Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein

Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein


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Anne Boleyn Anne Of Cleves : Anne Boleyn. Another image of the Royal Ontario image . / Ana de cleves anne of cleves anne boleyn tudor history european history women in history british history asian history london history.. Anne of cleves was henry viii's wife for just six months, making her the shortest reigning of all his queens. We meet at last, marta said, sliding the card back into the deck and shuffling. Anne of cleves lived in comfortable obscurity until her death in 1557. Free anne boleyn files welcome pack of 5 goodies sent directly to your inbox. Anne of cleves was the daughter of the german duke of cleves in 15th century europe.

The final months of boleyn's life, her struggle with tudor england's patriarchal society, her desire to secure a future for her daughter, elizabeth, and the brutal reality of her failure to provide henry with a male heir. Luckily, anne has the other queens to look out for her. Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein. Located just outside of london. Henry viii remained single for over two years after jane seymour's death, possibly giving some credence to the thought that he genuinely mourned for she was given property, including hever castle, formerly the home of anne boleyn.

Pin by Anne Boleyn's Gossip Guide on Anne of Cleves | Anne . from i.pinimg.com Her father was the leader of the german protestants, and the princess. Luckily, anne has the other queens to look out for her. She was educated in the restricted circle of the she was given hever castle in kent, which had once belonged to anne boleyn. Anne of cleaves has a historically bad rap, this is in no small part because she will forever be remembered as henry viiis 'ugly' wife Anne was born in 1515. Anne boleyn anne of cleves wives of henry viii king henry viii asian history british history tudor dynasty tudor era henry viii. Noting what had happened to katherine of aragon and anne boleyn, she went along with the annulment and henry was so pleased that he gave her an allowance fit for a queen, and richmond palace to match! All his previous marriages had been mainly love matches, with the debatable exception of.

It's a struggle, and anne boleyn is terrible at taking care of herself.

Anne boleyn, the daughter of sir thomas boleyn and elizabeth howard, daughter of the duke of norfolk, was born in bilickling hall in about 1500. Not much is known about anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to francis, duke of bar, son and heir of antoine, duke of lorraine. She is deemed the most successful of henry's six wives because she had got a good deal out of henry when their marriage was anulled. The small pox scars which she bore were not included in her flattering portrait painted by hans holbein. She was educated in the restricted circle of the she was given hever castle in kent, which had once belonged to anne boleyn. Anne of cleves was born in cleves, a principality in the lower rhinelands of what is now germany, in 1515. Anne of cleaves has a historically bad rap, this is in no small part because she will forever be remembered as henry viiis 'ugly' wife Ana de cleves anne of cleves anne boleyn tudor history european history women in history british history asian history london history. She wore german fashions when she met henry which were deemed to be unsophisticated. Appearance of anne of cleves: Just imagine what henry smelled like. She was not well educated and knew little about the world outside of cleves. Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein.

Связаться со страницей anne of cleves в messenger. King henry viii is reputed to have described anne of cleves as 'a fat. Anne of cleves, fourth wife of henry viii 'the i love anne of cleves. A play about anne boleyn and her secret love for her brother, george, is being staged at the tower of london.

Lucy Worsley discovers the truth about Henry VIII's six wives from www.radiotimes.com Anne boleyn was the second wife of henry viii and the mother of elizabeth i. She is deemed the most successful of henry's six wives because she had got a good deal out of henry when their marriage was anulled. She was not well educated and knew little about the world outside of cleves. Anne of cleves was the 4th wife of henry viii, and was born in 1515 in dusseldorf in the duchy of cleves. Anne boleyn anne of cleves wives of henry viii king henry viii asian history british history tudor dynasty tudor era henry viii. Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein. Her father was the leader of the german protestants, and the princess. She wasn't discarded like katherine of aragon or beheaded like anne boleyn.

She wasn't discarded like katherine of aragon or beheaded like anne boleyn.

Anne boleyn, who came from an aristocratic family, had served in the courts of other european royals. At the age of 12 she was betrothed to frances son of the duke of lorraine but the marriage did not she received a generous allowance and hever castle in kent, former home of the boleyn family. Anne of cleves lived in comfortable obscurity until her death in 1557. Anne of cleves was the 4th wife of henry viii, and was born in 1515 in dusseldorf in the duchy of cleves. Anne boleyn was born in c.1501, probably at blickling hall in norfolk. Anne of cleves is likely the most fortunate of all of henry viii's wives Before long, though, perhaps fearing a similar fate to catherine of aragon or, worse still, anne boleyn, anne resolved to take a pragmatic approach. Miniature portrait of anne of cleves, watercolour on vellum by hans holbein the younger, in a turned ivory miniature box, 1539 Anne of cleves, fourth wife of henry viii Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein. King henry viii is reputed to have described anne of cleves as 'a fat. Here is the video on anne of cleve's life and marraige to henry. Anne boleyn, the daughter of sir thomas boleyn and elizabeth howard, daughter of the duke of norfolk, was born in bilickling hall in about 1500.

Free anne boleyn files welcome pack of 5 goodies sent directly to your inbox. Jane seymour, henry viii's beloved third wife, had died. Anne of cleves lived in comfortable obscurity until her death in 1557. Not much is known about anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to francis, duke of bar, son and heir of antoine, duke of lorraine. Anne of cleves was born in cleves, a principality in the lower rhinelands of what is now germany, in 1515.

Anne Boleyn.JPG | Anne boleyn, Tudor history, Anne of cleves from i.pinimg.com Appearance of anne of cleves: Anne of cleves by hans holbein more images westminster abbey. Anne boleyn anne of cleves wives of henry viii king henry viii asian history british history tudor dynasty tudor era henry viii. Anne boleyn was born in c.1501, probably at blickling hall in norfolk. King henry viii is reputed to have described anne of cleves as 'a fat. In fallen in love, anne boleyn is played by emma connell. She wore german fashions when she met henry which were deemed to be unsophisticated. Anne of cleves was henry viii's fourth wife.

Anne of cleves lived in comfortable obscurity until her death in 1557.

Anne of cleves, fourth wife of henry viii Not much is known about anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to francis, duke of bar, son and heir of antoine, duke of lorraine. Anne lived away from court quietly in the countryside until 1557. Noting what had happened to katherine of aragon and anne boleyn, she went along with the annulment and henry was so pleased that he gave her an allowance fit for a queen, and richmond palace to match! Anne was born in 1515. We meet at last, marta said, sliding the card back into the deck and shuffling. King henry viii is reputed to have described anne of cleves as 'a fat. Связаться со страницей anne of cleves в messenger. Anne of cleves is likely the most fortunate of all of henry viii's wives Their brief marriage was a political one. She is deemed the most successful of henry's six wives because she had got a good deal out of henry when their marriage was anulled. Anne of cleves lived in comfortable obscurity until her death in 1557. Anne boleyn, who came from an aristocratic family, had served in the courts of other european royals.

Anne of cleves was the 4th wife of henry viii, and was born in 1515 in dusseldorf in the duchy of cleves. She wasn't discarded like katherine of aragon or beheaded like anne boleyn. Free anne boleyn files welcome pack of 5 goodies sent directly to your inbox. Her upbringing in cleves had concentrated on domestic skills and not the music and literature so popular at she was given property, including hever castle, formerly the home of anne boleyn. All his previous marriages had been mainly love matches, with the debatable exception of.

Her father was the leader of the german protestants, and the princess. She and caterine parr liked eachother, i think, that garnered mutula respect and admiration. She is deemed the most successful of henry's six wives because she had got a good deal out of henry when their marriage was anulled. Anne was born in 1515. It's a struggle, and anne boleyn is terrible at taking care of herself.

Not much is known about anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to francis, duke of bar, son and heir of antoine, duke of lorraine. All his previous marriages had been mainly love matches, with the debatable exception of. Anne boleyn, the daughter of sir thomas boleyn and elizabeth howard, daughter of the duke of norfolk, was born in bilickling hall in about 1500. Anne of cleves was born in cleves, a principality in the lower rhinelands of what is now germany, in 1515. Definitely not an anne boleyn. anne of cleves, sigrid said.

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Miniature portrait of anne of cleves, watercolour on vellum by hans holbein the younger, in a turned ivory miniature box, 1539 Anne boleyn anne of cleves wives of henry viii king henry viii asian history british history tudor dynasty tudor era henry viii. But she also had political functions at court. The marriage resulted from henry's efforts to form an alliance with her brother, william, duke of cleves. Anne of cleves by hans holbein more images westminster abbey.

Her position and fortune made her a powerful independent woman, though there was little opportunity to exercise such power in any public. Anne of cleves is likely the most fortunate of all of henry viii's wives Anne of cleves was henry viii's wife for just six months, making her the shortest reigning of all his queens. The final months of boleyn's life, her struggle with tudor england's patriarchal society, her desire to secure a future for her daughter, elizabeth, and the brutal reality of her failure to provide henry with a male heir. Anne boleyn was born in c.1501, probably at blickling hall in norfolk.

