous asset.”

Pat Nixon’s other legacies include the White House being lit at night, historical markers along the White House fence so that visitors could learn about the house and its history, and the refurbishing of the White House itself.

The marriage was far from perfect–Pat once wrote a friend that when it came to household chores, “Dick is always too busy, at least his story, so I do all the lugging, worrying and cussing,”–but their relationship remained solid. It takes only a look at Richard Nixon’s face at the funeral of his wife to see the impact she had on him. And not only him–but the on the lives of the hundreds of thousands of Americans who visit the White House, and the First Ladies who followed in her footsteps and her example.


Contents

Thelma Catherine Ryan was born in 1912 in the small mining town of Ely, Nevada. [1] Her father, William M. Ryan Sr., was a sailor, gold miner, and truck farmer of Irish ancestry her mother, Katherine Halberstadt, was a German immigrant. [1] The nickname "Pat" was given to her by her father, because of her birth on the day before Saint Patrick's Day and her Irish ancestry. [1] Upon enrolling in college in 1931, she stopped using the name Thelma, replacing it with Pat and occasionally using the name Patricia. The name change was not a legal action, however merely one of preference. [2] [3]

After her birth, the Ryan family moved to California, and in 1914 settled on a small truck farm in Artesia (present-day Cerritos). [4] Thelma Ryan's high school yearbook page gives her nickname as "Buddy" and her ambition to run a boarding house. [5]

She worked on the family farm and also at a local bank as a janitor and bookkeeper. Her mother died of cancer in 1924. [6] Pat, who was only 12, assumed all the household duties for her father (who died himself of silicosis 5 years later) and her two older brothers, William Jr. (1910–1997) and Thomas (1911–1992). She also had a half-sister, Neva Bender (1909–1981), and a half-brother, Matthew Bender (1907–1973), from her mother's first marriage [1] her mother's first husband had died during a flash flood in South Dakota. [1]

It has been said that few, if any, First Ladies worked as consistently before marrying as did Pat Nixon. [1] As she told the writer Gloria Steinem during the 1968 presidential campaign, "I never had time to think about things like that—who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas. I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work." [7]

After graduating from Excelsior High School in 1929, she attended Fullerton College. She paid for her education by working odd jobs, including as a driver, a pharmacy manager, a telephone operator, and a typist. [1] She also earned money sweeping the floors of a local bank, [1] and from 1930 until 1931, she lived in New York City, working as a secretary and also as a radiographer. [6]

Determined "to make something out of myself", [8] she enrolled in 1931 at the University of Southern California (USC), where she majored in merchandising. A former professor noted that she "stood out from the empty-headed, overdressed little sorority girls of that era like a good piece of literature on a shelf of cheap paperbacks". [9] She held part-time jobs on campus, worked as a sales clerk in Bullock's-Wilshire department store, [10] and taught touch typing and shorthand at a high school. [6] She also supplemented her income by working as an extra and bit player in the film industry, [11] [12] for which she took several screen tests. [13] In this capacity, she made brief appearances in films such as Becky Sharp (1935), The Great Ziegfeld (1936), and Small Town Girl (1936). [13] [14] In some cases she ended up on the cutting room floor, such as with her spoken lines in Becky Sharp. [13] [15] She told Hollywood columnist Erskine Johnson in 1959 that her time in films was "too fleeting even for recollections embellished by the years" and that "my choice of a career was teaching school and the many jobs I pursued were merely to help with college expenses." [15]

In 1937, Pat Ryan graduated cum laude from USC with a Bachelor of Science degree in merchandising, [1] together with a certificate to teach at the high school level, which USC deemed equivalent to a master's degree. [16] Pat accepted a position as a high school teacher in Whittier, California. [11]

While in Whittier, Pat Ryan met Richard Nixon, a young lawyer who had recently graduated from the Duke University School of Law. The two became acquainted at a Little Theater group when they were cast together in The Dark Tower. [6] Known as Dick, he asked Pat to marry him the first night they went out. "I thought he was nuts or something!" she recalled. [17] He courted the redhead he called his "wild Irish Gypsy" for two years, [18] even driving her to and from her dates with other men. [8]

They eventually married on June 21, 1940, at the Mission Inn in Riverside, California. [19] She said that she had been attracted to the young Nixon because he "was going places, he was vital and ambitious . he was always doing things". [8] Later, referring to Richard Nixon, she said, "Oh but you just don't realize how much fun he is! He's just so much fun!" [20] Following a brief honeymoon in Mexico, the two lived in a small apartment in Whittier. [19] As U.S. involvement in World War II began, the couple moved to Washington, D.C., with Richard taking a position as a lawyer for the Office of Price Administration (OPA) Pat worked as a secretary for the American Red Cross, but also qualified as a price analyst for the OPA. [19] He then joined the United States Navy, and while he was stationed in San Francisco, she resumed work for the OPA as an economic analyst. [19]

