Statue of a Sitting Woman from Hatra

Statue of a Sitting Woman from Hatra

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial

The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington D.C., dedicated to the memory of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, and to the era he represents. The memorial is the second of two that have been constructed in Washington to commemorate that president.

Dedicated on May 2, 1997 by President Bill Clinton, the national memorial, spread over 7.5 acres (3.0 ha) adjacent to the southwest side of the Tidal Basin along the Cherry Tree Walk in West Potomac Park, traces 2 years of the history of the United States through a sequence of four outdoor rooms, one for each of FDR's terms of office. [1] Sculptures inspired by photographs depict the 32nd president alongside his dog Fala.

Other sculptures depict scenes from the Great Depression, such as listening to a fireside chat on the radio and waiting in a bread line, a bronze sculpture by George Segal. A bronze statue of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt standing before the United Nations emblem honors her dedication to the UN. It is the only presidential memorial to depict a First Lady. [2]

Considering Roosevelt's disability, the memorial's designers intended to create a memorial that would be accessible to those with various physical impairments. Among other features, the memorial includes an area with tactile reliefs with braille writing for people who are blind. However, the memorial faced serious criticism from disabled activists. Vision-impaired visitors complained that the braille dots were improperly spaced and that some of the braille and reliefs were mounted eight feet off of the ground, placing it above the reach of most people. [3]

Thinker of Cernavoda (c.5,000 BCE)

For a list of the Venus Figurines
of the Aurignacian, Gravettian
and Magdalenian cultures of
the Upper Paleolithic, see:
Venus of Hohle Fels (35,000 BCE)
Venus of Willendorf (c.25,000 BCE)
Venus of Brassempouy (c.23,000 BCE)
Venus of Kostenky (c.22,000 BCE)
For animal sculptures, see:
Ivory Carvings of Swabian Jura
For therianthropic carvings, see:
Lion Man of Hohlenstein Stadel

For a list of the world's most
talented 3-D artists, see:
Greatest Sculptors.

One of the great masterpieces of late Stone Age art, this extraordinary terracotta sculpture, known as The Thinker ("Ganditorul"), was unearthed in 1956 - together with a similar statuette of a female figure, known as The Sitting Woman of Cernavoda, and numerous other similar, though headless figurines - during archeological excavations of Neolithic settlement and burial debris in the lower Danube region, near Cernavoda in Romania. Created during the Hamangia culture, it is believed to be the oldest known prehistoric sculpture that reflects human introspection, rather than the usual artistic concerns of hunting or fertility. As a result it has become an iconic sculptural figure of prehistoric art, and a striking example of Neolithic art for art's sake. It currently resides in the National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest. For another important but much older example of prehistoric art from Romania, see: Coliboaia Cave Art (30,000 BCE).

For more about Stone Age
paintings and engravings, see:
Rock Art (200,000-2,000 BCE)
Petroglyphs ((290,000 - 4,000 BCE)
Cave Painting (30,000 - 10,000 BCE).

Characteristics and History

The Thinker of Cernavoda depicts a human figure (traditionally interpreted as male) sitting on a stool, with his head in his hands and his elbows on his knees. Although seen as male, the figure's gender is not completely unambiguous - an attribute common to many ancient figurines from southeast Europe. His small angular head sits on top of a thick extended neck, while the eyes, which are too large for the face, are rendered as concave rather than the more usual convex-shape typical of Romanian carvings. His broad-hipped trunk has thick thighs and calves.

Coloured a dark brownish-red, the sculpture is 4.5 inches tall and is made out of terracotta, an unglazed, clay-based ceramic. It was created during the Hamangia culture (named after the site of Baia-Hamangia), a Late Neolithic archeological culture (5250-4500 BCE) which took root in Dobruja (Romania and Bulgaria) between the River Danube and the Black Sea. It is worth noting that the body as a whole is entirely devoid of the ornamentation or engraved decoration which is frequently seen in plastic art and pottery of both the Hamangia culture and the subsequent Cucuteni culture (4500-3000 BCE). It is also quite different from the bolder zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines, animal-head jewellery, and other cult objects of the nearby Vinca culture (5500� BCE named after the type site, Vinca-Belo Brdo), which was centred on Serbia, but extended into Romania and Bulgaria. (See also: Primitive Art.)

The Sitting Woman of Cernavoda, too, is quite plain and undecorated, unlike the usually extremely stylized, faceless female figurines complete with exaggerated breasts and buttocks.

Unfortunately, nothing is known about the sculptor who created the Thinker of Cernavoda, his workshop or school, or whether his style was copied by his contemporaries. See also: History of Sculpture.

To see how the Romanian Thinker of Cernavoda - arguably one of the greatest sculptures ever - fits into the evolution of terracotta sculpture during the late Stone Age, see: Prehistoric Art Timeline.

Other Neolithic Sculptures

The era of Neolithic art (in southeast Europe, c.7,000-2,500 BCE) is the source for a number of important archeological finds of carvings and other 3-D art. They include the following:

The Enthroned Goddess of Catal Huyuk/Catalhoyuk (c.6000 BCE)
Baked-clay statuette of a nude female form, representing a fertile Mother Goddess about to give birth. Discovered in 1961, in Anatolia, Turkey.

Vidovdanka (5500-4700 BCE) National Museum of Serbia
Late Mesolithic terracotta anthropomorphic figurine discovered at Vinca-Belo Brdo, near Belgrade, Serbia, in 1930.

Lepenski Vir Sculptures (c.5000 BCE)
Consisting of a number of prehistoric sandstone carvings of therianthropic figures, discovered in the Danube settlement of Lepenski Vir in Serbia.

Greek Female Figurine (c.4250 BCE) Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC
Headless marble sculpture of a woman, carved using obsidian tools.

Egyptian Female Figurine (c.3700 BCE) British Museum, London.
Naqada I period sculpture made from bone and lapis lazuli.

Egyptian Mourning Figurine (c.3500 BCE) Brooklyn Museum of Art.
Naqada II period terracotta sculpture found at Burial 2 at El Mamariya.

Sleeping Lady of Malta (3100 BCE) Museum of Archeology, Valletta
Terracotta sculpture, symbol of the Maltese Temple Period (4100-2500 BCE).

Ram in a Thicket (c.2500 BCE)
Sculpture made from red limestone, copper, lapis lazuli, and gold-leaf, unearthed at the Great Death Pit, Ur, Iraq.

Maikop Gold Bull (c.2500 BCE)
One of four gold and silver sculptures of bulls, produced during the Russian Maikop culture of the North Caucasus.

• For a list of the greatest works of prehistoric painting and sculpture, see: Oldest Art.
• For a more comprehensive list, see: Oldest Stone Age Art: Top 100 Works.
• For more about the history of three-dimensional art, see: Homepage.

First Statue of a Woman to be Erected in Parliament Square

Criado-Perez’s campaign kicked off last year with an open letter to the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan. She called on Khan to erect a statue of a woman in Parliament Square by February 2018, to honor the 100th anniversary of legislation granting limited suffrage to British women. As she wrote, it was a landmark victory, in which “women won the argument that our sex does not render us incapable of participating in the running of our country.”

Criado-Perez, who was also responsible for successfully campaigning to put Jane Austen on the new ꌐ note, was thrilled with the quick, decisive response. Prime Minister Theresa May also expressed her support, and the choice of Dame Fawcett, stating, “The example Millicent Fawcett set during the struggle for equality continues to inspire the battle against the burning injustices of today. It is right and proper that she is honored in Parliament Square alongside former leaders who changed our country.” The statue will be funded through a portion of the ਵm fund set aside to celebrate the centennial of British women receiving limited suffrage.

Millicent Fawcett addressing a meeting in Hyde Park as president of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies.

(Credit: Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

Fawcett is best known for her work championing the right of women to vote in the United Kingdom. She came from a family of activists and reformers. Her sister, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, was the first known female doctor in Britain.