Anne of cleves lived in comfortable obscurity until her death in 1557. She wore german fashions when she met henry which were deemed to be unsophisticated. But she also had political functions at court. As she shuffled, marta watched the faces whip by, a parade of anonymous smiling, smirking women, all looking back at her as if across the fanning waves of time. Henry had already been married 3 times, his wives included catherine of aragon, anne boleyn, and jane seymour.

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Anne of cleves, fourth wife of henry viii Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein. Anne of cleves was the 4th wife of henry viii, and was born in 1515 in dusseldorf in the duchy of cleves. Not much is known about anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to francis, duke of bar, son and heir of antoine, duke of lorraine. Anne of cleves was henry viii's fourth wife.

Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein. Anne of cleves is likely the most fortunate of all of henry viii's wives She is deemed the most successful of henry's six wives because she had got a good deal out of henry when their marriage was anulled. Anne lived away from court quietly in the countryside until 1557. Portrait of anne of cleves, fourth queen consort of henry viii, attributed to the circle of barthel bruyn.

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Her position and fortune made her a powerful independent woman, though there was little opportunity to exercise such power in any public. Anne boleyn was born in c.1501, probably at blickling hall in norfolk. She was not well educated and knew little about the world outside of cleves. Anne of cleves was the daughter of the german duke of cleves in 15th century europe. All the wives are fascinating.

Anne boleyn was the second wife of henry viii and the mother of elizabeth i.

Source: queenanneboleyn.com

The small pox scars which she bore were not included in her flattering portrait painted by hans holbein.

Anne of cleves by hans holbein more images westminster abbey.

It's a struggle, and anne boleyn is terrible at taking care of herself.

Source: s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com

The marriage resulted from henry's efforts to form an alliance with her brother, william, duke of cleves.

Source: s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com

Her position and fortune made her a powerful independent woman, though there was little opportunity to exercise such power in any public.

King henry viii is reputed to have described anne of cleves as 'a fat.

She and caterine parr liked eachother, i think, that garnered mutula respect and admiration.

Not much is known about anne before 1527, when she became betrothed to francis, duke of bar, son and heir of antoine, duke of lorraine.

Her position and fortune made her a powerful independent woman, though there was little opportunity to exercise such power in any public.

Source: farm3.staticflickr.com

Anne of cleves was born in cleves, a principality in the lower rhinelands of what is now germany, in 1515.

Source: www.hevercastle.co.uk

Anne of cleaves has a historically bad rap, this is in no small part because she will forever be remembered as henry viiis 'ugly' wife

Source: pre13.deviantart.net

Ana de cleves anne of cleves anne boleyn tudor history european history women in history british history asian history london history.

Anne's mother elizabeth howard, was descended from king edward i and formed part of.

Anne of cleves was born in düsseldorf in 1515 and was chosen by henry viii as his fourth wife based on a portrait by hans holbein.

Anne of cleves was the 4th wife of henry viii, and was born in 1515 in dusseldorf in the duchy of cleves.

Source: onthetudortrail.com

Anne boleyn anne of cleves wives of henry viii king henry viii asian history british history tudor dynasty tudor era henry viii.

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King henry viii is reputed to have described anne of cleves as 'a fat.

Source: farm3.staticflickr.com

All the wives are fascinating.

All the wives are fascinating.

We meet at last, marta said, sliding the card back into the deck and shuffling.

As she shuffled, marta watched the faces whip by, a parade of anonymous smiling, smirking women, all looking back at her as if across the fanning waves of time.

Source: vignette.wikia.nocookie.net

Her father was thomas boleyn, who had been squire of the body at the funeral of henry vii, and was knighted at henry viii's coronation.

Noting what had happened to katherine of aragon and anne boleyn, she went along with the annulment and henry was so pleased that he gave her an allowance fit for a queen, and richmond palace to match!


Anne Boleyn’s bold, feminist, no-nonsense tendencies are what cost her her head

King Henry VIII’s second wife did not wish to be bossed around by the court. As one of the more controversial figures of the 16th century, Anne Boleyn, the Marquess of Pembroke, was a true fighter of her own cause.

Although not exactly regarded as a feminist since she predated its formation, Anne’s marriage to King Henry VIII, and her contributing influence on the English Reformation, marked a beginning of a new era for the English monarchy.

To be accused of witchcraft in the 16th century might mean that you stood for worldviews we’d today describe as progressive. Unapologetic in valuing her own ideas, while also refusing to conform to the traditional ways of gender roles, Anne caused a lot of “commotion” in the court of the controversial king.

Anne’s temperament and rebellious attitude were the lesser known reasons for her beheading, aside from King Henry’s courtship of Jane Seymour and his desire for an heir. Anne’s constant meddling and no-nonsense disposition during the harsh times of the 16th century ignited a furious public backlash.

The short-tempered second wife of King Henry VIII, Anne famously reigned as the Queen of England from 1533 to 1536. As the daughter of the very cultured and educated Thomas Boleyn, an English diplomat, and Lady Elizabeth Howard, she was practically “eating” books during her childhood in the Netherlands and France.

As a teenager, she was sent to the court as a maid of honor of Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, and Marguerite of Valois, Duchess of Alençon. Under their strict tutelage, she was exposed to one of the first books about never-before-heard topics like feminist ideals, inequality, and the argument that women should not be excluded from governments, universities, and owning property.

Thanks to the recent invention of the game-changing printing press, it was a lot easier to publish books, and writers like Mario Equicola and Agrippa von Nettesheim were the first to speak up about gender inequality of the 15th and 16th century. Humanist literature greatly influenced the young Anne, and she often clashed with all sorts of authority and since she came from a noble family, she had the power to do so.

Margaret of Austria, Princess of Asturias and Duchess of Savoy (10 January 1480 – 1 December 1530).

Judging by her apparently short-fused temperament, Anne Boleyn was not your everyday Queen like the ones before her. She showed little compliance or obedience.

She was an avid supporter of the Protestant Church and of the availability of the Bible for common folk. This was highly controversial, as the Church found the very mention of “religious reformation” punishable.

Thomas Cranmer, one of Anne Boleyn’s strong supporters. He annulled Henry’s marriage to Queen Catherine.

The story goes that she resisted the king’s charms, and refusing to participate in his games (in contrast to her sister, Mary), she soon became the object of Henry’s insatiable lust. The determined Henry went so far as to try to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled in order to marry Anne.

The moment when Pope Clement VII declared that he would not annul the marriage to Catherine, the Catholic Church began to lose its power in England. Anne was granted the title of Marquess of Pembroke in 1532, by the word of Henry himself.

Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536).

Anne was basically standing at the forefront of the English Reformation. Her biggest obstacle in garnering positive public relations was Catherine of Aragon, who was popular and a pious Catholic devotee, as well as her daughter, Mary. The Catholic folk did not favor Anne, calling her a witch and a heretic who was using King Henry as a mere puppet for her own blasphemous plans.

When Catherine passed away in 1536, many rumors were spread that Anne had poisoned Catherine, since she was so publically happy with the outcome.

Mary Boleyn, Anne’s sister, and one of Henry’s many mistresses.

By that time, since Anne had not borne a son, Henry had all the more reason to get rid of Anne, and so taking advantage of the general suspicious feelings toward the Queen, the king’s chief minister, the infamous Thomas Cromwell, managed to look into the matter himself. He gathered evidence against the strong-willed Anne Boleyn and eventually brought her to trial, accusing her of adultery and high treason.

Anne was a queen whose traits were not of the docile type. She wholeheartedly acknowledged her jealousy but, nevertheless, she stood firm about her political and sociological viewpoints, which were respected by Henry and a small number of the court’s key figures. She defended herself well at her trial. Despite all of this, Anne was found guilty of adultery, incest, and high treason, and was decapitated.

Anne Boleyn by Hans Holbein the Younger.

After the coronation of her daughter, Elizabeth I, Anne was hailed as a true martyr for freedom and a champion of the English Reformation. Throughout the ages, thinkers and historians would acknowledge her contribution and her unconventional ideologies, inspiring many others who share the same opinions.

Called “the most influential and important queen consort England has ever had,” she was the reason Henry VIII declared his independence from the Holy See and sought his “divorce” from Catherine. Sadly, in the end, her miscarriages, alleged misconduct, and misunderstood intentions got her killed.

Anne defied any convention, stubbornly trying to cut herself loose of any restraints feminism might well have been a concept she would have understood.


Investigating The Protectors Of The Holy Book

The newly revealed list of names is all handwritten in Old English . The names are all identified as having been in the confidence of Anne in her last days. Among the names is a politician at Henry’s court, Sir John Gage, his wife Philippa, and her sister Elizabeth Shirley.

However, while the names of the book’s keepers have been revealed, exactly how the book got from Anne Boleyn to the other women after her execution on May 19, 1536 is “a key missing link in the story,” according to the Daily Mail.

Miss McCaffrey said her new ultraviolet light research suggests the book passed between a network of acquaintances after Anne's death and now it is clear Anne Boleyn’s Prayer Book was carefully protected among a network of “trusted connections.”

The researchers told Smithsonian that “the book would have had to have been kept secret until Boleyn and Henry’s daughter Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558.”

However, what happened to the book after that “remains a mystery until the Astor family purchased Hever Castle in 1903.”