Veteran UPI reporter Helen Thomas suggested that in public, the Nixons "moved through life ritualistically", but privately, however, they were "very close". [21] In private, Richard Nixon was described as being "unabashedly sentimental", often praising Pat for her work, remembering anniversaries and surprising her with frequent gifts. [21] During state dinners, he ordered the protocol changed so that Pat could be served first. [22] Pat, in turn, felt that her husband was vulnerable and sought to protect him. [22] Of his critics, she said that "Lincoln had worse critics. He was big enough not to let it bother him. That's the way my husband is." [22]

Pat campaigned at her husband's side in 1946 when he entered politics and successfully ran for a seat in the United States House of Representatives. That same year, she gave birth to a daughter and namesake, Patricia, known as Tricia. In 1948, Pat had her second and last child, Julie. When asked about her husband's career, Pat once stated, "The only thing I could do was help him, but [politics] was not a life I would have chosen." [23] Pat participated in the campaign by doing research on his opponent, incumbent Jerry Voorhis. [1] She also wrote and distributed campaign literature. [24] Nixon was elected in his first campaign to represent California's 12th congressional district. During the next six years, Pat saw her husband move from the U.S. House of Representatives to the United States Senate, and then be nominated as Dwight D. Eisenhower's vice presidential candidate.

Although Pat Nixon was a Methodist, she and her husband attended whichever Protestant church was nearest to their home, especially after moving to Washington. They attended the Metropolitan Memorial Methodist Church because it sponsored her daughters' Brownie troop, occasional Baptist services with the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham, and Norman Vincent Peale's Marble Collegiate Church. [25]

At the time of her husband coming under consideration for the vice presidential nomination, Pat Nixon was against her husband accepting the selection, as she despised campaigns and had been relieved that as a newly elected senator he would not have another one for six years. [26] She thought she had prevailed in convincing him, until she heard the announcement of the pick from a news bulletin while at the 1952 Republican National Convention. [26] During the Presidential campaign of 1952, Pat Nixon's attitude toward politics changed when her husband was accused of accepting illegal campaign contributions. Pat encouraged him to fight the charges, and he did so by delivering the famed "Checkers speech", so-called for the family's dog, a cocker spaniel given to them by a political supporter. This was Pat's first national television appearance, and she, her daughters, and the dog were featured prominently. Defending himself as a man of the people, Nixon stressed his wife's abilities as a stenographer, [7] then said, "I should say this, that Pat doesn't have a mink coat. But she does have a respectable Republican cloth coat, and I always tell her she would look good in anything." [27] [28]

Pat Nixon accompanied her husband abroad during his vice presidential years. She traveled to 53 nations, often bypassing luncheons and teas and instead visiting hospitals, orphanages, and even a leper colony in Panama. [1] On a trip to Venezuela, the Nixons' limousine was pelted with rocks and the couple was spat upon as representatives of the U.S. government. [9]

A November 1, 1958, article in The Seattle Times was typical of the media's favorable coverage of the future First Lady, stating that "Mrs. Nixon is always reported to be gracious and friendly. And she sure is friendly. She greets a stranger as a friend. She doesn't just shake hands but clasps a visitor's hand in both her hands. Her manner is direct . Mrs. Nixon also upheld her reputation of always looking neat, no matter how long her day has been." A year and a half later, during her husband's campaign for the presidency, The New York Times called her "a paragon of wifely virtues" whose "efficiency makes other women feel slothful and untalented". [29]

Pat Nixon was named Outstanding Homemaker of the Year (1953), Mother of the Year (1955), and the Nation's Ideal Housewife (1957), and once admitted that she pressed all of her husband's suits one evening. [8] "Of course, I didn't have to," she told The New York Times, "But when I don't have work to do, I just think up some new project."

In the 1960 election, Vice President Nixon ran for president of the United States against Democratic opponent Senator John F. Kennedy. Pat was featured prominently in the effort an entire advertising campaign was built around the slogan "Pat for First Lady". [1] Nixon conceded the election to Kennedy, although the race was very close and there were allegations of voter fraud. Pat had urged her husband to demand a recount of votes, though Nixon declined. [20] Pat was most upset about the television cameras, which recorded her reaction when her husband lost—"millions of television viewers witnessed her desperate fight to hold a smile upon her lips as her face came apart and the bitter tears flowed from her eyes", as one reporter put it. [8] This permanently dimmed Pat Nixon's view of politics. [1]

In 1962, the Nixons embarked on another campaign, this time for Governor of California. Prior to Richard Nixon's announcement of his candidacy, Pat's brother Tom Ryan said, "Pat told me that if Dick ran for governor she was going to take her shoe to him." [30] She eventually agreed to another run, citing that it meant a great deal to her husband, [30] but Richard Nixon lost the gubernatorial election to Pat Brown.

Six years later, Richard Nixon ran again for the presidency. Pat was reluctant to face another campaign, her eighth since 1946. [31] Her husband was a deeply controversial figure in American politics, [32] and Pat had witnessed and shared the praise and vilification he had received without having established an independent public identity for herself. [7] Although she supported him in his career, she feared another "1960", when Nixon lost to Kennedy. [31] She consented, however, and participated in the campaign by traveling on campaign trips with her husband. [33] Richard Nixon made a political comeback with his presidential victory of 1968 over Vice-President Hubert Humphrey—and the country had a new First Lady.