Fawcett began her suffrage work as a teenager. She wrote, “I cannot say I became a suffragist. I always was one, from the time I was old enough to think at all about the principles of Representative Government.” Fawcett was further inspired after hearing John Stuart Mill introduce a suffrage amendment to a Reform Bill in 1867.

(Credit: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Getty Images)

In 1897, Fawcett founded the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS)—the largest organization working for women’s suffrage at the time. She served as president for more than 20 years. Under Fawcett’s directive, NUWSS supported other causes as well, such as the abolition of the British slave trade, and formation of a relief fund for South African women and children during the Boer War. She also championed women’s education, helping to found Newnham College, Cambridge.

The women’s suffrage movement suffered a huge blow when the Liberal government of 1901-1914 refused to give women the vote. The shock and disappoint served as a turning point that saw more militant suffragettes engage in direct action—such as breaking windows and taking part in hunger strikes while in jail. This willingness to resort to violence, however, caused a deep divide in the women’s movement. Fawcett and the NUWSS remained committed to achieving the vote through constitutional means, legal action and nonviolence.

A march of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage, 1908. From left to right, Lady Frances Balfour, Millicent Fawcett, Ethel Snowden, Emily Davies and Sophie Bryant.

(Credit: Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Fawcett herself caused a divide in the NUWSS when she actively supported Britain’s participation in World War I. She explained her support in 1914, writing in the NUWSS journal “The Common Cause,” “Women, your country needs you…Let us show ourselves worthy of citizenship, whether our claim to it be recognized or not.”

Four years later, the “Representation of the People Act” passed, granting limited suffrage to women over 30, who owned their own homes or were the wives of householders, occupied property with an annual rent of ਵ or were graduates of British universities.

International Woman Suffrage Alliance, 1914. In centre of seated row is Carrie Chapman Catt, American feminist leader. 2nd from left Millicent Garrett Fawcett.

(Credit: Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images)

When Parliament equalized the voting age in 1928, granting the same legal voting rights to women that men already possessed, Fawcett was there to witness the momentous occasion. She wrote in her diary, “It is almost exactly 61 years ago since I heard John Stuart Mill introduce his suffrage amendment to the Reform Bill on May 20th, 1867. So I have had extraordinary good luck in having seen the struggle from the beginning.”

Millicent’s legacy continues today through the women’s rights and gender equality charity, the Fawcett Society. The chief executive, Sam Smethers said, “Her contribution was great but she has been overlooked and unrecognized until now. By honoring her we also honor the wider suffrage movement.”


Ancient statues often show the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculpture, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. [3] Most of the color has weathered off over time small remnants were removed during cleaning in some cases small traces remained that could be identified. [3] A travelling exhibition of 20 coloured replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity. [4] Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground or exactly which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, "All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part." [5]

Medieval statues were also usually painted, with some still retaining their original pigments. The coloring of statues ceased during the Renaissance, since excavated classical sculptures, which had lost their coloring, became regarded as the best models.

Prehistoric Edit

The Venus of Berekhat Ram, an anthropomorphic pebble found in northern Israel and dated to at least 230,000 years before present, is claimed to be the oldest known statuette. However, researchers are divided as to whether its shape is derived from natural erosion or was carved by an early human. [6] The Venus of Tan-Tan, a similar object of similar age found in Morocco, has also been claimed to be a statuette. [7]

The Löwenmensch figurine and the Venus of Hohle Fels, both from Germany, are the oldest confirmed statuettes in the world, dating to 35,000-40,000 years ago. [8] [9] [10]

The oldest known life-sized statue is Urfa Man found in Turkey which is dated to around 9,000 BC.

Antiquity Edit

Throughout history, statues have been associated with cult images in many religious traditions, from Ancient Egypt, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, and Ancient Rome to the present. Egyptian statues showing kings as sphinxes have existed since the Old Kingdom, the oldest being for Djedefre (c. 2500 BC). [11] The oldest statue of a striding pharaoh dates from the reign of Senwosret I (c. 1950 BC) and is the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [12] The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (starting around 2000 BC) witnessed the growth of block statues which then became the most popular form until the Ptolemaic period (c. 300 BC). [13]

The focal point of the cella or main interior space of a Roman or Greek temple was a statue of the deity it was dedicated to. In major temples these could be several times life-size. Other statues of deities might have subordinate positions along the side walls.

The oldest statue of a deity in Rome was the bronze statue of Ceres in 485 BC. [14] [15] The oldest statue in Rome is now the statue of Diana on the Aventine. [16]

For a successful Greek or Roman politician or businessman (who donated considerable sums to public projects for the honour), having a public statue, preferably in the local forum or the grounds of a temple was an important confirmation of status, and these sites filled up with statues on plinths (mostly smaller than those of their 19th century equivalents). Fragments in Rome of a bronze colossus of Constantine and the marble colossus of Constantine show the enormous scale of some imperial statues other examples are recorded, notably one of Nero.

Middle Ages Edit

While sculpture generally flourished in European Medieval art, the single statue was not one of the most common types, except for figures of the Virgin Mary, usually with Child, and the corpus or body of Christ on crucifixes. Both of these appeared in all size up to life-size, and by the late Middle Ages many churches, even in villages, had a crucifixion group around a rood cross. The Gero Cross in Cologne is both one of the earliest and finest large figures of the crucified Christ. As yet, full-size standing statues of saints and rulers were uncommon, but tomb effigies, generally lying down, were very common for the wealthy from about the 14th century, having spread downwards from royal tombs in the centuries before.

While Byzantine art flourished in various forms, sculpture and statue making witnessed a general decline although statues of emperors continued to appear. [17] An example was the statue of Justinian (6th century) which stood in the square across from the Hagia Sophia until the fall of Constantinople in the 15th century. [17] Part of the decline in statue making in the Byzantine period can be attributed to the mistrust the Church placed in the art form, given that it viewed sculpture in general as a method for making and worshiping idols. [17] While making statues was not subject to a general ban, it was hardly encouraged in this period. [17] Justinian was one of the last Emperors to have a full-size statue made, and secular statues of any size became virtually non-existent after iconoclasm and the artistic skill for making statues was lost in the process.

Italian Renaissance art identified the standing statue as the key form of Roman art to survive, and there was a great revival of statues of both religious and secular figures, to which most of the leading figures contributed, led by Donatello and Michelangelo. The equestrian statue, a great technical challenge, was mastered again, and gradually statue groups.

These trends intensified in Baroque art, when every ruler wanted to have statues made of themself, and Catholic churches filled with crowds of statues of saints, although after the Protestant Reformation religious sculpture largely disappeared from Protestant churches, with some exceptions in large Lutheran German churches. In England, churches instead were filled with increasing elaborate tomb monuments, for which the ultimate models were continental extravagances such as the Papal tombs in Rome, those of the Doges of Venice, or the French royal family.

In the late 18th and 19th century there was a growth in public open air statues of public figures on plinths. As well as monarches, politicians, generals, landowners, and eventually artists and writers were commemorated. World War I saw the war memorial, previously uncommon, become very widespread, and these were often statues of generic soldiers.

Modern Era Edit

Starting with the work of Maillol around 1900, the human figures embodied in statues began to move away from the various schools of realism that been followed for thousands of years. The Futurist and Cubist schools took this metamorphism even further until statues, often still nominally representing humans, had lost all but the most rudimentary relationship to the human form. By the 1920s and 1930s statues began to appear that were completely abstract in design and execution. [18]

The notion that the position of the hooves of horses in equestrian statues indicated the rider's cause of death has been disproved. [19] [20]

People called this woman racist for her lawn statue, until she shared history lesson

Sitting on Sandra Dee McNair’s lawn is a ceramic statue of a black man holding a lantern, dressed in a jockey outfit, that everyone seems to misunderstand.

McNair explains, on Facebook, why her lawn ornament is actually a part of the fight against racism: it was once a tool used by the Underground Railroad.

