Howard, John Eager - History

Howard, John Eager - History


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Howard, John Eager (1752-1827) Soldier, Governor of Maryland: Howard grew up in a wealthy home, and was well-educated by tutors. He joined the Continental Army at the beginning of the Revolutionary War, commanding a company of the flying camp under Gen. Hugh Mercer at the Battle of White Plains in 1776. When his corps was disbanded in December of that year, Howard was commissioned a major in the 4th Maryland regiment of the line, and saw action at Germantown and Monmouth. On 1780, as lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Maryland regiment, he fought at Camden under Gen. Horatio Gates, and later joined the army under Gen. Nathanael Greene. He was hailed for his gallantry at the Battle of Cowpens in 1781, and the bayonet-charge under his command secured the American victory. At one point during the battle, he held the swords of seven British officers who had surrendered to him. In honor of his service at the Battle of Cowpens, he received a Congressional medal. Howard significantly aided Gen. Greene in effecting his retreat at Guilford Courthouse and at the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill in 1781. Howard succeeded to the command of the 2nd Maryland regiment. At Eutaw Springs, where his command was reduced to thirty men, and he was its only surviving officer, he made a final charge, and was severely wounded. He served as Governor of Maryland from 1789 to 1792, and was a senator from 1796 to 1803. After serving in the War of 1812, he ran for vice-president, but did not win the election. In 1824, he entertained the Marquis de la Fayette at Belvidere, Howard's home.


Researching Food History - Cooking and Dining

The wealthy and socially prominent Jane Gilmor Howard, as Mrs. B. C. Howard, wrote the immensely popular 1873 fundraising cookbook. One of the recipes, “Belvidere Rice Pudding” was named for Belvidere, the large 18 th century 'seat’ of the Howards, where she lived.

Jane Grant Gilmor (1801-1890) married Benjamin Chew Howard (1791-1872) in 1818. She give birth to twelve children, published the cookbook at age 72 (a year after her husband died), and lived to be 89 years old. At 65 Jane Howard was president of the Ladies' Southern Relief Association of Maryland which gathered and dispersed over $164,000 ($2.3 million today) collected at their fair in April 1866. [Report, 1866 ] More HERE

They were both from wealthy Baltimore families. Benjamin was one of six sons and two daughters born to Col. John Eager Howard of Revolutionary War fame and his wife Margaret (Peggy) Chew, daughter of Pennsylvania Chief Justice Benjamin Chew of Cliveden in Philadelphia and courted by the British Major John Andre.


Gov. John Eager Howard

JOHN EAGER HOWARD was born at “Belvedere” in Baltimore County, Maryland on June 4, 1752. His education was attained through private tutors. During the Revolutionary War, he joined the Continental Army, serving as captain of the 2 nd Maryland Battalion, Flying Camp. He fought heroically in the battles of Germantown, Camden and Cowpens, for which he was awarded a silver medal by Congress, and earned the rank of major general by the time he was discharged in 1795. Howard entered politics in 1787, winning election to the Continental Congress. The Maryland legislature elected Howard governor on November 24, 1788. He was reelected in 1789 and again in 1790. During his tenure, the state ceded land to the national government for the establishment of the national capital. Also, the Bank of Maryland was chartered Allegany County was formed and provisions were framed for congressional elections, as well as for the selection of presidential electors. After completing his term, Howard left office on November 14, 1791. He stayed politically active, serving as President of the Maryland State Senate from 1791 to 1796. He also served as a member of the U.S. Senate from 1796 to 1803, and was an unsuccessful Federalist candidate for the vice presidency in 1816. Governor John Eager Howard passed away on October 12, 1827, and was buried in St. Paul’s Cemetery in Baltimore, Maryland.


Peggy Chew Howard

Margaret "Peggy" Oswald Chew was born on December 16, 1760 at Cliveden, the Chew family estate, in Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [1] Her parents were Elizabeth (née Oswald) and Benjamin Chew, Pennsylvania Attorney General and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. [1] She grew up in the high society of early 18th-century Philadelphia, and her siblings and her were treated by General George Washington as "if they were his own children". [1]

Chew was pursued by a number of suitors, including Major John André. He courted her by inviting her as his escort to The Mischianza, a fête on May 18, 1778 that he helped plan in honor of Sir William Howe. [1] [2] Also, in attendance at The Mischianza was her friend and the later wife of Benedict Arnold, Peggy Shippen. [2] André presented Peggy Chew with a souvenir manuscript of the evening and poetry upon his departure from Philadelphia. He was later found guilty of spying alongside Benedict Arnold and he was hung on October 2, 1780. [1] Peggy Shippen would use the letters sent by Peggy Chew to André to "interline" secret messages in invisible ink that could be read by André in British-occupied New York City. [3]