Major initiatives Edit

Pat Nixon felt that the First Lady should always set a public example of high virtue as a symbol of dignity, but she refused to revel in the trappings of the position. [34] When considering ideas for a project as First Lady, Pat refused to do (or be) something simply to emulate her predecessor, Lady Bird Johnson. [35] She decided to continue what she called "personal diplomacy", which meant traveling and visiting people in other states or other nations. [36]

One of her major initiatives as First Lady was the promotion of volunteerism, in which she encouraged Americans to address social problems at the local level through volunteering at hospitals, civic organizations, and rehabilitation centers. [37] She stated, "Our success as a nation depends on our willingness to give generously of ourselves for the welfare and enrichment of the lives of others." [38] She undertook a "Vest Pockets for Volunteerism" trip, where she visited ten different volunteer programs. [38] Susan Porter, in charge of the First Lady's scheduling, noted that Pat "saw volunteers as unsung heroes who hadn't been encouraged or given credit for their sacrifices and who needed to be". [38] Her second volunteerism tour—she traveled 4,130 miles (6,647 km) within the United States—helped to boost the notion that not all students were protesting the Vietnam War. [39] She herself belonged to several volunteer groups, including Women in Community Services and Urban Services League, [38] and was an advocate of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, [1] a bill that encouraged volunteerism by providing benefits to a number of volunteer organizations. [40] Some reporters viewed her choice of volunteerism as safe and dull compared to the initiatives undertaken by Lady Bird Johnson and Jacqueline Kennedy. [41]

Pat Nixon became involved in the development of recreation areas and parkland, was a member of the President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, and lent her support to organizations dedicated to improving the lives of handicapped children. [1] For her first Thanksgiving in the White House, Pat organized a meal for 225 senior citizens who did not have families. [42] The following year, she invited wounded servicemen to a second annual Thanksgiving meal in the White House. [42] Though presidents since George Washington had been issuing Thanksgiving proclamations, Pat became the only First Lady to issue one. [42]

Life in the White House Edit

After her husband was elected president in 1968, Pat Nixon met with the outgoing First Lady, Lady Bird Johnson. Together, they toured the private quarters of the White House on December 12. [43] She eventually asked Sarah Jackson Doyle, an interior decorator who had worked for the Nixons since 1965 and who decorated the family's 10-room apartment on Fifth Avenue in New York with French and English antiques, to serve as a design consultant. [44] She hired Clement Conger from the State Department to be the Executive Mansion's new curator, replacing James Ketchum, who had been hired by Jacqueline Kennedy. [45]

Pat Nixon developed and led a coordinated effort to improve the authenticity of the White House as an historic residence and museum. She added more than 600 paintings, antiques and furnishings to the Executive Mansion and its collections, the largest number of acquisitions by any administration [1] this greatly, and dramatically, expanded upon Jacqueline Kennedy's more publicized efforts. She created the Map Room and renovated the China room, and refurbished nine other rooms, including the Red Room, Blue Room and Green Room. [46] She worked with engineers to develop an exterior lighting system for the entire White House, making it glow a soft white. [46] She ordered the American flag atop the White House flown day and night, even when the president was not in residence. [46]

She ordered pamphlets describing the rooms of the house for tourists so they could understand everything, and had them translated into Spanish, French, Italian and Russian for foreigners. [46] She had ramps installed for the handicapped and physically disabled. She instructed the police who served as tour guides to attend sessions at the Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library (to learn how tours were guided "in a real museum"), [46] and arranged for them to wear less menacing uniforms, with their guns hidden underneath. [46] The tour guides were to speak slowly to deaf groups, to help those who lip-read, and Pat ordered that the blind be able to touch the antiques. [46]

The First Lady had long been irritated by the perception that the White House and access to the President and First Lady were exclusively for the wealthy and famous [46] she routinely came down from the family quarters to greet tourists, shake hands, sign autographs, and pose for photos. [47] Her daughter Julie Eisenhower reflected, "she invited so many groups to the White House to give them recognition, not famous ones, but little-known organizations. " [48]

She invited former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy and her children Caroline and John Jr. to dine with her family and view the White House's official portraits of her and her husband, the late President Kennedy. [49] It was the first time that the three Kennedys had returned to the White House since the president's assassination eight years earlier. [50] [51] Pat had ordered the visit to be kept secret from the media until after the trip's conclusion in an attempt to maintain privacy for the Kennedys. She also invited President Kennedy's mother Rose Kennedy to see her son's official portrait. [49]