I often get asked about my lantern footman sitting in my front yard. I've had black people say you shouldn't have that out that way "it makes people think you are a racist" I laugh, or "its offensive to white people" again I laugh and then explain what the significance of the lantern footman really is.

I'm really amazed at how a lot of people don't know the real meaning behind these statues, so they vandalize them, (expletive) about them being racist, etc. When the image of a black 'footman' with a lantern signified the home was a stop on the Underground Railroad. These are largely a northern thing, and weren't commonly found in the South until after WWII when northerners moved there and brought this custom with them. The clothing of the statue was also coded.

A striped jockey's shirt meant that this was a place to swap horses, while a footman in a tailed coat meant overnight lodgings/food, and a blue sailor's waistcoat meant the homeowner could take you to a port and get you on a ship to Canada. I always laugh when I hear black folks talk about how racist these are, because honestly, the cats who had them were likely the LEAST racist. Later, these came back into popularity after WWII, and they were again coded to show the white homeowners supported early civil rights efforts, weren't Klan, etc.

The symbol of the jockey goes back even further to the Revolutionary War and Jocko Graves, the Independent Journal reports.

As the story goes, Graves was serving with General George Washington, who thought him too young to bring along across the Delaware River for an attack on the British.

Instead, Washington left Graves in Pennsylvania to care for the horses and keep a lantern on at the river bank to help guide their return.

The young man froze to death still gripping the lantern. Washington was so moved that he asked for a sculpture to be made of Graves, which he named “The Faithful Groomsmen” and kept at his Mount Vernon estate.

Statue of a Sitting Woman from Hatra - History

An icon of freedom, The Statue of Liberty has welcomed all who have come to New York Harbor for the past 132 years. Over four million visitors pass through The Battery each year as they make their way to see Lady Liberty, one of New York’s star attractions.

1. The original model may have been an Egyptian woman

Many historians say that the Statue of Liberty was modeled after Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom. However, sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi was first inspired by the colossal figures guarding Nubian tombs. He developed a lifelong passion for large-scale public monuments. In his proposal for the Suez Canal, Bartholdi designed a monumental statue of a robe-clad woman representing Egypt to stand at Port Said, at the northern end of the canal. A prototype for the statue was titled “Egypt Carrying the Light to Asia.”

The proposal was eventually scrapped due to its high cost but the designs would find a home elsewhere. The female figure in the Port Said design evolved into the goddess who would become “Liberty Enlightening the World.”

2. She’s pretty thin-skinned

The Statue of Liberty is covered with a layer of copper that is very thin – about the depth of two pennies pressed together. When she was assembled on Bedloe’s Island, she was a beautiful brown color, and stayed this way for around 35 years. By 1920, the copper skin had begun to oxidize and turn the lovely sea green we know today.

Towering 879 feet atop her pedestal, Lady Liberty has a 35-foot waistline, stands 305 feet tall, and wears a size 879 shoe.

3. The Statue’s pedestal was financed by an early crowdfunding effort

The government of France paid for the statue with the understanding that Americans would raise the funds for her pedestal, faced with pink Stony Creek granite. Governor Grover Cleveland refused to use state funds, Congress couldn’t agree on an amount, and a dedicated fundraising committee fell short by a third.

As Baltimore, Philadelphia, San Francisco and Boston all started eyeing the sculpture for their own cities, Joseph Pulitzer devised a solution: he would print the names of each person who made a contribution and offer rewards to the largest contributors. In just five months, the campaign had raised $101,091 from over 160,000 donors including children, street cleaners and politicians, with more than 75% of donations in amounts of less than a dollar. Finally, they could move forward – $100,000 covered the last of the pedestal’s cost, and the rest was given as a gift to the sculptor.

Since 1998 The Battery Conservancy designed granite into the rebuilding of the park, connecting it visually and emotionally to the statue. The stone, extracted from the same quarry as the pedestal, is now a signature feature throughout The Battery – from benches facing the harbor to the seating walls and pavement that marks its perimeter.

4. The gift was intended to celebrate abolition in the U.S.

In the 1870s, French abolitionist Édouard de Laboulaye joined forces with sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi and renowned engineer Gustave Eiffel to dream up a monumental gift for the United States. The statue would be a symbol of friendship between the two nations, and a celebration of the end of slavery. De Laboulaye quietly hoped that such a gift would inspire his own people to fight for their liberty. Napoleon III, had recently brought an end to the Second Republic remaining in power past his term and declaring himself Emperor of France.

At the time of Lady Liberty’s dedication, many African-American newspapers commented on the American hypocrisy they saw represented by the statue. Though slavery had ended, Jim Crow laws in the South and the less explicit but equally oppressive and exclusionary tactics in the North denied African-Americans the equality, justice and liberty for all that our nation purported to uphold. Bartholdi originally designed Lady Liberty holding broken chains, but later deemed the explicit reference to slavery too controversial. Instead, a broken chain and shackles lie at the statue’s feet, delivering the abolitionist message more subtlety.

5. A spy caper made her torch unsafe for visitors to climb

Many believe that normal wear and tear weakened the torch enough that visitors may no longer climb up to its balcony, but the real reason is an explosion in World War I. On July 30th, 1916, German spies planted explosives in a munitions depot connecting Black Tom Island with Jersey City, blowing out windows as far away as Times Square.

The statue’s arm and torch were damaged by flying debris and weren’t repaired until 1984, when the torch was replaced and covered in 24-karat gold leaf. The original torch is now on display in the pedestal lobby.

The torch was never reopened, but visitors looking for a view can still visit the crown with a reservation made at .

6. She sways in the wind

Gustave Eiffel – famed for a certain iron tower which bears his name, created the statue’s unique skeleton. The iron structure at the core was the height of innovation at its time, capable of shifting in the wind without cracking or bending. Lady Liberty can sway up to three inches in any direction during heavy winds, while her torch can sway up to five inches.

7. She’s a magnet for lightning bolts

By most estimates, the copper statue has been hit by 600 bolts of lightning every year since it was assembled in New York Harbor.

Jay Fine captured one spectacular bolt hitting her in 2010, making him the first to photograph this phenomenon.

8. Each element is symbolic

The book she carries features the date our Declaration of Independence was signed (July 4, 1776), while the seven points of her crown symbolize the seven seas, the seven continents and the rays of the sun. This image is meant to convey the hopeful spread of liberty around the world, and the example the U.S. was setting for other countries.

9. She was nearly a speaking statue

Thomas Edison, inventor of the light bulb and phonograph, proposed at one point that a giant gramophone be installed inside the Statue of Liberty, enabling her to “speak.” Ultimately, the idea was rejected.

10. She’s on the move!

Although she is a statue, Lady Liberty is not standing still. Her right leg is in mid-stride and her right foot is actually leaving the ground. She’s marching forward, moving towards the horizon, forever leading the way and lighting the path to liberty and freedom. Dave Eggers mentions this in his wonderful book, Her Right Foot.

17 Famous Statues In The World

Each one of these statues is special and drool-worthy, and they have rightly signified the place where they stand today. All of ’em must be ticked-off your bucket list soon! Here are the 13 famous statues in the world today.

  • Statue Of Liberty, New York
  • Christ The Redeemer, Rio De Janeiro
  • Moai, Easter Island, Chile
  • Little Mermaid, Denmark
  • The Thinker, Paris
  • David Statue, Italy
  • Terrace Of The Lions, Delos, Greece
  • The Statues Of Mount Nemrut, Turkey
  • The Motherland Calls Statue, Russia
  • The Statue of Unity, India
  • The Manneken Pis, Belgium
  • Great Sphinx Of Giza, Egypt
  • Spring Temple Buddha, China

1. Statue Of Liberty, New York

Regarded as one of the popular sculptures and famous statues around the world, the Statue of Liberty was gifted to the United States from the people of France. Since 1886, the statue has been with the United States and today it stands as an insignia of liberty and democracy. The statue’s copper torch was later replaced 24-carat gold torch which is noticeable from a distance.