Chew then met John Eager Howard at her home during a battle of the Revolutionary War. He was wounded during the Battle of Eutaw Springs and sent letters via his physician, Dr. Craik, to woo her into engagement. [1] [4] In May 1787, she married John Eager Howard. [1] [4] George Washington took note of the ceremony and reception in his diary. [1]

Peggy would reminisce about André's courting of her to her husband, John Eager Howard, which would infuriate him. Later in life, he is quoted as saying "He was a damned spy, sir, nothing but a damned spy", in reference to his wife's former suitor. [4] [5]

Together, Peggy and John Eager Howard had 9 children: [1] [4]

  • John Eager Howard Jr. – served in the War of 1812 had a son, John Eager Howard III that led the Battle of Chapultepec during the Mexican–American War[4] – followed in his father's footsteps and became the 22nd Governor of Maryland. [1] – U.S. congressman and served in the War of 1812 [4] – physician designer of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad one of the first Americans to reach the peak of Mont Blanc[4]
  • Charles Howard – president of the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad
  • James Howard
  • Juliana Elizabeth
  • Sophia Catherine
  • Mary Anne

A hero of the Battle of Cowpens, John Eager Howard was selected to fill the position of Governor of Maryland from 1788 to 1791. During this time, they lived at the Jennings House in Annapolis. [1]

Her husband would then serve in the Maryland Senate and U.S. Senate. They retired to their home, the Belvedere, on Calvert Street in Baltimore in 1816. [1] [6] They would host a number of distinguished guests at the Belvedere, including George Washington, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Samuel Chase, Roger B. Taney, Marquis de Lafayette, and Generals Gist, Smallwood, and Williams. [4]

Peggy Howard died on May 29, 1824 at the age of 63. She was survived by her husband, who didn't die until October 12, 1827. [1]


John Eager HOWARD, Congress, MD (1752-1827)

HOWARD John Eager , a Delegate and a Senator from Maryland born at 'Belvedere,' near Baltimore, Md., June 4, 1752 was instructed by private tutors served throughout the Revolutionary War, beginning as a captain and holding the rank of colonel when peace was declared was voted a medal and the thanks of Congress for gallantry at the Battle of Cowpens 1781 Member of the Continental Congress 1788 Governor of Maryland 1789-1791 member, State senate 1791-1795 elected as a Federalist 1796 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Richard Potts reelected on December 9, 1796 and served from November 21, 1796, to March 3, 1803 served as President pro tempore of the Senate during the Sixth Congress offered the position of Secretary of War by President George Washington, but declined also declined a commission as brigadier general in the expected war with France in 1798 unsuccessful Federalist candidate for vice president in 1816 died at 'Belvedere,' near Baltimore, Md., October 12, 1827 interment in Old St. Paul's Cemetery, Baltimore, Md.


History

Baltimore’s Lexington Market is the oldest market in America. Founded in 1782 at the site where it stands today, Lexington has served Baltimore and surrounding communities for more than nine generations. It’s as old as America itself.

A New Market for America

General John Eager Howard, of Revolutionary War fame, donated a portion of his family pasture land to be used as a market. The land lay between what are now Eutaw and Greene Streets, stretching out to the present locations of Baltimore’s Washington Monument and General Howard statue. The site was originally known as the Western Precincts Market, but was soon renamed in memory of the Battle of Lexington, the first battle of the American Revolution.

The market exploded to life, with farmers showing up with goods and produce while the land was nothing but earth and grass. Countless trips to and from the site created roads worn into the land, by hundreds of horse-drawn Conestoga wagons hauling hams, butter, eggs, turkeys, and vegetables. Many farmers would spend all night packing and traveling to make it to Lexington Market by the ringing of the 2 AM opening bell. Wealthier merchants joined these growers, bartering with essentials like grain, hay, farm equipment, and live animals. In 1803, a large shed was built to give some shelter and structure to the growing marketplace.

“By the mid-nineteenth century, it was unquestionably the largest, most famous market on earth.”

“The Gastronomic Capital of the World”

Lexington Market grew by leaps and bounds, sprawling over Lexington Street another block to Greene Street. By the mid-nineteenth century, it was unquestionably the largest, most famous market on earth. During its years of growth, many of America’s most important figures experienced Lexington Market, the 2AM and Noon bells opening and closing the day, every Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday.

George Washington and Thomas Jefferson passed the vicinity as they rode horseback to and from their Virginia estates and Philadelphia, America’s then capital.

Statesman Daniel Webster visited the market in 1785, and Lexington was written about by artists like painter James McNeill and novelist William Thackeray. When Ralph Waldo Emerson visited the Market he proclaimed Baltimore the “Gastronomic capital of the world.”