Top image: This Book of Hours manuscript, in the collection of Hever Castle, England, is now considered to be Anne Boleyn’s Prayer Book, as was recently revealed with an ultraviolet light scan that revealed a list of “secret names” in the book. Source: Hever Castle and Gardens

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The following are more of his amazing portraits for your viewing pleasure…

Lady with Squirrel

Portrait of a Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling, probably Anne Lovell. oil and tempera on oak, National Gallery, London

Erasmus

Portrait of a Woman in a White Coif

The Ambassadors

This painting has some of the most hidden messages/symbols of any of Holbein’s paintings. To learn more please watch the video below and prepare to be amazed!


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LP – Brewer, J. S., et al. (Eds) (1862-1932). Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Complete Baronetage – C[okayne], G. E. (Ed.). (1900). Complete baronetage. Exeter: William Pollard.

Complete Peerage – C[okayne], G. E., & Gibbs, V. (Eds.). (1910-59). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. London: St. Catherine Press.

CPR: Elizabeth – Great Britain. Public Record Office. (1939). Calendar of the patent rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Elizabeth [I]. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

CPR: Philip and Mary – Great Britain. Public Record Office. (1939). Calendar of the patent rolls preserved in the Public Record Office: Philip and Mary. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

ODNBOxford Dictionary of National Biography. Matthew, H. C. G. & Harrison, B. (Eds). (Online edn). Oxford 2004.

SC – The Sutherland Collection (online) / Staffordshire & Stoke-on-Trent Archive Service

TNA – The National Archives, Kew

[[i]] Brown, W. (ed.). (2013). Yorkshire deeds. vol. 2, pp. 162-3 ‘Yorkshire Fines: 1511-15’. In F. Collins (ed.). (1887). Feet of Fines of the Tudor Period [Yorks]. vol. 1: 1486-1571, pp. 24-30. Leeds: Yorkshire Archeological Society. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/feet-of-fines-yorks/vol1/pp24-30 MacMahon, L. (2004-09-23). ‘Ughtred, Sir Anthony (d. 1534)’, ODNB.

[[ii]] Ibid. In January 1532, perhaps to aid in securing the governorship of Jersey for her husband, Lady Ughtred presented the King with a New Year’s gift: ‘a fine shirt with a high collar’. See LP v, 686.

[[iii]] For Henry Ughtred, who was one year old at the time of his father’s death on 6 October 1534, see Syvret, G. S., & de Carteret, S. (1832). Chroniques des Iles de Jersey, Guernesey, Auregny et Serk. Guernsey: T. J. Mauger, pp. 60-61 see also Fuidge, N. M. (1981). ‘Ughtred, Henry (by 1534-aft. Oct. 1598), of Southampton and Ireland’. In P. W. Hasler (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/ughtred-henry-1534-1598. For Margery Ughtred, see Flower, W. (1881). The Visitation of Yorkshire in the years 1563 and 1564, made by William Flower, Esquire, Norroy King of Arms. (Harleian Society xvi). C. B. Norcliffe, (ed.) London: [Harleian Society], p. 166.

[[iv]] Thornton, T. (2012). The Channel Islands, 1370-1640: between England and Normandy. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, p. 71 Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601 at p. 593.

[[v]] Merriman, R. B. (1902). Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell. Oxford: Clarendon Press. vol. 1, p. 58 LP vi, 1182 and 1183.

[[vi]] For Gregory Cromwell, see Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601. Jane Cromwell (d. 1580) married William Hough of Leighton, Cheshire by 1550/1. For Jane and William Hough, see ibid., p. 591. The couple’s daughter and sole heir, Alice was 34 at the time of her father’s death in 1585. See Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882). The history of the County Palatine and city of Chester … (second edn). London: George Routledge and Sons. vol. 2. p. 552.

[[vii]] LP xiv / ii, 782, p. 330: ‘Mr Gregory, by Mr Richard [Cromwell], “the same day he was married at Mortelacke” 50l.’.

[[viii]] Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601 at pp. 593-4.

[[i]] ‘Portrait of a Lady, probably a Member of the Cromwell Family’, Toledo Museum of Art, ref. 1926.570 ‘Portrait of a Lady, thought to be Catherine Howard’, Hans Holbein the Younger, follower of, 16th century, Hever Castle, Kent ‘Unknown woman, formerly known as Catherine Howard’, after Hans Holbein the Younger, late 17th century’, National Portrait Gallery, London, ref. NPG 1119 Strong, R. (1969). Tudor and Jacobean Portraits. vol. 2: Plates. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, plates 76-78 Rowlands, J. (1985). Holbein: the paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (complete edn). Oxford: Phaidon, p. 146, cat. 69, pl. 109.

[[ii]] Nirdlinger, V. (1933, May). ‘Four paintings in the exhibition at Chicago’. Parnassus, 5(4), pp. 8-11 at p. 9.

[[iii]] British Museum number SL,5308.25. Medallion of Lot with his family, guided by an angel, fleeing from Sodom, one of ten designs for medallions, from the ‘Jewellery Book’.

[[iv]] Ba?tschmann, O., and Griener, P. (2014). Hans Holbein (second edn). London: Reaktion Books, pp. 245-6, Fig. 244.

[[v]] Chamberlain, A. B. (1913). Hans Holbein the Younger. London: George Allen. vol. 2, pp. 195-6 see also Ganz, P. (1956). The paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (enlarged edn). London: Phaidon, p. 254, cat. 118, pl. 157.

[[vi]] Royal Collection, ‘Portrait of a Lady, perhaps Katherine Howard’, ref. RCIN 422293 another version of the miniature, ‘Katherine Howard’, is in the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. The drawing is in the Royal Collection, ‘An unidentified woman’, ref. RCIN 912218.

[[vii]] The sitter was formerly thought, on no real evidence, to have been Queen Catherine Howard, see Cust, L. (1910, July). ‘A portrait of Queen Catherine Howard, by Hans Holbein the Younger’. The Burlington Magazine, 17(88), pp. 192-5, 199, and accepted as such until the identification was questioned by Roy Strong, following the lead of C. K. Adams, see Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.). ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’. The Genealogists’ Magazine, 14(11), pp. 382-8 at pp. 386-7, who has very plausibly argued in favour of the sitter being a member of the Cromwell family. See Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’. The Burlington Magazine, 109(770), 276-281 at pp. 278, 281.

[[viii]] The Toledo portrait appears in Waylen’s list of 1891 as Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII. See Waylen, J. (1891). The house of Cromwell and the story of Dunkirk: a genealogical history of the descendants of the Protector, with anecdotes and letters. London: Elliot Stock, p. 347.

[[ix]] Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.), ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’, pp. 382-388 at p. 386.

[[x]] Strong, R. (1969). Tudor and Jacobean Portraits. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. vol. 1, p. 43.

[[xi]] Ibid. Starkey, D. (2007). Lost faces: identity and discovery in Tudor royal portraiture. B. Grosvenor, (ed.) London: Philip Mould Ltd., pp. 70-75, 109-124: The inventory is BL Stowe MS 599, ff. 55-68.

[[xii]] Russell, G. (2017). Young and damned and fair: the life and tragedy of Catherine Howard at the court of Henry VIII. London: William Collins. ‘None of the girls who served alongside her was born before 1521’: see p. 18 and pp. 148, 386-7, 394 Wilkinson, J. (2016). Katherine Howard: the tragic story of Henry VIII’s fifth queen. London: John Murray, p. 61 Wilkinson, J. (2016, Dec. 15). ‘How old was Katherine Howard?’ Retrieved May 14, 2018, from http://dr-josephine-wilkinson.blogspot.com.au/2016/12/how-old-was-katherine-howard.html

[[xiii]] Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’, pp. 276-281 Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.), ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’, pp. 382-8 at pp. 386-7.

[[xiv]] Dolman, B. (2013). ‘Wishful thinking: reading the portraits of Henry VIII’s queens’. In T. Betteridge, & S. Lipscomb (Eds.). Henry VIII and the court: art, politics and performance, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 115-129 at pp. 124-6 Weir, A. (2016). The lost Tudor princess: a life of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox. London: Vintage, pp. 401: ‘the costume does seem rather lavish for the daughter of a knight and wife of a gentleman’.

[[xv]] Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’, pp. 276-281.

[[xvi]] Hofmann, T. M. (1982). ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard (by 1512-44), of London Stepney, Mdx. and Hinchingbroke, Hunts.’ S. T. Bindoff, (ed.) The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558. British History Online. Retrieved May 14, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/cromwell-richard-1512-44

[[xvii]] Ibid., Charles, N., and Camden, W. (1849). The visitation of the county of Huntingdon, under the authority of William Camden, Clarenceux king of arms, by his deputy, Nicholas Charles, Lancaster herald, A.D. MDCXIII. H. Ellis, (ed.) London: Printed for the Camden Society, pp. 79-80, where Frances Murfyn’s father is named Thomas then John, and given a knighthood. From her father’s will we find that Frances was the daughter of Thomas Murfyn and his second wife, Elizabeth Donne, who married in 1519. See Drake, W. R. (1873). Fasciculus Mervinensis, being notes historical, genealogical, and heraldic of the family of Mervyn. London, appendix i, pp. vi-viii. For Thomas Murfyn’s ‘erroneous’ knighthood, see Beaven, A. B. (1908). The aldermen of the city of London, temp. Henry III.-1908. London: The Corporation of the city of London. vol. 1, p. 35, and ibid., vol. 2, p. 22, n. 30.