Established in: 1886
Most popular features of Statue Of Liberty: 225-ton weight, 305 feet, and 6 inches height, 154 steps from the head to the pedestal, and the tablet reads JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776)
How to reach Statue Of Liberty: Take a ferry from Battery Park NY or Liberty State Park to reach the statue directly.

2. Christ The Redeemer, Rio De Janeiro

Very well-known as one of the famous statues in the world, Christ The Redeemer is made of concrete and soapstone, which was built during 1922-31 in Rio De Janeiro. The statue sits atop Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park, and today, it is one of the prominent attractions in Brazil as well as South America.

Completed in: 1931
Most popular features of Christ The Redeemer: 30 meters tall excluding the 8-meter pedestal, 28 meters arm stretch, and 635 metric tons weight
How to reach Christ The Redeemer: Take a train directly from Cosme Velho in Rio De Janeiro to the Christ The Redeemer. The train ride is also believed to be the most scenic of all the modes of transport to reach the statue.

3. Moai, Easter Island, Chile

Easter Island Heads, popularly known as Moai, is another strange yet most famous sculpture in the world. It has also been maintained that most of these statues have bodies buried inside the ground. Which speaks volume of the ancient Easter Island civilization. The most interesting part about these statues is their detailing and how people from that time created monolithic sculptures. A lot of statues with head jutting out of the land can be found on the island which looks so fascinating amidst the infinite grasslands.

First settled: Not clear
Most popular features of Moai: Almost 1000 statues from 1,100 and 1,500 AD
How to reach Moai: Fly to Rapa Nui from Santiago, Chile. Santiago is well connected with major airports across the world.

4. Little Mermaid, Denmark

The bronze statue rests on a rock by the waterfront at Langelinie promenade in Copenhagen, Denmark. The statue is a fine piece of art designed by Edvard Eriksen is yet another of the famous sculptures in the world that must be visited.

Opening date: 1913
Most popular features of Little Mermaid: The statue stands 1.25 m tall and measures 175 kg in weight
How to reach Little Mermaid: The Little Mermaid can be easily reached from the central Copenhagen. The statue sits on a rock at a harbor located north of Copenhagen’s old town. This place is easily accessible by foot or public transport from other parts of the country.

5. The Thinker, Paris

Among all world famous statues, The Thinker is a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin, placed on a stone pedestal. The work shows a nude male figure of over life-size sitting on a rock with his chin resting on one hand. The statue is surrounded by a sprawling garden and a museum. A day out here with family is the most appropriate thing to do. The statue is located in the heart of the city, so it’s not at all difficult reaching there.

First displayed: 1904

6. David Statue, Italy

Of all the classics of the Renaissance era, David by Michaelangelo is one of the finest creations ever. Carved out of a marble, this naked sculpture, located in Firenze in Italy, is certainly one of the famous sculptures in the world that observe a huge number of tourist every year. Today, the statue of Michaelangelo represents Italy as one the perfect place exhibiting Renaissance art.

First unveiled: 1504
Most popular features of David Statue: The statue standing 5.17 m tall was made by Michelangelo between 1501-04
How to reach David Statue: Train is the most convenient way to reach the museum where lies the statue of David. Santa Maria Novella is the station in Florence which is located in the city centre.

7. Terrace Of The Lions, Delos, Greece

Famed for being the birthplace of Apollo and his sister Artemis, Terrace of the Lions is a remarkable archaeological site on Delos Island. Dating back to ancient times, this is one of the famous statues in the world which you must cover on your next trip to Greece. The Terrace of the Lions is a series of 12 stone lions places in the exact position that are believed to be built by people of Naxos in the honor of Apollo.

Some of the statues have weathered over the years because of climatic changes. As of now, the actual feline figures have been moved to the nearby museum so that no other statue gets damaged or destroyed.

Erected in: Before 600 BCE
Most popular features of Terrace of the Lions: Replica of marble statues of lions, as many as 16, from 600 BC stand in a sequence.
How to reach Terrace of the Lions: Ferry operates from Mikonos to Delos. Remember, Delos being an archaeological site doesn’t have a place to stay. Make sure that yours is a day trip.

8. The Statues Of Mount Nemrut, Turkey

Among all the popular attractions that can be found in the Turkish Mountains, The Statues of Mount Nemrut is the most prominent. At 7000 feet, Mt. Nemrut – the throne of Gods, is a breathtaking beauty located in Turkish mountains that dates back to more than 2000 years. Mount Nemrut is a historical site that houses some of the most famous statues in the world.

On top of the mountains, there are a lot of statues of Greek and Persian gods. Massive as the statues are, they are intricately carved and are believed to be the most significant monument of the Kingdom of Commagene. Over the years, the statues have been damaged, therefore, the government has declared it as a protected zone since 1987.

Most popular features of The Statues of Mount Nemrut: A UNESCO World Heritage site, in 1988 Mt. Nemrut was confirmed as a National Park
How to reach The Statues of Mount Nemrut: Reach Adiyaman, (or Gaziantep or Urfa) from Istanbul by air. Adiyaman is the closest to Nemrut. Take a tour to Khata which is a 45-minute ride from Adiyaman. Minibusses to Adiyaman are available from Urfa as well as Gaziantep. The journey takes 2-3 hours to complete.

9. The Motherland Calls Statue, Russia

This monumental statue in Russia was built in the honor of The Battle of Stalingrad. It stands on the bank of the river Volga and is 85 meters tall. It is built on the Mamayev Hill where a memorial exists in the memory of the heroes of the battle. It is an inspiration to many sculptors from across the world because of its unusual structure challenging the geometry. It is a statue of a woman(Motherland) walking with a raised sword calling on to her sons to stand up for the battle. Visitors have to walk up 200 stairs to reach the statue as it signifies the 200 days of battle. The statue has been reportedly tilting a little due to the groundwater movement that is, in turn, shifting the foundation.

Completed in: 1967
Location: Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd, Russia.
Timings: 12:00 to 24:00

10. The Statue of Unity, India

This 182 meters tall Bronze statue of Sardar Vallabhai Patel is the tallest statue in the whole world. Renowned as the architect of modern India who united 562 Princely States to make the Republic of India, Sardar Vallabhai Patel was the first Deputy Prime Minister of independent India. He is fondly known as ‘the Iron Man of India’ who worked for the welfare of farmers.

This giant statue is located in an Island close to the Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat overlooking the Narmada river. There is a museum at the foot of the statue that showcases the lifetime achievements of Sardar Vallabhai Patel. At 150 meters height, a viewing gallery has been constructed which can hold 200 people at a time. Visitors can enjoy a panoramic view of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and the surroundings from here.

Completed in: 2018
How To Reach: Reach Sadhu Bet, Rajpipla, Gujarat by taking a bus from the capital, Gandhinagar.
Entry Fee: INR 350 per person
Timings: 8:00 to 18:00

11. The Manneken Pis, Belgium

Manneken Pis is a bronze fountain statue of a baby boy peeing into a water basin and undeniably one of the famous statues in the world. This 61 cm statue remains the emblem of the rebellious spirit of Brussels. It was installed in the 17th Century and is a most visited place in Belgium. It has played an important role in the distribution of drinking water in Brussels. Sometimes it is nice to see the Manneken Pis dressed in different costumes on major occasions. Visitors can find various tourist shops and waffle stands around this junction.

Completed in: 1618 or 1619
Location: Junction of Ryu de l’E yuv and Rue du Chene

12. Great Sphinx Of Giza, Egypt

Image Source
One of the most famous statues in the world, Great Sphinx of Giza, is a massive work of art that depicts a human head mounted on a massive lion body, all made out of limestone. Watch it at the time of sunset when the sky looks orange-ish with golden sunrays scattered over the massive statue. Add to it the huge Pyramids in the backdrop and there you have, one of the most sumptuous evening ever!