She opened the White House for evening tours so that the public could see the interior design work that had been implemented. The tours that were conducted in December displayed the White House's Christmas decor. In addition, she instituted a series of performances by artists at the White House in varied American traditions, from opera to bluegrass among the guests were The Carpenters in 1972. These events were described as ranging from "creative to indifferent, to downright embarrassing". [8] When they entered the White House in 1969, the Nixons began inviting families to non-denominational Sunday church services in the East Room of the White House. [46] She also oversaw the White House wedding of her daughter, Tricia, to Edward Ridley Finch Cox in 1971. [52]

In October 1969, she announced her appointment of Constance Stuart as her staff director and press secretary. [53] To the White House residence staff, the Nixons were perceived as more stiff and formal than other first families, but nonetheless kind. [54]

She spoke out in favor of women running for political office and encouraged her husband to nominate a woman to the Supreme Court, saying "woman power is unbeatable I've seen it all across this country". [55] She was the first of the American First Ladies to publicly support the Equal Rights Amendment, [56] though her views on abortion were mixed. Following the Court's 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision, Pat stated she was pro-choice. [1] However, in 1972, she said, "I'm really not for abortion. I think it's a personal thing. I mean abortion on demand—wholesale." [57]

In 1972, she became the first Republican First Lady to address a national convention. [1] Her efforts in the 1972 reelection campaign—traveling across the country and speaking on behalf of her husband—were copied by future candidates' spouses. [1]

Travels Edit

Pat Nixon held the record as the most-traveled First Lady until her mark was surpassed by Hillary Rodham Clinton. [1] In President Nixon's first term, Pat traveled to 39 of 50 states, and in the first year alone, shook hands with a quarter of a million people. [58] She undertook many missions of goodwill to foreign nations as well. Her first foreign trip took in Guam, India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan, Romania, and England. [59] On such trips, Pat refused to be serviced by an entourage, feeling that they were an unnecessary barrier and a burden for taxpayers. [59] Soon after, during a trip to South Vietnam, Pat became the first First Lady to enter a combat zone. [1] She had tea with the wife of President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu in a palace, visited an orphanage, and lifted off in an open-door helicopter—armed by military guards with machine guns—to witness U.S. troops fighting in a jungle below. [59] She later admitted to experiencing a "moment of fear going into a battle zone", because, as author and historian Carl Sferrazza Anthony noted, "Pat Nixon was literally in a line of fire." [59] She later visited an army hospital, where, for two hours, she walked through the wards and spoke with each wounded patient. [21] The First Lady of South Vietnam, Madame Thieu, said Pat Nixon's trip "intensified our morale". [21]

After hearing about the Great Peruvian earthquake of 1970, which caused an avalanche and additional destruction, Pat initiated a "volunteer American relief drive" and flew to the country, where she aided in taking relief supplies to earthquake victims. [60] She toured damaged regions and embraced homeless townspeople they trailed her as she climbed up hills of rubble and under fallen beams. [61] Her trip was heralded in newspapers around the world for her acts of compassion and disregard for her personal safety or comfort, [8] and her presence was a direct boost to political relations. One Peruvian official commented: "Her coming here meant more than anything else President Nixon could have done," [47] and an editorial in Peru's Lima Prensa said that Peruvians could never forget Pat Nixon. [47] Fran Lewine of the Associated Press wrote that no First Lady had ever undertaken a "mercy mission" resulting in such "diplomatic side effects". [47] On the trip, the Peruvian government presented her with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun, the highest Peruvian distinction and the oldest such honor in the Americas. [1]

She became the first First Lady to visit Africa in 1972, on a 10,000-mile (16,093 km), eight-day journey to Ghana, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast. [62] Upon arrival in Liberia, Pat was honored with a 19-gun salute, a tribute reserved only for heads of government, and she reviewed troops. [62] She later donned a traditional native costume and danced with locals. She was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Most Venerable Order of Knighthood, Liberia's highest honor. [62] In Ghana, she again danced with local residents, and addressed the nation's Parliament. [62] In the Ivory Coast, she was met by a quarter of a million people shouting "Vive Madame Nixon!" [62] She conferred with leaders of all three African nations. [62] Upon her return home, White House staffer Charles Colson sent a memo to the President reading in part, "Mrs. Nixon has now broken through where we have failed . People—men and women—identify with her, and in return with you." [63]

Another notable journey was the Nixons' historic visit to the People's Republic of China in 1972. While President Nixon was in meetings, Pat toured through Peking in her red coat. According to Carl Sferrazza Anthony, China was Pat Nixon's "moment", her turning point as an acclaimed First Lady in the United States. [64] She accompanied her husband to the Nixon–Brezhnev summit meetings in the Soviet Union later in the year. Though security constraints left her unable to walk freely through the streets as she did in China, Pat was still able to visit with children and walk arm-in-arm with Soviet First Lady Viktoria Brezhneva. [64] Later, she visited Brazil and Venezuela in 1974 with the unique diplomatic standing of personal representative of the president. The Nixons' last major trip was in June 1974, to Austria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Israel, and Jordan. [65]