Growing Market, Growing City

In 1817, Baltimore had grown to encompass the boundaries of Lexington Market, and the city took over its operation. Five years later, The Market was extolled by the visiting United States Attorney General William Wirt, who wrote excitedly to his daughter in Washington that: “You may conceive the vast quantity of provisions that must be brought to this market when you are told that 60,000 people draw their daily supplies from it, which is more than twice as many people as there are in Washington, Georgetown, Alexandria, and Richmond, all in one.”

Growth of Baltimore Town up and over Howard’s Hill made it the nation’s second largest city. Turnpikes linked it to Harrisburg and Richmond, with lines of wagon teams rumbling north and south to this bustling junction of bay, canal, and turnpike. Lexington Market was the hub. From Pennsylvania, Cumberland, and Virginia, countrymen traveled three and four days to hawk their butter, winter apples, handknit socks, yarn gloves, and hams.

From Civil War to 20th Century

After the Civil War, and through the turn of the 20th century, Lexington Market was a recognized social center for the most democratic traditions. Social leaders exchanged gossip about current news and produce prices. Street singers, musicians, fortune tellers, and evangelists competed with soap box economists for shoppers’ attention. Gourmet dining took place at oilcloth-covered tables amidst teeming aisles. As new tides of immigration swept into the city, Lexington Market acquired new blood, with new stall keepers offering exotic foods over their counters.

By 1925, there were over 1,000 stalls under 3 block-long sheds. There were just as many stands and carts outside, and traffic had become a problem. “Lexington Market must go,” declared an exasperated Mayor Preston in 1912, “whether the tenants desire it or not!” But Lexington Market refused to go, despite many attacks.

Though street stalls were banned by Mayor Jackson’s Traffic Committee in 1935. They not only survived but seemed to multiply with the publicity. In 1937, there was a movement to replace the old buildings with something new and modem, but the plans stayed on the drawing board until 1949. Then, what civic leaders seemed unable to do in a decade happened overnight. A six-alarm fire raged through the main buildings, destroying $2,000,000 worth of merchandise, and $500,000 in stalls and equipment.


John Eager Howard

John Eager Howard (June 4, 1752October 12, 1827) was an American soldier and politician from Maryland. He was elected as governor of the state in 1789, and served three one-year terms. He also was elected to the Continental Congress, the Congress of the United States and the U.S. Senate. He was born in and died in Baltimore County. Howard County, Maryland, is named for him.

He was the son of Cornelius Howard and Ruth (Eager) Howard, of the Maryland planter elite and was born at their plantation “Belvedere,” which he inherited after their deaths. Howard grew up in an Anglican slaveholding family. Anglicanism was the established church of the Chesapeake Bay colonies.

Howard joined the Baltimore lodge of Freemasonry and eventually became a Brother.

Commissioned a captain at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, Howard rose in 1777 to the rank of colonel in the Continental Army, fighting in the Battle of White Plains and in the Battle of Monmouth. He was awarded a silver medal by Congress for his leadership at the 1781 Battle of Cowpens, during which he commanded the 3rd Maryland Regiment, Continental Army. In September 1781, he was wounded in a bayonet charge at the Battle of Eutaw Springs.

Following his army service, Howard held several electoral political positions: elected to the Continental Congress of 1788 Governor of Maryland for three one-year terms, 1789 through 1791 State Senator from 1791 through 1795 and Presidential Elector in 1792. He declined the offer from President George Washington in 1795 to be Secretary of War. He joined the Federalist Party and was elected to the 4th Congress from November 30, 1796, through 1797 as a United States Senator for the remainder of the term of Richard Potts, who had resigned. He was elected for a Senate term of his own in 1797, which included the 5th Congress, the 6th Congress of 1799-1801 during which he was President pro tempore, and the 7th Congress, serving until March 3, 1803.

After 1803, Howard returned to Baltimore, where he avoided elected office but continued in public service and philanthropy as a leading citizen. In the 1816 presidential election, he received 22 electoral votes for Vice President as the running mate of Federalist Rufus King, losing to James Monroe and Governor Daniel Tompkins. No formal Federalist nomination had been made, and it is not clear whether Howard, who was one of several Federalists who received electoral votes for Vice President, ran as a candidate for the office.

Although Howard was offered an appointment as the Secretary of War in the administration of President George Washington, he declined it. Similarly, he declined a 1798 commission as Brigadier General during the preparations for the coming Quasi-War with France.

John Eager Howard married Margaret (“Peggy”) Chew, daughter of the Pennsylvania justice Benjamin Chew. Their first son, George Howard, was born on November 21, 1789 in Jennings House during Howard’s term as Governor.

Howard developed the property “Waverley” at Marriottsville, Maryland for George. George Howard became a politician and was elected as governor forty years after his father’s term, and four years after his death. Their second son, Benjamin Chew Howard, was also a prominent politician in Maryland, elected for four terms in the U.S. Congress. A grandson, Francis Key Howard, was a notable figure in Maryland at the start of the American Civil War.