Built in: Approximately 2500 BC
Most popular features of The Great Sphinx Of Giza: Carved from the bedrock of the Giza plateau, Sphinx is a 73 m X 20 m single ridge of limestone, one of the largest single-stone statues in the world, since 1905 people got to see the complete body of the Sphinx, which was covered in sand before.
How to reach The Great Sphinx Of Giza: Take a bus/cab from Midan Tahrir to the Pyramids. Midan Tahrir is Cairo’s public square in the city center, which also serves as the city’s transportation hub. Upon reaching here, you can take a camel or horse ride to reach the Sphinx and Pyramids.

13. Spring Temple Buddha, China

At 128 m, Spring Temple Buddha stands as the world’s tallest statue. It took 11 years to complete this massive structure comprising of 1100 copper casts. The statue standing on a 20 m tall lotus throne is located in Henan province in China. The spring by the temple inspires its name. Such is the charisma of this statue that it would leave you spellbound for sure.

Built in: Between 1997 and 2008
Most popular features of Spring Temple Buddha: The lotus-shaped pedestal also houses a monastery.
How to reach Spring Temple Buddha: Lushan is the closest town to the Spring Temple Buddha. Buses ply from Lushan to the Buddha statue. Since there are no airports nearby, it’s better to take a train from a nearby popular city. If you don’t speak Chinese it’s better to purchase a ticket online as a communication gap can lead to massive confusion at times.

14. The Pieta, Tuscany

One of the oldest and largest statues in the world is The Pieta located in Italy. Every year thousands of tourists come to visit this masterpiece which is known for its unique architecture and culture. The statue depicts mother Mary holding Jesus after the crucifixion.

Established In: In 2500 BC
Most Popular features of The Pieta, Tuscany: Carved out of stone, unique architecture depicting a heart wrenching scene

15. The Terracotta Army, Xian

One of the world famous statues is none other than The Terracotta Army located in China which is carved out of Terracotta clay. Legends say that more than 700,000 labourers worked day in and out to built this masterpiece which is an army where every soldier has a different facial expression.

Established In: 246- 208 BC
Most popular features of The Terracotta Army, Xian: Chromium coating on every soldier carrying a bronze weapon, known for its magnificence

16. Olmec Colossal Heads, San Lorenzo

Olmec Colossal Heads located in Mexico is indeed one of the famous statues around the world. The statue is sculpted out of enormous basalt bounders and the heads have a mysterious history. A total of 17 heads have been discovered till date and each head expressing differently.

Established In: 1200 BC to 1400 BC
Most popular features of Olmec Colossal Heads, San Lorenzo: One of the most remarkable relics which was discovered from the ancient world.

17. The Leshan Giant Buddha, Sichuan

In Lushan, the Leshan Giant Buddha is one of the most popular and tallest statues in China. It is considered to have been carved out of a cliff of Qifeng Peak which is regarded as the largest stone statue of Maitreya. The statue is built over the meeting point of the three rivers which was to calm down the turbulence which occurred due to falling of stones in the river.

Established In: 8th century AD
Most Popular features of The Leshan Giant Buddha, Sichuan: Built on the meeting pint of three rivers, largest stone statue of Maitreya

Wherever they are located these statues have served as a major tourist attraction in the region. Moreover, there are plenty of other things to explore around them. Make sure that you tick them all off your bucket list this year so that you have more unique historical statues in the world to see with your loved ones in the coming year!

Main keywords of the article below: year, bce, uruk, main, mesopotamia, introduced, 2700, time:, statues, cities, eridu, nippur, akkad, worshipper, mesopotamian, male, first.

Mesopotamian male worshipper statues were first introduced around the year 2700 BCE, in the main cities of Mesopotamia at the time: Eridu, Nippur, and Uruk (Akkad). [1] This statue depicts a male worshipper from Mesopotamia around 2700 BCE. The people and families that inhabited Mesopotamia throughout the Early Dynastic period created male worshippers. [1]

Female Worshipper Statue, Mesopotamia (Illustration) - Ancient History Encyclopedia Female Worshipper Statue, Mesopotamia Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin Only the upper half of this clay statue of a naked woman has survived. [2] Because there is not much good stone in Mesopotamia, and also a terrible shortage of wood, the Sumerians made most of their statues out of clay. [3] One of the famous statues of Mesopotamia ia the Tell Asmar sculpture. [4] It was not until after the Akkadian’s took over Mesopotamia that the statues were made by specific groups of people who made the statues for elite members of society. [1]

Majority of the statues of worshippers has been found in northern Mesopotamia which was settled by Semitic peoples in greater extend than other parts of Mesopotamia. [5] Right: Diorite statue of an Akkadian ruler of Ashur, northern Mesopotamia, Iraq. [6] The ten statues in Founding Figures: Copper Sculpture from Ancient Mesopotamia, ca. 3300-2000 BC at the Morgan Library & Museum in Manhattan were never meant for our eyes. [7]

Sculptures, Paintings, and Literature in Mesopotamia Sculptures and Paintings Almost everyone in Mesopotamia had a small statue (although temple sculptures, and carvings would be much larger), depicting one of the Mesopotamian gods. [8] 9788750017813: Statues of Gudea Ancient and Modern (Mesopotamia) - AbeBooks - Flemming Johansen: 8750017810 Passion for books. [9] Since the Hittites of Anatolia were in close contact with civilizations of Mesopotamia, it’s not surprising to find a statue with strikingly large eyes. [10] Look at these two miniature statues from ancient Mesopotamia. [11]

CHICAGO, IL -16 MAY 2015- Founded in 1919, the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago displays art and relics from the Assyrian empire in Mesopotamia, including Lamassu statues. [12] Diorite statue of Gudea, prince of Lagash found in Girsu (today's Tello) in Mesopotamia (today's Iraq). [12]

After Mesopotamia fell to the Persian Achaemenid Empire, which had much simpler artistic traditions, Mesopotamian art was, with Ancient Greek art, the main influence on the cosmopolitan Achaemenid style that emerged, and many ancient elements were retained in the area even in the Hellenistic art that succeeded the conquest of the region by Alexander the Great. [13] The conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia and much surrounding territory by the Neo-Assyrian Empire created a larger and wealthier state than the region had known before, and very grandiose art in palaces and public places, no doubt partly intended to match the splendour of the art of the neighbouring Egyptian empire. [13]

Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Mesopotamia brought significant cultural developments, including the oldest examples of writing. [13]

The northern Royal Palace of Mari produced a number of important objects from before about 1800 BC, including the Statue of Iddi-Ilum, and the most extensive remains of Mesopotamian palace frescos. [13] Gudea, ruler of Lagash (reign ca. 2144 to 2124 BC), was a great patron of new temples early in the period, and an unprecedented 26 statues of Gudea, mostly rather small, have survived from temples, beautifully executed, mostly in "costly and very hard diorite " stone. [13] A group of 12 temple statues known as the Tell Asmar Hoard, now split up, show gods, priests and donor worshippers at different sizes, but all in the same highly simplified style. [13] Similar pieces, small statues or reliefs of deities, were made for altars in homes or small wayside shrines, and small moulded terracotta ones were probably available as souvenirs from temples. [13]