[[xviii]] Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’ CPR: Philip and Mary. vol. 4, p. 469.

[[xix]] MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life. London: Allen Lane. p. 38.

[[xxi]] Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’.

[[xxii]] Leithead, H. (2004-09-23). ‘Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540)’, ODNB.

[[xxiii]] Sir Richard was a recipient of gifts of clothing from the King a week before his uncle’s execution. See LP xv, 900: ‘The articles given are gowns and jackets of various materials and colours.’

[[xxiv]] In June, 1542, Sir Richard Cromwell alias Williams and Frances, his wife, granted the manors of Great Raveley and Moynes to John Sewster. See Turner, G. J. (ed.). (1913). A calendar of the feet of fines relating to the county of Huntingdon, levied in the King’s Court from the fifth year of Richard I. to the end of the reign of Elizabeth, 1194-1603. Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Octavo publications, 37, pp. 131-2 see also ‘Parishes: Great Raveley’. (1932). In W. Page, G. Proby, & S. I. Ladds (eds), A history of the county of Huntingdon. vol. 2, pp. 198-201, fn. 52. British History Online. Retrieved Mar. 12, 2015, from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/hunts/vol2/pp198-201 Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’.

[[xxv]] Brown, W. (ed.). (2013). Yorkshire deeds. Cambridge University Press. vol. 2, pp. 162-3 Davids, R. L. (1982). ‘Seymour, Sir John (1473/74-1536), of Wolf Hall, Wilts.’. In S. T. Bindoff (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/seymour-sir-john-147374-1536 Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell: two portrait miniatures by Hans Holbein the Younger’. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 67(3), pp. 587-601. Sir John Seymour fathered ten children, six of whom survived: Edward, Henry, Thomas, Jane, Elizabeth, and Dorothy. Elizabeth was probably married in 1530, and aged fifteen or sixteen when her son, Henry Ughtred was born in 1533/4. Her younger sister, Dorothy Seymour (c.1519-c.1553), married Sir Clement Smith (c.1515-1552) in the early 1530s. Their eldest son and heir, John Smith, was born c. 1534 and died at the end of August 1607, aged seventy-three. See Gause, A. (2008, January 03). ‘Smythe [Smith], Sir John (1533/4–1607)’, ODNB.

[[i]] Elizabeth’s father-in-law spared no expense in providing for her comfort while she awaited the birth of his first grandchild. See LP xiv / ii, 782 (p. 335): ‘lady Owtred, by Mr. Richard, for things “she needed at her lying down”, 44l. 15s.’.

[[ii]] I am most grateful to Diarmaid MacCulloch for the dating and probable location of the baptism. See MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life. London: Allen Lane, pp. 440-1. For a payment in Cromwell’s accounts for 1 March to ‘Mr. Richard’s nurse and midwife, by Mr. Gregory, at the christening’, see LP xiv / ii, 782 (p. 334). For Cromwell’s location, see Merriman, R. B. (1902), Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell, ii, pp. 122-5 (LP xiii / i, 387). For Princess Mary, see Madden, F. (1831). Privy purse expenses of the Princess Mary, daughter of King Henry the Eighth, afterwards Queen Mary. London: William Pickering, pp. 66-7, 69.

[[iii]] Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601.

[[iv]] Wilson, D. (2006). Hans Holbein: portrait of an unknown man (revised edn). London: Pimlico, pp. 250-1.

[[v]] LP xiii / i, 549 Ellis, H. (ed.). (1846). Original letters, illustrative of English history … (third series). vol. 3, pp. 192-4. See also Cooper, C. (2006). A village in Sussex: the history of Kingston-near-Lewes. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 134-5.

[[vi]] LP xiv / ii, 12 LP xiv / ii, 664 For the Queen’s household, see: LP xv, 21.

[[i]] For a detailed discussion of Cromwell’s arms, see MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life, pp. 427-8, plates 8 and 9.

[[ii]] Hawkins, E., Franks, A., & Grueber, H. (1885). Medallic illustrations of the history of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II. London: British Museum. vol. 1, pp. 39-41 British Museum, M.6792.

[[iii]] ‘Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (c. 1485-1540), half-length, in a black coat with fur trim, his coats-of-arms upper-left’, English School, circa late-1530s. Sold at Christie’s ‘Old Master and British Pictures’ (Day Sale), 6 July 2007, lot 112. Two copies of the Great Bible survive, one at St John’s College, Cambridge, and another at the National Library of Wales. See Carley, J. P. (2004). The books of King Henry VIII and his wives. London: The British Library, p. 88 and pl. 81.

[[i]] Chamberlain, Hans Holbein the Younger. vol. 1, p. 255: In a letter of introduction written for Holbein by Erasmus to his friend Petrus Ægidius (Pieter Gilles) in Antwerp, ‘The arts are freezing in this part of the world, and he is on his way to England to pick up some angels there (petit Angliam ut corrodat aliquot Angelatos).’ The angel was an English gold coin patterned after the French angelot or ange. The name derived from its representation of the archangel Michael slaying a dragon.

[[i]] Varner, G. R. (2006). Strangely wrought creatures of Life and death. Lulu.com, pp. 57-8: ‘Vines represent fertility, the Tree of Life and life itself.’

[[ii]] Wood, M. A. E. (ed.). (1846). Letters of royal and illustrious ladies of Great Britain. London: Henry Colburn. vol. 3, pp. 159-60.

[[iii]] LP xvi, 1489 Complete Peerage, iii, p. 557 (LP xvi, 379-34).

[[iv]] Complete Peerage, xii / ii, pp. 761, 763.

[[v]] Complete Peerage, vi, pp. 505-6.

[[vi]] Complete Peerage, xii / ii, p. 764, where her date of death is [incorrectly] given as 1563. In fact, she was still living in 1564. See CPR: Elizabeth. vol. 3, p. 141. For her death and burial in 1568, see College of Arms (1829). Catalogue of the Arundel Manuscripts in the Library of the College of Arms. [London: S. and R. Bentley], p. 63 see also CPR: Elizabeth. vol. 4, p. 184.

[[vii]] Complete Peerage, xii / ii, pp. 762, 764.

[[viii]] Complete Peerage, iii, pp. 558-9.

[[i]] Copinger, W. A. (1908). The Manors of Suffolk: notes on their history and devolution. Manchester: Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co. vol. 2, pp. 309-10.

[[ii]] Thomas Cholmondeley’s uncle, Robert Cholmondeley, married her mother’s sister, Catherine Stanhope. See Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine. vol. 2, p. 157.

[[iii]] Copinger, W. A. The Manors of Suffolk. vol. 2, p. 308 Rutton, W. L. (1891). Three branches of the family of Wentworth. I. Wentworth of Nettlestead, Suffolk II. Wentworth of Gosfield, Essex III. Wentworth of Lillingstone Lovell, Oxfordshire. London: [Mitchell and Hughes], pp. 138-9 Wentworth, J. (1878). The Wentworth genealogy, English and American. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. vol. 1, pp. 39-40.

[[iv]] Hampson, G., & Henning, B. D. (1983). ‘Cholmondeley, Thomas (1627-1702), of Vale Royal, Cheshire’. In B. D. Henning (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1660-1690. British History Online. Retrieved June 02, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1660-1690/member/cholmondeley-thomas-1627-1702 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine. vol. 2, pp. 157-8 see also Thornton, T. (2006). Prophesy, politics and the people in early modern England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, pp. 116, 128-9, n. 137.

[[v]] Journal of the Architectural, Archæological, and Historic Society, for the County, City, and Neighbourhood of Chester. vol. 1 (Jun. 1849-Dec. 1855), pp. 385-6.

[[i]] Dugdale, J. (1819). The new British traveller, or, modern panorama of England and Wales. London: J. Robins and Co. vol. 1, pp. 321-2 The Gentleman’s Magazine, (April 1794), 64(6), p. 328 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882). The history of the County Palatine. vol. 1, p. 374.

[[ii]] Ibid., pp. 375-6, and ibid. vol. 2, pp. 157-8.

[[iii]] Thornton, T. (2006). Prophesy, politics and the people in early modern England, pp. 116, n. 79, 128-9 n. 137.

[[iv]] Barrow, J. S., & Herson, J. D., et al. (2005). ‘Manors and estates in and near the city’. In A. T. Thacker, & C. P. Lewis (eds), A history of the county of Chester, 5(2): the City of Chester: culture, buildings, institutions. London: Victoria County History, pp. 322-330 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine. vol. 1, pp. 374-6.

[[v]] Gaydon, A. T. (ed.). (1968). A history of Shropshire. vol. 8. Published for the Institute of Historical Research by the Oxford University Press, pp. 38-9 Leach, F., (ed.). (1891). The county seats of Shropshire. Shrewsbury: Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal Office, pp. 49-53.