Fashion and style Edit

The traditional role of a First Lady as the nation's hostess puts her personal appearance and style under scrutiny, and the attention to Pat was lively. Women's Wear Daily stated that Pat had a "good figure and good posture", as well as "the best-looking legs of any woman in public life today". [66] Some fashion writers tended to have a lackluster opinion of her well tailored, but nondescript, American-made clothes. "I consider it my duty to use American designers", she said, [67] and favored them because, "they are now using so many materials which are great for traveling because they're non crushable". [68] She preferred to buy readymade garments rather than made-to-order outfits. "I'm a size 10," she told The New York Times. "I can just walk in and buy. I've bought things in various stores in various cities. Only some of my clothes are by designers." [55] She did, however, wear the custom work of some well-known talents, notably Geoffrey Beene, at the suggestion of Clara Treyz, her personal shopper. [55] Many fashion observers concluded that Pat Nixon did not greatly advance the cause of American fashion. Nixon's yellow-satin inaugural gown by Harvey Berin was criticized as "a schoolteacher on her night out", but Treyz defended her wardrobe selections by saying, "Mrs. Nixon must be ladylike." [69] [70]

Nixon did not sport the outrageous fashions of the 1970s, because she was concerned about appearing conservatively dressed, especially as her husband's political star rose. "Always before, it was sort of fun to get some . thing that was completely different, high-style", she told a reporter. "But this is not appropriate now. I avoid the spectacular." [71]

Watergate Edit

At the time the Watergate scandal broke to the media, Nixon "barely noticed" the reports of a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters. [72] Later, when asked by the press about Watergate, she replied curtly, "I know only what I read in the newspapers." [73] In 1974, when a reporter asked "Is the press the cause of the president's problems?", she shot back, "What problems?" [74] Privately, she felt that the power of her husband's staff was increasing, and President Nixon was becoming more removed from what was occurring in the administration. [73]

Pat Nixon did not know of the secret tape recordings her husband had made. Julie Nixon Eisenhower stated that the First Lady would have ordered the tapes destroyed immediately, had she known of their existence. [75] Once she did learn of the tapes, she vigorously opposed making them public, and compared them to "private love letters—for one person alone". [76] Believing in her husband's innocence, she also encouraged him not to resign and instead fight all the impeachment charges that were eventually leveled against him. She said to her friend Helene Drown, "Dick has done so much for the country. Why is this happening?" [65]

After President Nixon told his family he would resign the office of the presidency, she replied "But why?" [77] She contacted White House curator Clement Conger to cancel any further development of a new official china pattern from the Lenox China Company, and began supervising the packing of the family's personal belongings. [78] On August 7, 1974, the family met in the solarium of the White House for their last dinner. Pat sat on the edge of a couch and held her chin high, a sign of tension to her husband. [79] When the president walked in, she threw her arms around him, kissed him, and said, "We're all very proud of you, Daddy." [79] Later Pat Nixon said of the photographs taken that evening, "Our hearts were breaking and there we are smiling." [80]

On the morning of August 9 in the East Room, Nixon gave a televised 20-minute farewell speech to the White House staff, during which time he read from Theodore Roosevelt's biography and praised his own parents. [81] The First Lady could hardly contain her tears she was most upset about the cameras, because they recorded her anguish, as they had during the 1960 election defeat. The Nixons walked onto the Executive Mansion's South Lawn with Vice President Gerald Ford and Betty Ford. The outgoing president departed from the White House on Marine One. As the family walked towards the helicopter, Pat, with one arm around her husband's waist and one around Betty's, said to Betty "You'll see many of these red carpets, and you'll get so you hate 'em." [82] The helicopter transported them to Andrews Air Force Base from there they flew to California. [83]

Pat Nixon later told her daughter Julie, "Watergate is the only crisis that ever got me down . And I know I will never live to see the vindication." [84]

Historian Carl Sferrazza Anthony noted that ordinary citizens responded to, and identified with, Pat Nixon. [47] When a group of people from a rural community visited the White House to present a quilt to the First Lady, many were overcome with nervousness upon hearing their weeping, Pat hugged each individual tightly, and the tension dissipated. [47] When a young boy doubted that the Executive Mansion was her house because he could not see her washing machine, Pat led him through the halls and up an elevator, into the family quarters and the laundry room. [47] She mixed well with people of different races, and made no distinctions on that basis. [63] During the Nixons' trip to China in 1972, foreign minister Zhou En-lai was sufficiently smitten with her so as to give two rare giant pandas to the United States as a gift from China. [64]

Pat Nixon was listed on the Gallup Organization's top-ten list of the most admired women fourteen times, from 1959 to 1962 and 1968 to 1979. [85] She was ranked third in 1969, second in 1970 and 1971, and first in 1972. She remained on the top-ten list until 1979, five years after her husband left office. [85] To many, she was seen as an example of the "American Dream," having risen from a poor background, with her greatest popularity among the "great silent majority" of voters. [72] Mary Brooks, the director of the United States Mint and a long-time friend of Pat's, illustrated some of the cultural divides present at the time when she described the First Lady as "a good example to the women of this country–if they're not part of those Women's Liberation groups". [8] Additionally, it was the view of veteran UPI correspondent Helen Thomas that Pat "was the warmest First Lady I covered and the one who loved people the most. I think newspeople who covered her saw a woman who was sharp, responsive, sensitive." [86]