John Eager Howard is buried at the Old Saint Paul’s Cemetery, located between West Lombard Street and present-day Martin Luther King Boulevard in Baltimore.

* Howard County, Maryland, formed out of western Anne Arundel County and southeastern Frederick County in 1839 as the Howard District and officially as Howard County in 1851, was named for him.
* In 1904, the city commissioned an equestrian statue of Howard by the eminent French sculptor Emmanuel Frémiet and installed it at Washington Monument circle facing south overlooking at Washington Place Square of North Charles Street, Baltimore.
* Howard is one of several notable men of Maryland mentioned in the state song “Maryland, My Maryland” written 1861 by James Ryder Randall as “Howard’s war-like thrust”.


John Eager Howard

John Eager Howard (June 4, 1752 – October 12, 1827) was an American soldier and politician from Maryland. He was elected as governor of the state in 1788, and served three one-year terms. He also was elected to the Continental Congress, the Congress of the United States and the U.S. Senate.[2] He was born in and died in Baltimore County.[2][3] Howard County, Maryland, is named for him.[3]

He was the son of Cornelius Howard and Ruth (Eager) Howard, of the Maryland planter elite and was born at their plantation "Belvedere," which he inherited after their deaths. Howard grew up in an Anglican slaveholding family. Anglicanism was the established church of the Chesapeake Bay colonies.

Howard joined the Baltimore lodge of Freemasonry and eventually became a Brother.[3]

Commissioned a captain at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, Howard rose in 1777 to the rank of colonel in the Continental Army,[2] fighting in the Battle of White Plains and in the Battle of Monmouth. He was awarded a silver medal by Congress for his leadership at the 1781 Battle of Cowpens,[2] during which he commanded the 2nd Maryland Regiment, Continental Army.[4] In September 1781, he was wounded in a bayonet charge at the Battle of Eutaw Springs.[5]

Following his army service, Howard held several electoral political positions: elected to the Continental Congress of 1788 Governor of Maryland for three one-year terms, 1788 through 1791 State Senator from 1791 through 1795 and Presidential Elector in 1792. He declined the offer from President George Washington in 1795 to be Secretary of War. He joined the Federalist Party and was elected to the 4th Congress from November 30, 1796, through 1797 as a United States Senator for the remainder of the term of Richard Potts, who had resigned. He was elected for a Senate term of his own in 1797, which included the 5th Congress, the 6th Congress of 1799-1801 during which he was President pro tempore, and the 7th Congress, serving until March 3, 1803.[2]

After 1803, Howard returned to Baltimore, where he avoided elected office but continued in public service and philanthropy as a leading citizen.[6] In the 1816 presidential election, he received 22 electoral votes for Vice President[3] as the running mate of Federalist Rufus King, losing to James Monroe and Governor Daniel Tompkins. No formal Federalist nomination had been made, and it is not clear whether Howard, who was one of several Federalists who received electoral votes for Vice President, ran as a candidate for the office.

Although Howard was offered an appointment as the Secretary of War in the administration of President George Washington, he declined it. Similarly, he declined a 1798 commission as Brigadier General during the preparations for the coming Quasi-War with France.[2]

John Eager Howard married Margaret ("Peggy") Chew, daughter of the Pennsylvania justice Benjamin Chew.[3] Their first son, George Howard,[3] was born on November 21, 1789 in Jennings House during Howard's term as Governor.

Howard developed the property "Waverley" at Marriottsville, Maryland for George. George Howard became a politician and was elected as governor forty years after his father's term, and four years after his death.[citation needed] Their second son, Benjamin Chew Howard, was also a prominent politician in Maryland, elected for four terms in the U.S. Congress.[3] A grandson, Francis Key Howard, was a notable figure in Maryland at the start of the American Civil War.

John Eager Howard is buried at the Old Saint Paul's Cemetery, located between West Lombard Street and present-day Martin Luther King Boulevard in Baltimore.[2]

  • Howard County, Maryland, formed out of western Anne Arundel County and southeastern Frederick County in 1839 as the Howard District and officially as Howard County in 1851, was named for him.[3][7]
  • In 1904, the city commissioned an equestrian statue of Howard by the eminent French sculptor Emmanuel Frémiet and installed it at Washington Monument circle facing south overlooking at Washington Place Square of North Charles Street, Baltimore.[3]
  • Howard is one of several notable men of Maryland mentioned in the state song "Maryland, My Maryland" written in 1861 by James Ryder Randall the phrase "Howard's war-like thrust" refers to him.