[[i]] Thoreau, H. D. (2014). The writings of Henry David Thoreau. F. B. Sanborn, (ed.) (enlarged edn). vol. 6: Familiar letters. Createspace, p. 236, fn 102 Gaydon, A history of Shropshire. vol. 8, pp. 38-9.

[[ii]] Strong, R. (1995), The Tudor and Stuart monarchy. vol. 1, p. 81 Christie, Manson & Woods. (1897) Catalogue of the collection of pictures by old masters of the late Reginald Cholmondeley, Esq. removed from Condover Hall. London: Christie, Manson & Woods. Retrieved May 18, 2018, from https://archive.org/stream/reginald00chri#page/n3/mode/2up

[[iii]] Starkey, D. (2007), Lost faces, p. 74: ‘Dendochronological analysis proves conclusively that the panel used came from the mid sixteenth century.’ Strong, R. (1995), The Tudor and Stuart monarchy. vol. 1, p. 81.

[[iv]] LP xiii / i, p. 587 LP xiii / ii, 1182-18 LP xiii / ii, 1182-20 TNA, E 328/86 (LP xv, 611-5) SC, s.v. The Leveson Family, c.1299-1561 Wisker, R. (Autumn 1996). ‘The first Trentham Hall’. Staffordshire History, 24, pp. 6-14.

[[v]] Complete Baronetage, i, p. 147 Complete Peerage, vi, p. 95 Granville, R. (1895). The history of the Granville family. Exeter: William Pollard, p. 417.

[[i]] Ibid., pp. 417-8 Complete Peerage, iv, pp. 564-5.

[[ii]] Complete Peerage, xii / i, pp. 199-200.

[[iii]] Complete Peerage, xii / i, 563-4. Elizabeth Sutherland’s ancestor, John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland, married as his second wife, Catherine, widow of Lord Doune, eldest daughter of Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Bt. and Elizabeth Murray, suo jure Countess of Dysart. See ibid. pp. 559-60.

[[i]] Complete Peerage, iii, p. 558 ibid., xii / ii, pp. 762-3, 769.

[1] ‘Portrait of a Lady, probably a Member of the Cromwell Family’, Toledo Museum of Art, ref. no. 1926.570 ‘Portrait of a Lady, thought to be Catherine Howard’, Hans Holbein the Younger, follower of, 16th century, Hever Castle, Kent ‘Unknown woman, formerly known as Catherine Howard’, after Hans Holbein the Younger, late 17th century’, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG 1119 Strong, R. (1969). Tudor and Jacobean Portraits. 2: Plates. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office., plates 76-78 Rowlands, J. (1985). Holbein: the paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (complete edn). Oxford: Phaidon, p. 146, cat. 69, pl. 109.

[2] Nirdlinger, V. (1933, May). ‘Four paintings in the exhibition at Chicago’. Parnassus, 5(4), 8-11 at p. 9.

[3] British Museum number SL,5308.25. Medallion of Lot with his family, guided by an angel, fleeing from Sodom, one of ten designs for medallions, from the ‘Jewellery Book’.

[4] Ba?tschmann, O., and Griener, P. (2014). Hans Holbein (second edn). London: Reaktion Books, pp. 245-6, fig. 244.

[5] Chamberlain, A. B. (1913). Hans Holbein the Younger. London: George Allen, 2, pp. 195-6 see also Ganz, P. (1956). The paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger (enlarged edn). London: Phaidon, p. 254, cat. 118, pl. 157.

[6] Royal Collection, ‘Portrait of a Lady, perhaps Katherine Howard’, RCIN 422293 another version of the miniature, ‘Katherine Howard’, is in the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. The drawing is in the Royal Collection, ‘An unidentified woman’, RCIN 912218.

[7] The sitter was formerly thought, on no real evidence, to have been Queen Catherine Howard, see Cust, L. (1910, July). ‘A portrait of Queen Catherine Howard, by Hans Holbein the Younger’. The Burlington Magazine, 17(88), pp. 192-5, 199, and accepted as such until the identification was questioned by Roy Strong, following the lead of C. K. Adams, see Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.). ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’. The Genealogists’ Magazine, 14(11), pp. 382-8 at pp. 386-7, who has very plausibly argued in favour of the sitter being a member of the Cromwell family. See Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’. The Burlington Magazine, 109(770), 276-281 at pp. 278, 281.

[8] The Toledo portrait appears in Waylen’s list of 1891 as Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII. See Waylen, J. (1891). The house of Cromwell and the story of Dunkirk: a genealogical history of the descendants of the Protector, with anecdotes and letters. London: Elliot Stock, p. 347.

[9] Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.), ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’, pp. 382-388 at p. 386.

[10] Strong, R. (1969). Tudor and Jacobean Portraits. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1, p. 43.

[11] Ibid. Starkey, D. (2007). Lost faces: identity and discovery in Tudor royal portraiture. B. Grosvenor, (ed.) London: Philip Mould Ltd., pp. 70-75, 109-124: The inventory is BL Stowe MS 599, ff. 55-68.

[12] Russell, G. (2017). Young and damned and fair: the life and tragedy of Catherine Howard at the court of Henry VIII. London: William Collins. ‘None of the girls who served alongside her was born before 1521’: see p. 18 and pp. 148, 386-7, 394 Wilkinson, J. (2016). Katherine Howard: the tragic story of Henry VIII’s fifth queen. London: John Murray, p. 61 Wilkinson, J. (2016, Dec. 15). ‘How old was Katherine Howard?’ Retrieved May 14, 2018, from http://dr-josephine-wilkinson.blogspot.com.au/2016/12/how-old-was-katherine-howard.html

[13] Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’, pp. 276-281 Adams, C. K. (1964, Sept.), ‘Portraiture problems and genealogy’, pp. 382-8 at pp. 386-7.

[14] Dolman, B. (2013). ‘Wishful thinking: reading the portraits of Henry VIII’s queens’. In T. Betteridge, & S. Lipscomb (Eds.). Henry VIII and the court: art, politics and performance, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 115-129 at pp. 124-6 Weir, A. (2016). The lost Tudor princess: a life of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox. London: Vintage, pp. 401: ‘the costume does seem rather lavish for the daughter of a knight and wife of a gentleman’.

[15] Strong, R. (1967). ‘Holbein in England – I and II’, pp. 276-281.

[16] Hofmann, T. M. (1982). ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard (by 1512-44), of London Stepney, Mdx. and Hinchingbroke, Hunts.’ S. T. Bindoff, (ed.) The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558. British History Online. Retrieved May 14, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/cromwell-richard-1512-44

[17] Ibid., Charles, N., and Camden, W. (1849). The visitation of the county of Huntingdon, under the authority of William Camden, Clarenceux king of arms, by his deputy, Nicholas Charles, Lancaster herald, A.D. MDCXIII. H. Ellis, (ed.) London: Printed for the Camden Society, pp. 79-80, where Frances Murfyn’s father is named Thomas then John, and given a knighthood. From her father’s will we find that Frances was the daughter of Thomas Murfyn and his second wife, Elizabeth Donne, who married in 1519. See Drake, W. R. (1873). Fasciculus Mervinensis, being notes historical, genealogical, and heraldic of the family of Mervyn. London, appendix i, pp. vi-viii. For Thomas Murfyn’s ‘erroneous’ knighthood, see Beaven, A. B. (1908). The aldermen of the city of London, temp. Henry III.-1908. London: The Corporation of the city of London, i, p. 35, and ibid., ii, p. 22, n. 30.

[18] Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’.

[19] MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life. London: Allen Lane. p. 38.

[21] Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’.

[22] Leithead, H. (2004-09-23). ‘Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex (b. in or before 1485, d. 1540)’, ODNB.

[23] Sir Richard was a recipient of gifts of clothing from the King a week before his uncle’s execution. See LP xv, 900: ‘The articles given are gowns and jackets of various materials and colours.’

[24] In June, 1542, Sir Richard Cromwell alias Williams and Frances, his wife, granted the manors of Great Raveley and Moynes to John Sewster. See Turner, G. J. (ed.). (1913). A calendar of the feet of fines relating to the county of Huntingdon, levied in the King’s Court from the fifth year of Richard I. to the end of the reign of Elizabeth, 1194-1603. Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Octavo publications, 37, pp. 131-2 see also ‘Parishes: Great Raveley’. (1932). In W. Page, G. Proby, & S. I. Ladds (eds), A history of the county of Huntingdon, 2, pp. 198-201, fn. 52. British History Online. Retrieved Mar. 12, 2015, from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/hunts/vol2/pp198-201 Hofmann, T. M. (1982), ‘Cromwell, alias Williams, Richard’.

[25] Brown, W. (ed.). (2013). Yorkshire deeds. Cambridge University Press, 2, pp. 162-3 Davids, R. L. (1982). ‘Seymour, Sir John (1473/74-1536), of Wolf Hall, Wilts.’. In S. T. Bindoff (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/seymour-sir-john-147374-1536 Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell: two portrait miniatures by Hans Holbein the Younger’. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 67(3), pp. 587-601. Sir John Seymour fathered ten children, six of whom survived: Edward, Henry, Thomas, Jane, Elizabeth, and Dorothy. Elizabeth was probably married in 1530, and aged fifteen or sixteen when her son, Henry Ughtred was born in 1533/4. Her younger sister, Dorothy Seymour (c.1519-c.1553), married Sir Clement Smith (c.1515-1552) in the early 1530s. Their eldest son and heir, John Smith, was born c. 1534 and died at the end of August 1607, aged seventy-three. See Gause, A. (2008, January 03). ‘Smythe [Smith], Sir John (1533/4–1607)’, ODNB.