Press accounts framed Pat Nixon as an embodiment of Cold War domesticity, in stark contrast to the second-wave feminism of the time. [87] Journalists often portrayed her as dutiful and selfless [88] and seeing herself as a wife first and individual second. [41] Time magazine described her as "the perfect wife and mother–pressing [her husband's] pants, making dresses for daughters Tricia and Julie, doing her own housework even as the Vice President's wife". [89] In the early years of her tenure as First Lady she was tagged "Plastic Pat," a derogatory nickname applied because, according to critics, she was always smiling while her face rarely expressed emotion [90] [91] and her body language made her seem reserved, and at times, artificial. [92] Some observers described Pat Nixon as "a paper doll, a Barbie doll–plastic, antiseptic, unalive" and that she "put every bit of the energy and drive of her youth into playing a role, and she may no longer recognize it as such". [8]

As for the criticisms, she said, "I am who I am and I will continue to be." [8] She unguardedly revealed some of her opinions of her own life in a 1968 interview aboard a campaign plane with Gloria Steinem: "Now, I have friends in all the countries of the world. I haven't just sat back and thought of myself or my ideas or what I wanted to do. Oh no, I've stayed interested in people. I've kept working. Right here in the plane I keep this case with me, and the minute I sit down, I write my thank you notes. Nobody gets by without a personal note. I don't have time to worry about who I admire or who I identify with. I've never had it easy. I'm not like all you . all those people who had it easy." [7]

Despite her largely demure public persona as a traditional wife and homemaker, she was not as self-effacing and timid as her critics often claimed. When a news photographer wanted her to strike yet another pose while wearing an apron, she firmly responded, "I think we've had enough of this kitchen thing, don't you?" [93] Some journalists, such as columnist and White House Correspondent Robert Thompson, felt that Pat was an ideal balance for the 1970s Thompson wrote that she proved that "women can play a vital role in world affairs" while still retaining a "feminine manner". [72] Other journalists felt that Pat represented the failings of the feminine mystique, and portrayed her as being out of step with her times. [88] Those who opposed the Vietnam War identified her with the Nixon administration's policies, and, as a result, occasionally picketed her speaking events. After she had spoken to some of them in one instance in 1970, however, one of the students told the press that "she wanted to listen. I felt like this is a woman who really cares about what we are doing. I was surprised." [94] Veteran CBS correspondent Mike Wallace expressed regret that the one major interview he was never able to conduct was that of Pat Nixon. [95]

After returning to San Clemente, California, in 1974 and settling into the Nixons' home, La Casa Pacifica, Pat Nixon rarely appeared in public and only granted occasional interviews to the press. In late May 1975, Pat went to her girlhood hometown of Artesia to dedicate the Patricia Nixon Elementary School. [96] In her remarks, she said, "I'm proud to have the school carry my name. I always thought that only those who have gone had schools named after them. I am happy to tell you that I'm not gone—I mean, not really gone." [96] It was Pat's only solo public appearance in five and a half years in California. [96]

On July 7, 1976, at La Casa Pacifica, Nixon suffered a stroke, which resulted in the paralysis of her entire left side. Physical therapy enabled her to eventually regain all movement. [1] She said that her recovery was "the hardest thing I have ever done physically". [97] In 1979, she and her husband moved to a townhouse on East 65th Street in Manhattan, New York. [98] They lived there only briefly and in 1981 moved to a 6,000 square feet (557 m 2 ) house in Saddle River, New Jersey. [98] This gave the couple additional space, and enabled them to be near their children and grandchildren. [98] Pat, however, sustained another stroke in 1983 [99] and two lung infections the following year. [100]

Appearing "frail and slightly bent", [101] she appeared in public for the opening of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace (now Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum) in Yorba Linda, California, on July 19, 1990. The dedication ceremony included 50,000 friends and well-wishers, as well as former Presidents Ford, Reagan, and Bush and their wives. [102] The library includes a Pat Nixon room, a Pat Nixon amphitheater, and rose gardens planted with the red-black Pat Nixon Rose developed by a French company in 1972, when she was first lady. [103] Pat also attended the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, in November 1991. Former First Lady Barbara Bush reflected, "I loved Pat Nixon, who was a sensational, gracious, and thoughtful First Lady", [104] and at the dedication of the Reagan Library, Bush remembered, "There was one sad thing. Pat Nixon did not look well at all. Through her smile you could see that she was in great pain and having a terrible time getting air into her lungs." [105]

The Nixons moved to a gated complex in Park Ridge, New Jersey, in 1991. Pat's health was failing, and the house was smaller and contained an elevator. [98] A heavy smoker most of her adult life who nevertheless never allowed herself to be seen with a cigarette in public, [103] she eventually endured bouts of oral cancer, [106] emphysema, and ultimately lung cancer, with which she was diagnosed in December 1992 while hospitalized with respiratory problems. [6]

Pat Nixon died at her Park Ridge, New Jersey, home at 5:45 a.m. on June 22, 1993, the day after her fifty-third wedding anniversary. She was 81 years old. Her daughters and husband were by her side.