Mesopotamians used metal to carve the stone and to add details such as beards and eyes to the statue. [1] During this time, hundreds of Early Dynastic Mesopotamian statues were discovered. [1] Although the production of the statues changed over time, the meaning and purpose of the statue remained the same: to serve as a way for the people to pay tribute to the gods. [1] Therefore, when an individual or family created a statue and placed it in the temples, they were permanently placing themselves in the presence of the gods so that the people could constantly worship the gods. [1] These statues were created to be placed in the temples to serve as constant worshippers of the gods. [1] The god of a particular temple was thought to literally inhabit that building and most temples were designed with three rooms, all heavily ornamented, the innermost being the room of the god or goddess where that deity resided in the form of his or her statue. [14] These ancient statues were then placed in the high temple on top of the ziggurat. [15] What did ancient mankind try to depict with the 7,000-year-old Reptilian statues? Did these enigmatic beings really exist on Earth? Or are they the product of ancient abstract art? The truth behind the reptilian-like figurines is fascinating and has left scholars in awe, ever since their discovery nearly a century ago. [16] The powerful impression of serene authority that these statues convey justifies their inclusion among the finest products of ancient Middle Eastern art. [17] The well-known group of statues of the governor and other notables, discovered at the end of the 19th century, long remained the only criterion by which Sumerian art could be judged, and examples in the Louvre and British Museum are still greatly admired. [17] - Sumerians made several ancient statues of beings who had very big and blue eyes. [15] An important group of statues is derived from the ancient capital of Mari, on the middle Euphrates, where the population is known to have been racially different from the Sumerians. [17] Sumerian inscription, detail of a diorite statue of Gudea of Lagash, 22nd century bce in the Louvre, Paris. [17] By the beginning of the Bronze Age, about 3000 BC, the Sumerians were making much more complex statues. [3] By 7000 BC, in the first little settled towns, people were making masks and big statues of people. [3] Not only are there still statues of gods and other people of high power being made today, but the technological advancement of the development of such statues has also increased. [1] No clearly identifiable cult statues of gods or goddesses have yet been found. [17] Another importance is the fact that the statues were created to represent individuals’ presence instead of depicting gods. [1] The gods could even visit each other on occasion as in the case of the god Nabu whose statue was carried once a year from Borsippa to Babylon to visit his father Marduk. [14] Statues of votive figures, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar, Iraq). 2700 B. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone. [18] The planning of ground-level temples continued to elaborate on a single theme: a rectangular sanctuary, entered on the cross axis, with altar, offering table, and pedestals for votive statuary (statues used for vicarious worship or intercession). [17] This sculpture belongs to a series of diorite statues commissioned by Gudea, who devoted his energies to rebuilding the great temples of Lagash and installing statues of himself in them. [4] Marduk, himself, was honored greatly in this same way at the New Year Festival in Babylon when his statue was carried out of the temple, through the city, and to a special little house outside the city walls where he could relax and enjoy some different scenery. [14] Similar ancient statues with blue eyes have been discovered in other parts of the world, like for example in Egypt, India and South America. [15] Complete statue of an unknown sitting woman from the ancient city of Hatra. [2] Without access to contemporary texts, it is difficult to say with certainty what the Sumerians were thinking when they created the big blue-eyes statues. [15] Two notable heads of Akkadian statues have survived: one in bronze and the other of stone. [17] Fine examples of metal casting have been found, some of them suggesting knowledge of the cire perdue (lost-wax) process, and copper statues more than half life-size are known to have existed. [17] It is known that these statues were placed in shrines either seated within their own chapels or standing in direct visual contact with the resident deity." [15] It was believed that a statue took on the essence of the owner at all times. [1] The statues of male worshippers are also linked with similar practices in other cultures. [1] In the greater scheme of world history, the male worshipper statues represent the introduction of many different functions of society that still take place today. [1] Statues of male worshippers were made from gypsum, shell, and limestone. [1] One example of a museum that helped excavate Early Dynastic period statues is the Metropolitan Museum, which sponsored excavations during the years of 1957-1958 and 1960-1961. [1] It is the limestone face of a life-size statue (Iraqi Museum, Baghdad), the remainder of which must have been composed of other materials the method of attachment is visible on the surviving face. [17] Most of the statues that are still around today have been excavated by various museums. [1] As a result of the museum sponsoring the excavation process, it was awarded some of the statues. [1] The statue depicts a man with long facial hair, wide eyes and his hands clasped in front of him. [1] The fact that there has never been confirmed an individual ruler is perhaps why the individuals that made the statues did not have a specific position in society during the Early Dynastic period. [1] Male statues were taller whereas female statues were smaller in size. [4] Male statues stand or sit with hands clasped in an attitude of prayer. [17]

Only the upper half of this clay statue of a naked woman has survived. [2]

According to Irene J. Winter at the Columbia University, New York, "the enlarged, staring eyes of Mesopotamian votive statues have often been remarked upon as a characteristic stylistic feature, only occasionally with the proposition that their function must have been to denote attentiveness toward the presumed object of their gaze. [15] Many of the extant figures in stone are votive statues, as indicated by the phrases used in the inscriptions that they often bear: "It offers prayers" or "Statue, say to my king (god)…." [17] This makes Sumerian statues look very different from Egyptian ones of the same time, because the Egyptian ones, cut from square blocks of stone, tend to be squarish, while the Sumerian statues, built up out of lumps of clay, tend to be roundish. [3] The ancient Sumerian statues with big blue eyes have symbolic meaning. [15] Female Sumerian statue found at the Abu Temple in Tell Asmar from c. [18]

Although ceramics developed in East Asia c. 20,000-10,000 BCE, the practice of throwing arose with the invention of the potter's wheel in Mesopotamia around the fourth millennium BCE. The earliest clay vessels date to the Chalcolithic Era, which is divided into the Ubaid (5000-4000 BCE) and Uruk (4000-3100 BCE) periods. [19] Standing female worshiper Period: Early Dynastic IIIa Date: ca. Geography: Mesopotamia, Nippur Culture: Sumerian Medium: Limestone, inlaid with shell and lapis lazuli Dimensions: H. [18] The Ubaid period is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia, the place where according to many, modern civilization was kick-started with the Sumerians. [16] The beginnings of monumental architecture in Mesopotamia are usually considered to have been contemporary with the founding of the Sumerian cities and the invention of writing, about 3100 bce. [17] It has been thought that the rarity of stone in Mesopotamia contributed to the primary stylistic distinction between Sumerian and Egyptian sculpture. [17]

The enigmatic 7,000-year-old statuettes discovered by scientists in Mesopotamia show an odd resemblance to modern-day depictions of reptilian humanoids, and some have even suggested the worship of the Reptilian Gods is strictly connected to the Ancient Anunnaki. [16] The name Mesopotamia has been used with varying connotations by ancient writers. [17]

Cite this page: Carr, K.E. West Asian art history - Mesopotamia and Iran. [3] The people of Mesopotamia relied on their gods for every aspect of their lives, from calling on Kulla, the god of bricks, to help in the laying of the foundation of a house, to petitioning the goddess Lama for protection, and so developed many tales concerning these deities. [14] While Assyrian artists were greatly influenced by the Babylonian style, a distinctly Assyrian artistic style began to emerge in Mesopotamia around 1500 BCE. [19] The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia. [19] The current archaeological record dates sculpture in Mesopotamia the tenth millennium BCE, before the dawn of civilization. [19] Associate Professor of Neurology and lover of the Cradle of Civilization, Mesopotamia. [2]

The eagle-headed being touches traditions and beliefs that go back thousands of years in Mesopotamia, when similar images of terracotta would be buried under doorways or set up at the entrances of palaces and temples. [4] The invention of the round arch in the general area of Mesopotamia influenced the construction of structures like the Ishtar Gate in the sixth century BCE. [19] This constant traffic paired with the introduction of written text were two of the main reasons that Mesopotamia developed the first cities, which served as focal points for economic activity as well as centers for religious practices. [1] If we travel halfway around the world, from Mesopotamia to the Pacific Coast, we will find extremely interesting details present in the Hopi culture. [16] …are the clay tablets of Mesopotamia and the papyrus rolls of Egypt. [17] Not only did the implementation of irrigation aid in Mesopotamia's economic climb, but trade and advanced channels of communication and travel also brought many people and external resources to Mesopotamia. [1]

By the time of the Uruk period (ca. 4100-2900 BCE), the volume of trade goods transported along the canals and rivers of southern Mesopotamia facilitated the rise of many large, stratified, temple-centered cities where centralized administrations employed specialized workers. [19] Sumer was an ancient civilization in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages. [19] Date and site of excavation are unknown, but probably she was found in in a temple at the city of Isin (modern-day Ishan Al-Bahriyat, Al-Qadisiyyah Governorate, Iraq, southern Mesopotamia ). [2]