A Patriot of the American Revolution for MARYLAND with the rank of LIEUTENANT COLONEL. DAR Ancestor # A058062

John Eager Howard

Following his army service, he held several political positions: member of the Continental Congress of 1788 Governor of Maryland for three one-year terms, 1789 through 1791 State Senator from 1791 through 1795 Presidential Elector in 1792 thereafter, he joined the Federalist Party and served in the 4th Congress from November 30, 1796, through 1797 as a United States Senator for the remainder of the term of Richard Potts, who had resigned and was elected for a Senate term of his own in 1797, which included the 5th Congress, the 6th Congress of 1799-1801 during which he was President pro tempore, and the 7th Congress, serving until March 3, 1803.[2] After 1803, he returned to Baltimore, where he avoided elected office but continued in public service and philanthropy as a leading citizen.[5] In the 1816 presidential election, he received 22 electoral votes for Vice President[3] as the running mate of Federalist Rufus King, losing to James Monroe and Governor Daniel Tompkins. No formal Federalist nomination had been made, and it is not clear whether Howard, who was only one of several Federalists who received electoral votes for Vice President, actively ran for the office.

Although he was offered the Secretaryship of War in the Administration of President George Washington, he declined it, as well as a 1798 commission to Brigadier General during the preparations for the coming Quasi-War with France.

Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series)

John Eager Howard (1752-1827) MSA SC 3520-692 Governor of Maryland, 1788-1791 (Federalist)

Born: June 4, 17521 Father: Cornelius Howard2 Mother: Ruth (Eager) Howard3 Marriage: May 18, 1787 to Margaret (Peggy) Oswald Chew4 Children: George, John Eager, Jr., Benjamin Chew, Juliana Elizabeth, Charles, William, James, Sophia5 Education: received private tutoring6 Religious affiliation: Anglican7 Military service:

Died: October 12, 1827 at "Belvedere," in Baltimore10 Burial: St. Paul's Cemetery, Baltimore11

The following essay is taken from Frank F. White, Jr., The Governors of Maryland 1777-1970 (Annapolis: The Hall of Records Commission, 1970), 17-19.

"JOHN EAGER HOWARD, Maryland’s first Federalist Governor, military hero, politician, patriot, and public servant, was born at 'The Forrest,' in Baltimore County on June 4, 1752, the son of Cornelius and Ruth (Eager) Howard. His ancestor, Joshua Howard, had received a grant of land in Baltimore County about 1685, and his family had subsequently added to these holdings. His father was a man of sufficient wealth to enable the future governor to secure a good education under private tutors.

"When the Revolutionary War began, he was commissioned a captain in the 'Flying Camp.' While he was with this organization, he fought at White Plains, following which his term of service expired. Howard then became a major in the Fourth Regiment While he was with that unit, his troops performed superbly at the battle of Germantown in October 1777. In 1778, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Fifth Regiment and in the following year he transferred to the Second Regiment. Participating in the fighting at Camden, he gained a reputation for his ability, while for heroism at Cowpens, he received a silver medal and the grateful thanks of Congress. At Guilford Court House and Hobkirk’s Hill, he distinguished himself as an outstanding officer, and at Eutaw Springs on September 8, 1781, he was severely wounded, after which he resigned his commission and returned home, leaving his mark as an outstanding military leader.

"Howard, in the meantime, had begun courting Peggy Oswald Chew, the daughter of Chief Justice Benjamin Chew of Pennsylvania. They were married on May 18, 1787. The couple had a large family, all of whom distinguished themselves in Maryland affairs. One of these was the future governor, George Howard, who was born in the Government House in Annapolis during his father’s term of office.

"After the war, John Eager Howard entered politics. In 1785, he became a justice of the Baltimore County Court, holding the post for three years. In the following year, he was a senatorial elector from Baltimore County as well as a justice of the Baltimore County Orphans’ Court. During 1787 and 1788, he represented Maryland in the Continental Congress.

[p.26] "On November 21, 1788, he was elected Governor succeeding William Smallwood. Up to that time, no state governor had ever belonged to a political party, so Howard became a member of the Federalist party, and for the rest of his life, he would be a firm and staunch supporter of its principles. During his first term, the U. S. Constitution became operative and Maryland’s presidential electors cast their ballots for George Washington. During the session of November, 1788, the State ceded a ten-mile square tract of land to the newly formed national government for the site of a national capital. Another act of the same session provided for the granting of bounty lands to the west of Fort Cumberland to the former officers and soldiers who had served during the Revolution.

"Howard was re-elected to his second term on November 16, 1789. During his second year in office, Maryland ratified the Bill of Rights. In addition, Allegany County was erected out of Washington County, while another piece of legislation provided for the payment of the State debt within six years.

"He was re-elected to his third and last term on November 8, 1790, during which the General Assembly passed several important acts. One of these provided for Samuel Smith and others to establish the Bank of Maryland. Another granted Charles Ridgely Carnan permission to change his name to Charles Ridgely in accordance with Capt. Charles Ridgely’s will. A third act directed the time, place and manner of holding congressional elections and the choosing of presidential electors. A final act granted commissions to the justices of the county courts in each district. As the result, when George Plater succeeded Howard as governor on November 14, 1791, he saw the State government firmly in operation under the new Federal Constitution.