The funeral service for Pat Nixon took place on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library in Yorba Linda on June 26, 1993. Speakers at the ceremony, including California Governor Pete Wilson, Kansas senator Bob Dole, and the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham, eulogized the former First Lady. In addition to her husband and immediate family, former presidents Ronald Reagan and Gerald Ford and their wives, Nancy and Betty, were also in attendance. [107] Lady Bird Johnson was unable to attend because she was in the hospital recovering from a stroke, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis did not attend either. [107] President Nixon sobbed openly, profusely, and at times uncontrollably during the ceremony. It was a rare display of emotion from the former president, and Helen McCain Smith said that she had never seen him more distraught. [108]

Nixon's tombstone gives her name as "Patricia Ryan Nixon", the name by which she was popularly known. Her husband survived her by ten months, dying on April 22, 1994. He was also 81. [109] Her epitaph reads:

Even when people can't speak your language, they can tell if you have love in your heart.

In 1994, the Pat Nixon Park was established in Cerritos, California. The site where her girlhood home stood is on the property. [37] The Cerritos City Council voted in April 1996 to erect a statue of the former first lady, one of the few statues created in the image of a first lady. [110]

Pat has been portrayed by Joan Allen in the 1995 film Nixon, Patty McCormack in the 2008 film Frost/Nixon and Nicole Sullivan in the 2009 film Black Dynamite. She was sung by soprano Carolann Page in John Adams' opera Nixon in China 1987 world premiere in Houston, Texas a New York Times critic noted that the performance captured "the First Lady's shy mannerisms" while one from the Los Angeles Times described the subject as the "chronically demure First Lady". [111] [112] The part was later sung by Scottish soprano Janis Kelly in the 2011 Metropolitan Opera premiere in New York. This New York Times critic wrote that Kelly "was wonderful as Pat Nixon. During the affecting Act II scene in which she is guided by Chinese escorts and journalists to a glass factory, a people's commune and a health clinic, she is finally taken to a school. She speaks of coming from a poor family and tells the obliging children that for a while she was a schoolteacher. In Mr. Adams's tender music, as sung by Ms. Kelly, you sense Mrs. Nixon wistfully pondering the much different life she might have had." [113]


Pat Nixon - HISTORY

This Day In History

Pat Nixon

Pat Nixon: Embattled First Lady by Mary C. Brennan

Pat Nixon may be the least understood of modern first ladies. Although public opinion polls rated her one of our nation’s most admired women, few Americans really knew much about her.

This first scholarly biography of Thelma Ryan Nixon—the first biography in thirty-five years and the first to access her papers—goes further than any other book to show readers the real Pat Nixon. Lester David’sThe Lonely Lady of San Clemente painted her as a tragic figure while Julie Nixon Eisenhower’s adoring Pat Nixon: The Untold Story fell short of offering an objective portrait. Now Mary Brennan moves beyond the oversimplified appraisals of this neglected first lady to provide a powerful study of a complex and fascinating presidential spouse.

Drawing on Mrs. Nixon’s recently opened papers—as well as on recollections of both friends and adversaries—Brennan debunks the myth of “Plastic Pat” and fleshes out the real woman behind the stories and stereotypes. The Nixons had more in common with small-town Americans than with Washington society, and Brennan shows that part of Pat’s difficulty in dealing with the political world was that she never quite left the “normal” Pat behind. Political and social upheaval during her husband’s presidency further complicated her role as first lady, as she had to confront a shifting cultural terrain with the whole world watching.

Brennan emphasizes Pat’s activism—the first presidential wife to serve as official government representative, as well as the most traveled—and examines her complicated relationship with her husband. Often seen as a “good soldier,” Pat, in reality, engaged in constant warfare with her husband and his advisers as she tried to protect her own schedule from interference from the West Wing.

Blending empathy and objectivity, Brennan shows that Pat Nixon was a strong woman caught up in circumstances beyond her control who did as her ancestors had done: gritted her teeth and got the job done as best she could. This account of an embattled first lady opens a new window on the Nixon years and finally allows Pat Nixon to take center stage in her own life.

“This engaging and eye-opening biography digs beneath popular characterizations of Patricia Ryan Nixon as a victim and martyr and assesses this reluctant first lady on her own terms.”—Susan M. Hartmann, author of From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960

“An insightful look at the compromises made by a classic ‘good wife’ whose life took her down the roads her husband wanted to travel, and a few he didn’t.”—Jo Freeman, author of We Will Be Heard: Women’s Struggles for Political Power in the U.S.