[26] Brown, W. (ed.). (2013). Yorkshire deeds, 2, pp. 162-3 ‘Yorkshire Fines: 1511-15’. In F. Collins (ed.). (1887). Feet of Fines of the Tudor Period [Yorks].1: 1486-1571, pp. 24-30. Leeds: Yorkshire Archeological Society. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from http://www.british-history.ac.uk/feet-of-fines-yorks/vol1/pp24-30 MacMahon, L. (2004-09-23). ‘Ughtred, Sir Anthony (d. 1534)’, ODNB.

[27] Ibid. In January 1532, perhaps to aid in securing the governorship of Jersey for her husband, Lady Ughtred presented the King with a New Year’s gift: ‘a fine shirt with a high collar’. See LP v, 686.

[28] For Henry Ughtred, who was one year old at the time of his father’s death on 6 October 1534, see Syvret, G. S., & de Carteret, S. (1832). Chroniques des Iles de Jersey, Guernesey, Auregny et Serk. Guernsey: T. J. Mauger, pp. 60-61 see also Fuidge, N. M. (1981). ‘Ughtred, Henry (by 1534-aft. Oct. 1598), of Southampton and Ireland’. In P. W. Hasler (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603. British History Online. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/ughtred-henry-1534-1598. For Margery Ughtred, see Flower, W. (1881). The Visitation of Yorkshire in the years 1563 and 1564, made by William Flower, Esquire, Norroy King of Arms. (Harleian Society xvi). C. B. Norcliffe, (ed.) London: [Harleian Society], p. 166.

[29] Thornton, T. (2012). The Channel Islands, 1370-1640: between England and Normandy. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, p. 71 Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601 at p. 593.

[30] Merriman, R. B. (1902). Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell. Oxford: Clarendon Press, i, p. 58 LP vi / 1182 and 1183.

[31] For Gregory Cromwell, see Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601. Jane Cromwell (d. 1580) married William Hough of Leighton, Cheshire by 1550/1. For Jane and William Hough, see ibid., p. 591. The couple’s daughter and sole heir, Alice was 34 at the time of her father’s death in 1585. See Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882). The history of the County Palatine and city of Chester … (second edn). London: George Routledge and Sons, ii. p. 552.

[32] LP xiv / ii, 782, p. 330: ‘Mr Gregory, by Mr Richard [Cromwell], “the same day he was married at Mortelacke” 50l.’.

[33] Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601 at pp. 593-4.

[34] Elizabeth’s father-in-law spared no expense in providing for her comfort while she awaited the birth of his first grandchild. See LP xiv / ii, 782 (p. 335): ‘lady Owtred, by Mr. Richard, for things “she needed at her lying down”, 44l. 15s.’.

[35] I am most grateful to Diarmaid MacCulloch for the dating and probable location of the baptism. See MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life. London: Allen Lane, pp. 440-1. For a payment in Cromwell’s accounts for 1 March to ‘Mr. Richard’s nurse and midwife, by Mr. Gregory, at the christening’, see LP xiv / no. 2, 782 (p. 334). For Cromwell’s location, see Merriman, R. B. (1902), Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell, ii, pp. 122-5 (LP xiii / i, 387). For Princess Mary, see Madden, F. (1831). Privy purse expenses of the Princess Mary, daughter of King Henry the Eighth, afterwards Queen Mary. London: William Pickering, pp. 66-7, 69.

[36] Fitzgerald, T., & MacCulloch, D. (2016). ‘Gregory Cromwell’, pp. 587-601.

[37] Wilson, D. (2006). Hans Holbein: portrait of an unknown man (revised edn). London: Pimlico, pp. 250-1.

[38] LP xiii / i, 549 Ellis, H. (ed.). (1846). Original letters, illustrative of English history … (third series), iii, pp. 192-4. See also Cooper, C. (2006). A village in Sussex: the history of Kingston-near-Lewes. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 134-5.

[39] LP xiv / ii, 12 LP xiv / ii, 664 For the Queen’s household, see: LP xv, 21.

[40] Burke, B. (1884). The general armory of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. London: Harrison, p. 914 Boutell, C. (1863). A manual of heraldry, historical and popular. London: Winsor and Newton, p. 243.

[41] For a detailed discussion of Cromwell’s arms, see MacCulloch, D. (2018). Thomas Cromwell: a life, pp. 427-8, plates 8 and 9.

[42] Hawkins, E., Franks, A., & Grueber, H. (1885). Medallic illustrations of the history of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II. London: British Museum, i, pp. 39-41 British Museum, M.6792.

[43] ‘Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (c. 1485-1540), half-length, in a black coat with fur trim, his coats-of-arms upper-left’, English School, circa late-1530s. Sold at Christie’s ‘Old Master and British Pictures’ (Day Sale), 6 July 2007, lot 112. Two copies of the Great Bible survive, one at St John’s College, Cambridge, and another at the National Library of Wales. See Carley, J. P. (2004). The books of King Henry VIII and his wives. London: The British Library, p. 88 and pl. 81.

[44] Merriman, R. B. (1902), Life and letters of Thomas Cromwell, ii, p. 284 College of Arms, MS 2 G.4, f.35v.

[45] Chamberlain, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1, p. 255: In a letter of introduction written for Holbein by Erasmus to his friend Petrus Ægidius (Pieter Gilles) in Antwerp, ‘The arts are freezing in this part of the world, and he is on his way to England to pick up some angels there (petit Angliam ut corrodat aliquot Angelatos).’ The angel was an English gold coin patterned after the French angelot or ange. The name derived from its representation of the archangel Michael slaying a dragon.

[46] Varner, G. R. (2006). Strangely wrought creatures of Life and death. Lulu.com, pp. 57-8: ‘Vines represent fertility, the Tree of Life and life itself.’

[47] Wood, M. A. E. (ed.). (1846). Letters of royal and illustrious ladies of Great Britain. London: Henry Colburn, iii, pp. 159-60.

[48] LP xvi, 1489 Complete Peerage, iii, p. 557 (LP xvi, 379-34).

[49] Complete Peerage, xii / ii, pp. 761, 763.

[50] Complete Peerage, vi, pp. 505-6.

[51] Complete Peerage, xii / ii, p. 764, where her date of death is [incorrectly] given as 1563. In fact, she was still living in 1564. See CPR: Elizabeth, 3, p. 141. For her death and burial in 1568, see College of Arms (1829). Catalogue of the Arundel Manuscripts in the Library of the College of Arms. [London: S. and R. Bentley], p. 63 see also CPR: Elizabeth, 4, p. 184.

[52] Complete Peerage, xii / ii, pp. 762, 764.

[53] Complete Peerage, iii, pp. 558-9.

[54] Copinger, W. A. (1908). The Manors of Suffolk: notes on their history and devolution. Manchester: Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co., 2, pp. 309-10.

[55] Thomas Cholmondeley’s uncle, Robert Cholmondeley, married her mother’s sister, Catherine Stanhope. See Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, ii, p. 157.

[56] Copinger, W. A. The Manors of Suffolk, 2, p. 308 Rutton, W. L. (1891). Three branches of the family of Wentworth. I. Wentworth of Nettlestead, Suffolk II. Wentworth of Gosfield, Essex III. Wentworth of Lillingstone Lovell, Oxfordshire. London: [Mitchell and Hughes], pp. 138-9 Wentworth, J. (1878). The Wentworth genealogy, English and American. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, i, pp. 39-40.

[57] Hampson, G., & Henning, B. D. (1983). ‘Cholmondeley, Thomas (1627-1702), of Vale Royal, Cheshire’. In B. D. Henning (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1660-1690. British History Online. Retrieved June 02, 2018, from http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1660-1690/member/cholmondeley-thomas-1627-1702 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, ii, pp. 157-8 see also Thornton, T. (2006). Prophesy, politics and the people in early modern England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, pp. 116, 128-9, n. 137.

[58] Journal of the Architectural, Archæological, and Historic Society, for the County, City, and Neighbourhood of Chester, i (Jun. 1849-Dec. 1855), pp. 385-6.

[59] Dugdale, J. (1819). The new British traveller, or, modern panorama of England and Wales. London: J. Robins and Co., i, pp. 321-2 The Gentleman’s Magazine, (April 1794), 64(6), p. 328 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882). The history of the County Palatine, i, p. 374.

[60] Ibid, pp. 375-6, and ibid, ii, pp. 157-8.

[61] Thornton, T. (2006). Prophesy, politics and the people in early modern England, pp. 116, n. 79, 128-9 n. 137.

[62] Barrow, J. S., & Herson, J. D., et al. (2005). ‘Manors and estates in and near the city’. In A. T. Thacker, & C. P. Lewis (eds), A history of the county of Chester, 5(2): the City of Chester: culture, buildings, institutions. London: Victoria County History, pp. 322-330 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, i, pp. 374-6.