"Howard, however, did not end his political career when he vacated the gubernatorial office. In September 1791, just as his term was about to expire, he was chosen a member of the State Senate, and was re-elected in 1796. During this period, he was chosen a presidential elector casting his vote for George Washington and John Adams in 1792. In the following year, he became a Commissioner of the City of Baltimore, a position which involved the planning of the city stockyards and the purchasing of lands for a marketplace. In 1795, George Washington offered him the post of Secretary of War, but Howard felt it his duty to decline.

"In 1796, Richard Potts resigned his seat in the United States Senate, following which the General Assembly selected Howard to fill Potts’ unexpired term. In the following year, he was elected for a full term, continuing to serve until 1803, during which time he faithfully supported the policies and programs of the Federalist Party. During the difficulties with France in 1798, Howard was offered a commission as Brigadier General, but since the crisis had passed, he felt it unnecessary to accept the commission.

"After his senatorial term ended, he preferred retirement to private life. Yet, he continued to be active in public life. In 1804, he was appointed Commissioner of the State Penitentiary, a post which included the prepara- [p. 27] tion of a new prison. He was nominated three additional times for terms as governor, but the Legislature failed to elect him. He served on Baltimore’s Committee of Supply during the War of 1812, assisting in the raising of money and supplies for defense. Howard remained a force in the Federalist Party politics until 1816, when that party named him as its vice presidential candidate on the ticket with Rufus King. Both were soundly defeated following which the Federalists ceased to be a force in State politics.

"After his last unsuccessful political campaign, Howard retired to his home at 'Belvedere' which he had built in 1786, making it a center of hospitality, elegance, and grandeur. He spent his last years as a retired elder statesman, contributing land to the City of Baltimore for public purposes. Howard lived until 1827. However, his health had been failing for some time. Early in October of that year, he caught a severe cold and died on the twelfth. Many prominent leaders attended his funeral including President John Quincy Adams, all of whom accompanied his body to its burial in Old St. Paul’s Cemetery. In compliance with his will, no inventory was made of his estate.1 He further desired that his personal and real estate should be sold by his executors at a public or private sale, but he bequeathed his real property to his sons.

_______ 1. Baltimore County Wills 12, ff. 408-409.

http://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc3500/sc3520/000600/0. This information resource of the Maryland State Archives is presented here for fair use in the public domain. When this material is used, in whole or in part, proper citation and credit must be attributed to the Maryland State Archives. PLEASE NOTE: Rights assessment for associated source material is the responsibility of the user. John Eager Howard was an American soldier and politician from Maryland. He was elected as governor of the state in 1788, and served three one-year terms. He also was elected to the Continental Congress, the Congress of the United States and the U.S. Senate. In the 1816 presidential election, Howard received 22 electoral votes for vice president on the Federalist Party ticket with Rufus King. The ticket lost in a landslide.

Howard County, Maryland, is named for him, along with Eager Street and Howard Street in Baltimore.

He was the son of Cornelius Howard and Ruth (Eager) Howard, of the Maryland planter elite and was born at their plantation "The Forest." Howard grew up in an Anglican slaveholding family. Anglicanism was the established church of the Chesapeake Bay colonies.

Howard joined the Baltimore lodge of Freemasonry and eventually became a Brother.

Commissioned a captain at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, Howard rose in 1777 to the rank of colonel in the Continental Army, fighting in the Battle of White Plains and in the Battle of Monmouth. He was awarded a silver medal by Congress for his leadership at the 1781 Battle of Cowpens, during which he commanded the 2nd Maryland Regiment, Continental Army. In September 1781, he was wounded in a bayonet charge at the Battle of Eutaw Springs. Nathanael Greene wrote that Howard was "as good an officer as the world affords. He has great ability and the best disposition to promote the service. He deserves a statue of gold."

Following his army service, Howard held several electoral political positions: elected to the Continental Congress of 1788 Governor of Maryland for three one-year terms, 1788 through 1791 State Senator from 1791 through 1795 and Presidential Elector in 1792. He declined the offer from President George Washington in 1795 to be Secretary of War. He joined the Federalist Party and was elected to the 4th Congress from November 21, 1796, through 1797 as a United States Senator for the remainder of the term of Richard Potts, who had resigned. He was elected for a Senate term of his own in 1797, which included the 5th Congress, the 6th Congress of 1799� during which he was President pro tempore, and the 7th Congress, serving until March 3, 1803.

Although Howard was offered an appointment as the Secretary of War in the administration of President George Washington, he declined it. Similarly, he declined a 1798 commission as Brigadier General during the preparations for the coming Quasi-War with France.