During this time, the first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was established at Eridu by farmers who first pioneered irrigation agriculture. [19] Cities became walled and increased in size as undefended villages in southern Mesopotamia disappeared. [19]

Mesopotamian Religion - Ancient History Encyclopedia Mesopotamian Religion Joshua J. Mark In ancient Mesopotamia, the meaning of life was for one to live in concert with the gods. [14] Looking back at our history, we will find that reptilian worship isn't exclusive to ancient Mesopotamia. [16]

With the conquest of the Sumerian city-states by Sargon of Akkad about 2340 BC Mesopotamia entered a new period, commonly known as the Akkadian Period during which occurred major changes in virtually all aspects of life including art. [5] Art and architecture in Mesopotamia are commonly divided into different periods: Sumerian period, Babylonian period, Assyrian period, etc. [5] Stylized, geometric art was the norm in Mesopotamia (with, of course, immense variation over time) from pre-history up to at least the Islamic period. [20] Mesopotamia after the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC flourished for the last time during the period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire which reached its zenith during the reign of Nebuchadrezzar II (604-562 BC) who was also a great builder. [5] Hittite Empire emerged in Asia Minor about the same time as Mittani Kingdom in northern Mesopotamia. [5]

The blocks of stone must have been transported along ancient roads from distant trading partners to the Bronze Age cities of Mesopotamia. [6] "This shows that the civilizations of Mesopotamia and southeastern Iran were in direct contact in the Early Bronze Age," says Pfälzner of the Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies. [6]

Mesopotamia - the land between the rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates - is an ancient Greek term used by archaeologists to refer to the area now roughly equivalent to the modern country of Iraq. [21] In the same area, the archaeologists also found deposits of chlorite, which was used to make stone vessels traded as far away as Mesopotamia and the Levant. [6]

History of Mesopotamia was characterized by numerous invasions and conquests which also greatly influenced art and architecture. [5] Religion and religious organization played very important role in both art and architecture in Mesopotamia. [5] Mittani Kingdom which emerged in Northern Mesopotamia about 1500 BC did not significantly contribute to the Mesopotamian art and architecture. [5]

Harps are known from the earliest period of written history, but the fringed robe and close-fitting cap of this harpist are typical for the early second millennium B.C. in Mesopotamia. [21] Short, squat jars with painted decoration on the shoulder and four pierced lugs are characteristic of the period around 3000 B.C. in Mesopotamia. [21] Founding Figures: Copper Sculpture from Ancient Mesopotamia, ca. 3300-2000 B.C. continues through August 21 at the Morgan Library and Museum (225 Madison Avenue, Midtown East, Manhattan). [7]

The symbolic images of the gods present almost exclusively the Babylonian deities which means the Kassite adopted the Babylonian culture, while the images of kings granting the land to their vassals clearly indicate that the feudal system became the predominant social and political system in Mesopotamia. [5] During the Early Dynastic Period in Mesopotamia, statuettes were placed in sanctuaries as votive offerings and were later buried when the temple was remodelled or rebuilt. [21]

The arrival of the Semitic peoples which took place slowly also resulted changes in the Sumerian language but latter was used in literature until the 1st millennium BC. The Early Dynastic Period is notable for the worshippers, small statues of individuals were placed in front of the deities in the temples. [5] Stone and wood as natural sources were very rare and the Sumerian artists and artisans mostly used clay which explains the soft and round appearance of the Sumerian sculptures in compare to the Egyptian statues. [5]

Some examples, an Assyrian mythological sculpture, a statue of Gilgamesh, Hammurabi, King Darius (admittedly not quite Mesopotamian), etc. [20] Was this just the popular style of artistry or is this what their beards would actually look like? In Ancient Mesopotamian statues, beards often appear to be ridged and segmented. [20] The archaeologists found diorite and gabbro in the Iranian province of Kerman, not far from the Persian Gulf, which matches that used in the Mesopotamian statues. [6] Building, historical, or votive inscriptions mentioning royal personages are found not just on tablets of clay, stone, or precious metals, but also on clay tags, bricks, nails, cones, cylinders, and prisms on stone stelae, wall slabs, plaques, statues, socles, vessels, mace heads, door pivots, and foundation pegs and on metal foundation deposits, figurines, vessels and weapon blades. [22] A team of scientists matched stone in statues and religious icons to a quarry in the French Alps, reconstructing a medieval European art trade route. [23] In a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. Kloppmann and a team of art historians, geologists and geochemists traced the origins of more than 60 alabaster statue. [23] Other statues of the mythical beasts belong to cities like ancient Dur Sharrukin (current Khorsabad, Iraq). [24] The gypsum statue was found buried beneath the floor of a shine at Nippur in Iraq and mesures inches wide at. [25] The Sumerian revival can be noticed already in the votive statues of Gudea of Lagash (c. 2150 BC) found in the court of the palace of Adad-nadin-ahhe in Telloh, Iraq, although some authors consider them an intermezzo between the last Akkadian ruler and Ur-Nammu, the first king of the Third Dynasty of Ur. [5] Opinions of scholars about the statues of Gudea might be divided but there is no doubt that Sumerian revival was in full-scale during the rule of the Third Dynasty of Ur. [5] His father Gudea appeared dozens of statues and busts completely shorn, and while the earliest depictions of his successor follow that style, the last one of Ur-Ningirsu to survive shows him with a beard as long as any Akkadian and in the same coils. [20] Two notable heads of Akkadian statues discovered so far suggest great progress in portrait sculpture. [5]

In 1907, Morgan acquired the foundation figure that is the centerpiece of Founding Figures : a delicately sculpted statue of the King Ur-Namma from 2112 to 2094 BCE. [7] The most famous colossal statues of Lamassu have been excavated at the sites of the Assyrian capitals established by King Assurnasirpal II (reigned 883 - 859 BC) and King Sargon II (reigned 721 - 705 BC). [24]

Uncovering an Overlooked Source for Iconic Alabaster Statues - The New York Times no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. [23] They used a tiny chisel to collect just a flake that measured only two millimeters from the base or rear of each statue. [23] Medieval and Renaissance sculptors carved gorgeous statues and religious icons from alabaster, a soft, creamy white stone similar to marble. [23] It is thought to depict a priest because it lacks the full beard and long hair of other male statues of its type. [21]

Some of the earliest, most basal examples that I'm aware of are these votive statues from the Early Dynastic period (the earlier part of the Third Millennium BCE, when organized, urban temple-palace complexes were really starting to take off). [20] Archaeologists have found evidence of trade routes between Bronze Age Iran and Mesopotamia. [6] Lamassu are human-headed, eagle-winged, bulls or lions that once protected cities in Mesopotamia. [24] Mesopotamia was the land between the two rivers, Tigris & Euphrates, which originated in Turkey, flowed from north to south through Iraq and Kuwait, and emptied into the Persian Gulf. [26] The most exhaustive source you can read for more on the former is Betty L. Schlossman's Portraiture in Mesopotamia in the Late Third and Early Second Millennium BC, which covers far more than I could. [20]

Firstly: Andrea Sinclair's Colour Symbolism in Ancient Mesopotamia gives a pretty fascinating summary of how color was conceived and textualized in Mesopotamian literature. [20] King Ur-Nammu rebuilt and enlarged one of the most important temples in ancient Mesopotamia - the E-kur of Enlil, the chief god of the pantheon. [21] The material that has been brought back as a result of divisions of finds from these expeditions forms one of the major world collections, covering in depth the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia. [21] This follow-up question has been removed, as it is too far off-topic from the OP's question about beard styles in Ancient Mesopotamia. [20]

In central and southern Mesopotamia, both stamp and cylinder seals appeared together near the end of the third millennium B.C. Many stamp seals were carved in the form of an animal or an animal head, and the sealing surface was decorated with simple designs - often representing animals - comprised of drill-holes and incised lines. [21]