[63] Gaydon, A. T. (ed.). (1968). A history of Shropshire,8. Published for the Institute of Historical Research by the Oxford University Press, pp. 38-9 Leach, F., (ed.). (1891). The county seats of Shropshire. Shrewsbury: Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal Office, pp. 49-53.

[64] Thoreau, H. D. (2014). The writings of Henry David Thoreau. F. B. Sanborn, (ed.) (enlarged edn), VI: Familiar letters. Createspace, p. 236, fn 102 Gaydon, A history of Shropshire, 8, pp. 38-9.

[65] Strong, R. (1995), The Tudor and Stuart monarchy, 1, p. 81 Christie, Manson & Woods. (1897) Catalogue of the collection of pictures by old masters of the late Reginald Cholmondeley, Esq. removed from Condover Hall. London: Christie, Manson & Woods. Retrieved May 18, 2018, from https://archive.org/stream/reginald00chri#page/n3/mode/2up

[66] Starkey, D. (2007), Lost faces, p. 74: ‘Dendochronological analysis proves conclusively that the panel used came from the mid sixteenth century.’ Strong, R. (1995), The Tudor and Stuart monarchy, 1, p. 81.

[67] LP xiii / i, p. 587 LP xiii / ii, 1182-18 LP xiii / ii, 1182-20 TNA, E 328/86 (LP xv, 611-5) SC, s.v. Wisker, R. (Autumn 1996). ‘The first Trentham Hall’. Staffordshire History, 24, pp. 6-14.

[68] Complete Baronetage, i, p. 147 Complete Peerage, vi, p. 95 Granville, R. (1895). The history of the Granville family. Exeter: William Pollard, p. 417.

[69] Ibid., pp. 417-8 Complete Peerage, iv, pp. 564-5.

[70] Complete Peerage, xii / i, pp. 199-200.

[71] Complete Peerage, xii / i, 563-4. Elizabeth Sutherland’s ancestor, John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland, married as his second wife, Catherine, widow of Lord Doune, eldest daughter of Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Bt. and Elizabeth Murray, suo jure Countess of Dysart. See ibid. pp. 559-60.

[72] Complete Peerage, iii, p. 558 ibid, xii / ii, pp. 762-3, 769.

[73] Ibid., pp. 767-8 Burke, J., & Burke, J. B. (1844). A genealogical and heraldic history of the extinct and dormant baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland (second edn). London: John Russell Smith, p. 470 Boothman, L., Parker, R. H., & Dymond, D. (eds). (2006). Savage fortune: an aristocratic family in the early seventeenth century. (Suffolk Record Society, XLIX). Woodbridge: Boydell Press, pp. xxxv-xxxvii, 188-9 Ormerod, G., & Helsby, T. (1882), A history of the County Palatine, ii, p. 552.


After Hundreds of Years, Unknown Woman in Tudor Portrait Identified as Mary Boleyn

A portrait of an anonymous woman in Tudor garb has adorned the walls of Great Britain’s most prominent royal residences for hundreds of years. Researchers had long thought that the sitter’s identity was lost to history, but now, a new discovery has enabled experts to put a name to the face: Mary Boleyn, older sister of Anne Boleyn, the ill-fated second wife of Henry VIII.

A team from the Jordaens Van Dyck Panel Paintings Project (JVDPPP) announced the find in a statement last month. The painting, previously known simply as Portrait of a Woman, is part of the United Kingdom’s Royal Collection and currently hangs in Mary, Queen of Scots’ bedchamber at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh.

“It’s been a voyage of discovery,” lead researcher and art historian Justin Davies tells the Telegraph’s Dalya Alberge. “The results were remarkable and unexpected.”

Mary’s portrait was one of a set of 14 “Beauties,” or specially commissioned portraits of royal women. Flemish painter Remigius van Leemput likely painted the series in the 1630s. Per the Telegraph, the artist may have copied Mary’s likeness from a now-lost painting by Hans Holbein the Younger, who painted some of the most famous depictions of the Tudor court during Henry VIII’s reign.

All 14 portraits hung together in Queen Anne’s bathing room at Windsor Castle some 300 years ago. But Mary’s portrait differs from its companions: The other 13 are depicted in 17th-century outfits she wears 16th-century clothing. That distinction led to confusion, the researchers say, leading her portrait to be separated from the others at some point in the 19th century.

The team used dendrochronology—a technique that dates wood’s age and origin based on its tree rings—to identify the woman in the portrait. As JVDPPP co-founder Justin Davies tells Sarah Morris, host of the “Tudor Travel Show” podcast, the analysis found that the panel painting’s wood came from a Baltic oak that started growing in the Middle Ages and was cut down between 1651 and 1671.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn (Public domain via Wikimedia Commons)

Wood from that same tree matched the panel of one of the other 13 paintings, a previously unidentified portrait of a woman. While conducting research at the London National Portrait Gallery’s Heinz Library and Archive, Davies found inscriptions that identified the pair of portraits as Mary and Margaret Smith, later Lady Herbert, wife of Mary’s great-grandson.

All evidence considered, “the balance of probability is that this is indeed a painting of Mary Boleyn,” says Davies to Morris.

Still, he adds, “One can never be 100 percent sure in art history, because we’re unable to stand at the shoulder of the painter when he’s doing it.”

Desmond Shawe-Taylor, surveyor of the queen’s pictures, tells the Telegraph that properly grouping related paintings is key to understanding their history.

“When a stray is reunited with the family, there’s joy in heaven,” he says. “It disproportionately increases the value and understanding of the whole group”

As historian Alison Weir writes in Mary Boleyn: The Mistress of Kings, concrete details on the older Boleyn sister’s life are scarce.

Born in Norfolk around the turn of the 16th century, she married twice, first to courtier William Carey, who died in 1528, and later to commoner William Stafford. She was the mistress of two kings—Francis I of France and Henry VIII of England, who eventually married her younger sister—and may have even borne the Tudor king children.

According to Weir, this “tangled web of covert relationships has given rise to rumors and myths that have been embroidered over the centuries, and particularly in recent years, so that the truth about Mary has become obscured.”

Philippa Gregory’s popular 2001 novel The Other Boleyn Girl elevated Mary’s contemporary profile, writes Stuart Anderson for North Norfolk News. In 2008, Gregory’s book was made into a film starring Scarlett Johansson as Mary and Natalie Portman as Anne.


This picture of Anne Boleyn is by an English artist, possibly copied from a contemporary lost original and produced around 50 years after her death. The work is unsigned, as the English painter of the early Tudor period had little status. By Tudor reasoning, it was the patron who commissioned and paid for the portrait who was important, with the artist viewed simply as an employed craftsman. There was no English ‘school’ of art, and the English did not even use the word ‘painting’. An image on an oak panel such as this was referred to as a ‘table’.

Of the numerous émigré painters in London during the early Tudor period, it was the skill of the Netherlandish artists that was most sought after and praised, although Holbein’s arrival in the city from Germany in 1526 and again in 1531 did much to raise the status of the artist in England.

Anne Boleyn was Holbein’s first royal patron. He designed an arch for her coronation and in 1534, a rose water table fountain for her to present to Henry. The historian Eric Ives describes it as, ‘a pumped device which circulated rosewater into a basin so that diners could rinse their hands’. After Anne’s death, it was ironically Holbein who painted the portrait of her successor, Henry’s third queen, Jane Seymour.

Before 1540, all portraits in England were painted on wooden panels, with canvas not becoming common for at least another 50 years. The oak panels on which both Anne and Jane are painted were imported into London from the Eastern Baltic, the area today around Poland. They were preferred by artists for their superior quality and smooth, even texture. Dendrochronology (the dating of a panel by tree rings) indicates that the panels on which Anne is painted came from trees felled after 1584, confirming the attributed date of the picture as the late 16th century. Jane was painted from life by Holbein in 1536/7.

More than half a century after her death, Anne’s true image would no doubt have been forgotten, but infra-red reflectography ( a method of ‘seeing through’ paint layers normally impenetrable to the human eye) confirms that her details were taken from a pattern, perhaps that of a lost contemporary portrait. Under-drawing can be seen through the thinly applied painting of the flesh, revealing that her face has been slimmed and her left shoulder lowered. Her famous necklace of pearls and the gold chain with its ‘B’ for Boleyn monogram was re-positioned before the picture was completed, but the jewellery was accurately reproduced. It is likely Anne’s eyes were painted first and coloured with a brown glaze to heavily define them. The artist is probably referring to contemporary accounts of Anne’s appearance that makes special note of her ‘black and beautiful eyes.’

Anne Boleyn was controversially found guilty on charges of treason and adultery in May 1536. She was imprisoned at the Tower of London in the same royal apartment where three years earlier she had awaited her coronation. Her execution date was set for the 18 May. In the early dawn of the fateful day, Anne made her last confession, celebrated Mass, and prepared herself for the walk to the scaffold. However, news arrived that her beheading had been postponed to the following day and she was returned to her chambers for another night of torment.