After 1803, Howard returned to Baltimore, where he avoided elected office but continued in public service and philanthropy as a leading citizen. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815. In the 1816 presidential election, he received 22 electoral votes for Vice President as the running mate of Federalist Rufus King, losing to James Monroe and Governor Daniel Tompkins. No formal Federalist nomination had been made, and it is not clear whether Howard, who was one of several Federalists who received electoral votes for Vice President, ran as a candidate for the office.

John Eager Howard married Margaret ("Peggy") Chew (1760�), daughter of the Pennsylvania justice Benjamin Chew, in 1787.


The Monumental City

Ask just about anyone on the streets of Baltimore what the city’s nickname is, and you would probably get a unanimous answer:

It sounds rather nice, yes? The letters almost glisten as they jump off of the page. A poster, a picturesque postcard—Charm City is a marketing campaign that practically writes itself.

Yet, this has not always been the case. If you were to step into a time machine and travel back to the Baltimore of days gone by, say, the early 20 th century, and ask the same question—you might get a different, unanimous answer.

Long before Baltimore was Charm City, it was the Monumental City. It has a certain gravitas—a reverence that its sparkling, present-day cousin does not.

A perusal of The Baltimore Sun’s digital archive reveals when the switch took place, once and for all: the 1970s. Which, honestly, is no surprise when thinking of 1960s-era Baltimore, “charming” is hardly the first adjective that springs to mind… Or the second, or the third. The sixties were a time of great civil unrest, nationwide. Locally, those tensions came to a culmination with the race riots of 1968. And, as any Baltimoreans who lived through that time will recall, those were anything but charming.

So, yes, while I do like the Charm City name, and modern Baltimore certainly does have a unique sense of charm—I prefer its older, more stately cousin. The Monumental City, that is a city for the ages! It bespeaks a community that has suffered great losses, and yet has also overcome them, conquering its foes along the way. The Monumental City is resilient. It will continue to stand, tall and proud, much like its weather-worn commander-in-chief, General Washington, aloft on his column in Mount Vernon Place.

If you could, indeed, plan a visit to bygone Baltimore, Tuesday, October 16 th 1827 would be an ideal place to start. That night, around thirty people gathered for a dinner which was, at least in part, to honor the memory of the recently-deceased Revolutionary War hero and Maryland Governor, John Eager Howard.

Sitting between Major General Samuel Smith (on his left) and the Collector of the Port of Baltimore, James H. McCulloch (on his right), the President of the United States, John Quincy Adams, presided over what must have been a thrilling, patriotic scene. The room was packed with war veterans: members of the Maryland Society of the Cincinnati, undoubtedly bedecked in their glittering, L’Enfant, eagle badges, intermixing with soldiers who had been wounded at the Battle of North Point, when America was in the midst of its second war for independence.

Adams—or JQA as I like to call him—had come to Baltimore on other business. His Philadelphia steamboat had docked at the basin’s wharf on October 14 th , and he had immediately retired to Barnum’s Hotel, only to be informed upon his awakening the next morning that Col. Howard had passed away. The family, of course, wished for the President to attend the funeral, and Adams obliged. On October 15 th , the city turned out in full “military array” for the funeral procession. The mood must have been somber and melancholy, but beneath the sadness on the faces of the Baltimoreans who lined the streets for the entire circuit, there was probably a sense of pride.

John Eager Howard was a genuine patriot, but more importantly, he was one of Baltimore’s own. Generally speaking, this was an exciting time in the city’s history, and Howard was a big part of that. Just seven-and-a-half months prior, he had met with other local, prominent citizens at his country estate, Belvidere, just north of town to discuss the city’s plans for a brand new mode of transportation. Out of those talks came the charter for the Baltimore and Ohio Railway Company of Baltimore City, Maryland’s answer to Stockton & Darlington in England. In fact, given his role in its creation, Howard may well have been the city’s choice to lay the “first stone” at the commencement of the Railroad, on the 4 th of July in 1828. That is, had he not died the previous October… Instead, Baltimoreans made do with a different, aged, Revolutionary-era patriot: Charles Carroll of Carrollton.

The day after the funeral, on October 16 th , President Adams rode out to North Point Battlefield with some of the Old Defenders to survey the grounds. Their 9-mile carriage ride brought them to the Aquila Randall monument, a small pyramidal structure that had been erected by the members of Randall’s company—the Baltimore Mechanical Volunteers—in honor of the fallen soldier. Which brings us back to that dinner scene…

Imagine the clinking of the silverware and glasses, the laughter of old stories among friends. And, finally, at the end of the night, the guest of honor, the president himself, rises to give a final toast: to “Baltimore, the Monumental City—may the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy as the days of her danger have been trying and triumphant!” How awe-inspiring that must have been!