“A richly-textured portrait of an often misunderstood first lady.”—Gil Troy, author of Mr. and Mrs. President: From the Trumans to the Clintons

MARY BRENNAN is professor of history at Texas State University at San Marcos and author of Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP and Wives, Mothers and the Red Menace: Conservative Women and the Crusade against Communism.


First Lady of the United States

One of Mrs. Nixon’s first initiatives as First Lady was to announce a program encouraging volunteerism—she referred to it as “the spirit of people helping people.” Believing firmly in the power of grass roots organizations, she toured local towns and villages enlisting thousands of volunteers to carry out a wide variety of people programs at the community level. From the very beginning she was keenly aware of the need to support a program for the acquisition of artwork and objects for the White House. Pat Nixon took great pride in the fine antiques and significant paintings in the mansion and played a major role in adding more than 600 paintings and furnishings to the collection.

Seeking to make the presidency more accessible, she made the gardens and grounds of the White House available to the public in the summer and spring, hosting tours there for the first time in nearly a century. She opened the mansion during the holiday season in the evenings for “Candlelight Tours” so that working-class families could see the decorations. She arranged for the White House and the nearby monuments to be lighted at night so that they would be visible and identifiable by drivers and travelers flying into or out of the Capitol.

For the visually, hearing and physically impaired people visitors, she created special tours that gave full access to the rooms and history of the house. As hostess she initiated a series of performances by artists in varied American traditions from bluegrass to opera and invited hundreds of average American families to nondenominational Sunday services in the East Room. She would routinely go down from the family quarters to greet tourists and pose for photographs with people on the public tour.

Travels with her husband included the historic visit to the People’s Republic of China and the summit meeting in the Soviet Union. Her first solo trip was a journey of compassion to take relief supplies to earthquake victims in Peru. Later Mrs. Nixon visited Africa and South America with the unique diplomatic standing of personal representative of the president.

Mrs. Nixon met the troubled days of Watergate with dignity. “I love my husband,” she said, “I believe in him, and I am proud of his accomplishments.” In her retirement, she took great pleasure in her grandchildren and gardening. She died at home in Park Ridge, New Jersey, on June 22, 1993. Her husband followed her in death ten months later. She and the former president are buried at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.

Pat Nixon and former first lady Lady Bird Johnson unveil the White House acquisition of James Madison’s 1816 portrait by John Vanderlyn, May 28, 1970.


Patricia Ryan Nixon

As the wife of the President Richard Nixon, Thelma Catherine “Pat” Ryan Nixon was First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974. She was an avid supporter of charitable causes and volunteerism.

Born Thelma Catherine Ryan on March 16 in Ely, Nevada, “Pat” Nixon acquired her nickname within hours. Her father, William Ryan, called her his “St. Patrick’s babe in the morn” when he came home from the mines before dawn.

Soon the family moved to California and settled on a small truck farm near Los Angeles–a life of hard work with few luxuries. Her mother, Kate Halberstadt Bender Ryan, died in 1925 at 13 Pat assumed all the household duties for her father and two older brothers. At 18, she lost her father after nursing him through months of illness. Left on her own and determined to continue her education, she worked her way through the University of Southern California. She held part-time jobs on campus, as a sales clerk in a fashionable department store, and as an extra in the movies–and she graduated cum laude in 1937.

She accepted a position as a high-school teacher in Whittier and there she met Richard Nixon, who had come home from Duke University Law School to establish a practice. They became acquainted at a Little Theater group when they were cast in the same play, and were married on June 21, 1940.

During World War II, she worked as a government economist while he served in the Navy. She campaigned at his side in 1946 when he entered politics, running successfully for Congress, and afterward. Within six years she saw him elected to the House, the Senate, and the Vice Presidency on the ticket with Dwight D. Eisenhower. Despite the demands of official life, the Nixons were devoted parents to their two daughters, Tricia (now Mrs. Edward Cox), and Julie (now Mrs. David Eisenhower).

A tireless campaigner when he ran unsuccessfully for President in 1960, she was at his side when he ran again in 1968–and won. She had once remarked succinctly, “It takes heart to be in political life.”

Pat Nixon used her position as First Lady to encourage volunteer service–“the spirit of people helping people.” She invited hundreds of families to nondenominational Sunday services in the East Room. She instituted a series of performances by artists in varied American traditions–from opera to bluegrass. Mrs. Nixon took quiet pride in adding 600 paintings and antiques to the White House Collection.

She had shared her husband’s journeys abroad in his Vice Presidential years, and she continued the practice during his Presidency. Her travels included the historic visit to the People’s Republic of China and the summit meetings in the Soviet Union. Her first solo trip was a journey of compassion to take relief supplies to earthquake victims in Peru. Later she visited Africa and South America with the unique diplomatic standing of Personal Representative of the President. Always she was a charming envoy.

Mrs. Nixon met the troubled days of Watergate with dignity. “I love my husband,” she said, “I believe in him, and I am proud of his accomplishments.” She died at home in Park Ridge, New Jersey, on June 22, 1993. Her husband followed her in death ten months later. She and the former President are buried at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.


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Comments:

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  2. Birtel

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