The next morning, dressed in grey damask trimmed with ermine, she was led to the scaffold. Ermine denoted her royal status, and beneath the grey damask could be glimpsed a kirtle of red, the colour of martyrdom. The gates of the Tower had been left open and spectators gathered around the black draped scaffold to await her brutal demise. She is said to have remarked to her ladies-in-waiting that, ‘I heard the executioner was good and I have a little neck’.

Henry had shown Anne ‘leniency’ by employing a swordsman from Calais instead of condemning her to a painful death by burning, or of submitting her to the numerous misguided blows of an axe that could and often did, precede the removal of a head. The executioner readied a honed sword of Flemish steel, 2 or 3ft long with a 2” double edged blade that had a groove channelled into it, allowing the blood to run off without blunting the instrument.

Kneeling upright on the scaffold, her eyes blindfolded with a cloth of linen, Anne’s head was severed from her body with one skilled blow. It was immediately covered with a white handkerchief and lay there for hours as no-one had prepared for her burial. Eventually, her body was placed in a makeshift empty chest and taken to the Chapel Royal at St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower.

As the canons fired to signal Anne’s death, so Henry was rowed to Chelsea to visit Jane Seymour. His intention to wed Jane was announced to his Council that same day, and the following morning, the couple were formally betrothed at Hampton Court Palace. The official marriage ceremony took place on 30 May at Whitehall Palace, the largest palace in Europe that stretched over 23 acres from Charing Cross to Westminster Hall.

This contemporary portrait of Jane Seymour is by Hans Holbein, painted towards the end of her life. She is wearing a red velvet gown with sleeves of cloth of gold, and an English style gabled headdress in preference to a French headdress that would reveal some of her hair. As lady in waiting to both Katherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn, Jane was well informed on the intricacies and scandals of the Tudor Court before she became Henry’s third queen.

Celebrated for his frank and revealing sketches, (which can be viewed today in the Royal Collection), Holbein has not flattered his sitter. His portraits of Jane reveal a rather long narrow nose, a pointed chin, a small, thin lipped mouth, with pale eyelashes and eyebrows. The Imperial Ambassador described Jane as, ‘no great beauty’, leaving him to surmise that her talents must lie in the more private areas of the king’s life.

Jane succeeded where Henry’s other queens had failed, and on 12 October 1537, at Hampton Court Palace she gave birth to a healthy boy. She appeared to recover quickly from the birth and sent out personally signed letters announcing the birth of, ‘a Prince, conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord the King’s Majesty and us’. However, on 23 October, Jane fell ill from presumed postnatal complications and died at around midnight the following night. She was 28 years old.

Henry was devastated and appeared genuinely grief stricken. In years to come he would remember her as, ‘the fairest, the most discreet and the most meritorious of all his wives’. She is the queen he chose to be buried alongside at St George’s Chapel, Windsor. For the more sceptical, she is also the only wife to present him with the longed-for son, and then to die and leave him before he fell out of love with her.

Consider these two portraits of Henry’s queens. We see the slender neck and the black eyes of Anne Boleyn, and the plain, pale countenance of Jane Seymour. The artists have given us the images we have come to expect, but looking more deeply into their eyes, we can only wonder at how much or how little they were in control of their own destiny, and pity them the fear they must both have experienced 485 years ago in 1536 when by different means, they met the same end.

Henry took another three wives and lived on for 11 years until January 1547, when he joined Jane Seymour, perhaps, ‘the only wife he ever loved’, in the vault of St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle.


Luckily, our president, Michael D. Higgins, has now repealed that 1533 law and we can say what we like, including, perhaps, ‘What a shame that she didn’t marry James Butler that she didn’t come over to Ireland give birth to his seven sons and lead a happy life turning Kilkenny Castle into a Renaissance palace.

I wonder, sometimes, whether that thought might have crossed Anne’s mind when she stood on the scaffold on that May morning in 1536. As she beseeched Jesus to save her ‘Sovereign and master the King, the most goodliest, and gentlest Prince that is, and long to reign over you,’ did she think at all of that broad-shouldered, handsome, young James Butler who had been assigned to marry her fourteen years earlier.

It was probably Cardinal Wolsey who planned the match, though some say it was Surrey, the future Duke of Norfolk. To me it bears the hallmark of Cardinal Wolsey’s diplomacy. It solved the problem of the Ormond inheritance very neatly, would keep the Butler faction in Ireland loyal to the throne and provide a counter balance to the mighty Earl of Kildare, who, as Henry VII found out, had ambitions to rule all of Ireland. Whoever the originator the idea was welcomed by the king and once Wolsey returned from Calais, he ordered Thomas Boleyn to summon his daughter back from France, in preparation for the wedding to James Butler, son of Piers Rua Butler, claimant to the title of Earl of Ormond.

Piers Rua Butler, of course, was not the only claimant to the earldom of Ormond (always spelled without an e until the 17 th century). It was an Irish earldom, the word comes from two Irish words, Oir Mumhan, meaning east Munster – and was an extensive area, covering, I suppose, about a quarter of the arable land of Ireland. When Thomas Butler, 7 th Earl of Ormond and Lord Chamberlain to Queen Katherine of Aragon, died in 1515, he left no male heir, just two daughters, one of whom was the mother of Thomas Boleyn and the grandmother of Anne. Under English law, the estate was divided between the daughters, but under Irish clan law a woman could not inherit land and therefore the lands in Ireland were seized by the nearest male relative, Piers Rua Butler.

Law suit after law suit followed the two elderly ladies handed over their claims to their sons: Boleyn and St Leger. St Leger was, apparently, content with the lands in England, but Boleyn desperately wanted the Irish earldom, and six years later the solution was found. Marry the granddaughter of Lady Margaret Boleyn to the son and heir of Piers Rua Butler who would then be the ninth earl of Ormond. And so, in 1522 Anne returned to England to meet her future husband who was a page in the household of Cardinal Wolsey.

But what went wrong? Yes, there was a flirtation between Anne Boleyn and Harry Percy, also a page in the household of Cardinal Wolsey, and heir to the Earl of Northumberland, but that was soon quashed by the Cardinal and by the Earl, himself. Yes, Henry himself took an interest in Anne, but not in 1522. Certainly not then. The earliest date that modern historians put for the first moves by the king appear to be late 1525, in other words a good four years after the recall of Anne from France. What had been going on in the meantime? By this stage Anne was middle-aged by sixteenth-century standards.

Why hadn’t she married handsome young James Butler who later fathered seven sons?


Anne Boleyn

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Anne Boleyn, Boleyn also spelled Bullen, (born 1507?—died May 19, 1536, London, England), second wife of King Henry VIII of England and mother of Queen Elizabeth I. The events surrounding the annulment of Henry’s marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and his marriage to Anne led him to break with the Roman Catholic Church and brought about the English Reformation.

Who were Anne Boleyn’s parents?

Anne Boleyn was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn (who was later named earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde) and Elizabeth Boleyn (née Howard), the daughter of Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (later duke of Norfolk).

How did Anne Boleyn become famous?

Anne Boleyn joined the court of King Henry VIII of England, and he fell in love with her. In January 1533 he married Anne his marriage to Catherine of Aragon would not be annulled until five months later. Failure to produce a male heir led Henry to execute Anne on May 19, 1536.

How did Anne Boleyn change the world?

Anne Boleyn used her position at court to present herself as a solution to Henry's succession issues. Because Pope Clement VII refused to annul Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Henry broke with Rome and established the Church of England. Anne was the second of Henry's six wives and the mother of Elizabeth I.

How did Anne Boleyn die?

Anne failed to produce a male heir for Henry VIII, and he grew interested in Jane Seymour. Henry had Anne confined to the Tower of London on charges of adultery. She was beheaded on Tower Green on May 19, 1536. Henry and Jane were married less than two weeks later.

Anne’s father was Sir Thomas Boleyn, later earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde. After spending part of her childhood in France, she returned to England in 1522 and lived at Henry’s court and drew many admirers. A desired marriage with Lord Henry Percy was prevented on Henry’s order by Cardinal Wolsey, and at some undetermined point the king himself fell in love with her.

In 1527 Henry initiated secret proceedings to obtain an annulment from his wife, the aging Catherine of Aragon his ultimate aim was to father a legitimate male heir to the throne. For six years Pope Clement VII, under pressure from Henry’s rival Charles V, refused to grant the annulment, but all the while Henry’s passion for Anne was strengthening his determination to rid himself of his queen. About January 25, 1533, Henry and Anne were secretly married. The union was made public on Easter of that year, and on May 23 Henry had the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, pronounce the marriage to Catherine null and void. In September Anne gave birth to a daughter, the future queen Elizabeth I.

Anne’s arrogant behaviour soon made her unpopular at court. Although Henry lost interest in her and began liaisons with other women, the birth of a son might have saved the marriage. Anne had a miscarriage in 1534, and in January 1536 she gave birth to a stillborn male child. On May 2, 1536, Henry had her committed to the Tower of London on a charge of adultery with various men and even incest with her own brother. She was tried by a court of peers, unanimously convicted, and beheaded on May 19. On May 30 Henry married Jane Seymour. That Anne was guilty as charged is unlikely she was the apparent victim of a temporary court faction supported by Thomas Cromwell.


Watch the video: Henry VIII Portrait by Hans Holbein