Baltimore City was justly proud of its presidential seal of approval, and it still is. A quick Google search of “John Quincy Adams + Monumental City” fetches about 240,000 results. Many of those links lead directly to official government websites, and well-respected, area media outlets. They all seem to be in agreement with one another, that JQA is responsible for the “monumental” moniker. Yet, not surprisingly, none of them bother to include a source to back up that claim. The link that presents the strongest and most compelling case leads to an article that was written by a Baltimore-based author and historian, Christopher T. George. In it, George points out that Adams was alluding to the three monuments that he had seen on his visit. The first two are the usual suspects: the Washington Monument (which was still in its construction phase), and the Battle Monument (which had just recently been completed). The third, however, is the lesser-known Aquila Randall Monument, which Adams saw when he traveled out to North Point. Though he never gives a direct citation, complete with a page number, George comes the closest out of anyone to providing evidence that JQA was responsible for the Monumental City name.

Does JQA Have a Rightful Claim?

Whether stating it outright, or simply insinuating it, the popular opinion is that Adams was the first person to use it. In the absence of any explicit references proving the case one way or the other, I was determined to find out if he really was the originator that everyone seems to think that he was.

The first question, of course, was simple: did he actually make that toast? Luckily, the kind folks at the Massachusetts Historical Society have digitized all of Adams’s personal diaries. Turns out that the man was quite a writer. There are 51 volumes in total, and they span the years from 1779 to 1848. Thanks to some chronological indexing, they are relatively easy to search, especially when the specific date is known. With that, I typed in my destination: October 16 th 1827. In volume 37, which covers the years 1825 to 1828, on page 311, a little more than halfway down the page, I struck gold . The quote is there, verbatim no less. John Quincy Adams really did make that toast! Pretty cool.

Now, for the second question: was there a reference that proved the nickname originated with Adams’s toast? Theoretically, if he was the first person to use it, the earliest references should have been in October of 1827, referring to both the dinner and the president. The next logical step was to search in a newspaper database.

Friends, I hate to say it, but John Quincy Adams is not responsible for the Monumental City nickname. The reference above, printed in the February 8 th 1823 edition of the Washington D.C. Daily National Intelligencer, ran four years before JQA’s toast—not to mention a full two years before Adams took office in the Executive Mansion. Baltimore, clearly, is referred to here as “the monumental city,” with italics for emphasis. The article is sort of humorous from a modern-day standpoint. Baltimore-area representatives to the Maryland Legislature were apparently opposed to the Potomac Canal, simply because it would have benefited the District of Columbia, never mind how much it would have also benefited Baltimore City. Talk about political stubbornness! No wonder the rivalry between Baltimore and D.C. football teams is so bitter…

After an unrestricted search of GenealogyBank yielded the above result, I set my sights on finding the earliest reference in Maryland-based newspapers. By restricting my search to the state of Maryland, I found the following article in the August 5 th 1824 edition of the Baltimore Patriot…Although less humorous than its 1823 counterpart, it mentions the failed escape of a Baltimore-based con man by the name of E. Bourne, who evidently traveled up and down the east coast in 1824 with an intent to swindle wherever he went. Note that, while printed in Baltimore, the news that it was transmitting came from New York. Thus, it was actually the New York paper which had called Baltimore “the monumental city.” This is important because it shows that the name had already entered the national lexicon. Therefore, I think we may well surmise that when JQA gave his toast in 1827, he was merely entrenching a term that he had already heard—sort of like the 19 th -century version of creating a trending topic on Twitter. Adams was by no means the first to call Baltimore the Monumental City, but he is the one who took an already-existing nickname and made it famous.

So, if Adams is not the originator, then where does the credit lie?

Well, until someone finds a more conclusive answer, maybe it really is with JQA.


John Eager Howard

Library locations The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection Shelf locator: MEZP Shelf locator: MEZP Topics Howard, John Eager, 1752-1827 Genres Prints Notes Content: Printmakers include Henry Bryan Hall, George R. Hall, Alexander Hay Ritchie and James Barton Longacre. Content: Title from Calendar of the Emmet Collection. Citation/reference: EM8626 Content: Silver Medal awarded to Colonel Howard. Statement of responsibility: E. Prud'homme Type of Resource Still image Identifiers RLIN/OCLC: NYPG96-F84 NYPL catalog ID (B-number): b12610189 Universal Unique Identifier (UUID): 93278a90-c60a-012f-0d22-58d385a7bc34 Rights Statement The New York Public Library believes that this item is in the public domain under the laws of the United States, but did not make a determination as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. This item may not be in the public domain under the laws of other countries. Though not required, if you want to credit us as the source, please use the following statement, "From The New York Public Library," and provide a link back to the item on our Digital Collections site. Doing so helps us track how our collection is used and helps justify freely releasing even more content in the future.


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