The beginnings of monumental architecture in Mesopotamia are usually considered to have been contemporary with the founding of the Sumerian cities and the invention of writing, in about 3100 BC. Conscious attempts at architectural design during this so-called Protoliterate period (c. 3400-c. 2900 BC) are recognizable in the construction of religious buildings. [27] Mesopotamia has a long history, and that history has been filled with art. [11] People of Mesopotamia were the first to use the wheel. -at first wheels were made from solid pieces of wood that were clamped together -they developed axles and attached wheel to boards to build carts for transporting goods for trade. -wheels were also used in chariots for warfare. [28] Mesopotamia, or the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Near/Middle East, is often called one of the cradles of civilization because it was here, in roughly the 4th millennium BCE, that the first major Western Eurasian civilizations arose. [11] Mesopotamia is also where some of the world's first settled societies developed in the 10th millennium BCE. [11]

Explain why people in Mesopotamia needed to control rivers. [28]

In this lesson, you will explore the art of ancient Mesopotamia and discover how the styles of naturalism and stylization were used by ancient artists. [11] In ancient Mesopotamia, a common form of abstraction was anthropomorphic art, in which a figure has both human and animal traits. [11] In ancient Mesopotamia, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, art was an important part of daily life. [11]

By depicting the gods and kings with a high degree of realism, but still with anthropomorphic abstractions, artists blended the physical and spiritual to represent the world of ancient Mesopotamia, filed with magic and wonder. [11]

Statues of Mesopotamian kings, while appearing natural, often exaggerate physical traits deemed to be kingly, like muscles or a large beard. [11] The statues that have been found in Mesopotamian lands most frequently are missing their eyes. [10] The Ram in a Thicket statue, made in southern Iraq around 2500 BCE, depicts a goat, an animal that was very common and very important as one of the main subsistence animals of the time period. [11] The clip also showed militants using power tools to destroy the colossal winged bull statues that stand guard at the Nergal Gate Museum at Nineveh, the ancient Assyrian capital near Mosul. [29] According to a translation by The New York Times, a man shown in the video says, "The prophet, peace be upon him, ordered us to remove and obliterate statues. [29] These statues, would be made of terracotta, gypsum, stone, or copper. [8] Suppiluliuma, statue of the Hittite king from Tell Tayinat in Anatolia. [10] Further examination shows that the eyes were abnormally large and round, unlike those on Egyptian statues. [10]

Many of the extant figures in stone are votive statues, as indicated by the phrases used in the inscriptions that they often bear: "It offers prayers," or "Statue, say to my king (god)." [27]

In ancient Mesopotamia, marble was used to create crude models of animals (both naturalistic and anthropomorphic) and figures, though other mediums like limestone, diorite, and terra-cotta were used more frequently. [30]

The exhibition focuses attention on the distinctive style and far-reaching influence of the art created by the Sumerians of lower Mesopotamia, a people who founded the first cities, invented writing, created monumental architecture and developed irrigation, poetry and the rule of law. [31] Under the restored Sumerian rule, Mesopotamia was again dominated by thriving agriculturally-based cities. [32] The Sumerians created the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia around 3000 b.c.e. [32] The south was long thought to be the cradle of civilization until earlier settlements (which probably date from about 7000 BC) were found in N Mesopotamia Jarmo, the earliest of these, was superseded by a succession of cultures: Tell Hassuna, Samarra, and Tell Halaf. [32] Between 3000 b.c.e. and 300 b.c.e. the civilizations thriving in Mesopotamia, a large region centered between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in modern-day Iraq, laid the foundation for customs that would dominate later European culture. [32] As Iraq fitfully rebuilds, a groundbreaking exhibition is showcasing that nation's rich roots in Mesopotamia, the region that gave birth to the world's first urban civilization some 5,000 years ago. [31]

Mesopotamia (msptm), ancient region of Asia, the territory about the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, included in modern Iraq. [32] Mesopotamia Ancient region between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates in sw Asia, roughly corresponding to modern Iraq. [32]

April 21, 2018, Sanliurfa, Turkey, Ruins of the ancient city of Harran in mesopotamia (It is one of the first science centers in the world. [12] Ruins of the ancient city of Harran in upper mesopotamia, near the province of Sanliurfa in Turkey. [12]

Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. [33] Assyrians had prospered in Mesopotamia for many centuries, but by 911 b.c.e. the society began conquering surrounding areas and united Mesopotamia into one enormous empire that encompassed the Taurus Mountains of modern-day Turkey, the Mediterranean coast, and portions of Egypt. [32]

Though many different societies emerged and organized cities, states, and empires in Mesopotamia, historians study these cultures together because they lived near each other and had many similarities. [32] Mesopotamia still had prestige at the time of Alexander the Great, but later it was generally a part of the Roman Empire. [32]

Living among the Sumerians for many years, the Akkadians took power of Mesopotamia around 2350 b.c.e. [32] Weaving and selling cloth produced much wealth for Mesopotamia and temples employed thousands of women in making cloth. [34] This worship took place in temples which were often the most central and were considered to be the most important buildings in Mesopotamia. [35] In examining these two cultures one can surmise that these differences are mainly due to the political, economic, social, religious, and geographic differences between Egypt and Mesopotamia. [36] Tell Halaf, the most advanced of these early cultures, is famous for Halaf ware, the finest prehistoric pottery in Mesopotamia. [32] The development of written language in Mesopotamia provides historians and archeologists, scientists who study past cultures, with information about daily life in the distant past. [32] Descriptions of how the people of Mesopotamia acted toward one another, how they dressed and cleaned themselves, how they prepared for weddings, how they organized businesses, and how they ruled by law are among the things that are recorded in written language. [32] Even with this information, it is impossible to know if we truly understand what the people of Mesopotamia looked like or exactly what they wore. [32]

Elaborate gold earrings, hairpins and beaded necklaces from Troy resemble aspects of jewelry found in Greece, central Turkey, Mesopotamia and the IndusValley. [31] The early dynastic phase that followed saw the development of city-states all over the Middle East as far as N Syria, N Mesopotamia, and probably Elam. [32]

The resulting material object of this act (statue of the Mesopotamian king Gudea let's say) continuously refers to its subject's body (king Gudea's own body), by the help of its representationality and its technologies of production. [37] Gudea, Prince of Lagash Seated statue dedicated to the god Ningishzida, Tello (ancient Girsu), ca. 2120 B.C. [38] Based on where they were found and the inscriptions they bear, we know that these statues functioned as standins for Gudea in temples, serving as evidence of his piousness to the gods and, as importantly, of his wealth and power to temple visitors. [38] Though Gudea only ruled a section of Sumeria for 20 years, 27 statues of the king have been found and classified by archaeologists. [38] In the end, the gambit worked: much of what we know about Gudea comes to us from his statues and where they were found. [38]

Art historical approaches to ancient statuary usually follows the idea that statues as representations of individuals (like the figurines, or portraits) are secondary in relation to the real subjects that they re-present. [37] Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and their intellectual colleagues from across the ages converse, debate, and teach, while marble statues of Apollo and Minerva preside in their roles as patron god and goddess of the arts. [38] The representations, the effigies, the figurines, the cave paintings, the statues of gods and kings, Trobriand canoe-prows, fear-inducing shields (to follow Gell's examples) are recruited militantly to make changes in the material worlds. [37] The Sumerians created statues and pictures of stocky, large-eyed people while the Assyrians depicted people as lean, strong, and hairy. [32] At the same time as they multiplied and defended their conquests, Assyrians built cities with large buildings and statues. [32]

The artifacts left by these cultures include clay and stone statues, carvings on palace walls, carved ivory, some wall paintings, and jewelry. [32] Most of Gudea’s statues were carved from diorite, the dark, hard-to-work stone that the Egyptian pharaohs also used to render their portraits immortal. [38] The statues made by sculptors offer simplified depictions of people and their clothing, making it difficult to know the type of fabric used in a particular garment. [32] Guarding the entrance to the 100 feet tall temple are four enormous statues of the Pharaoh, who ruled for roughly 66 years during the 19th dynasty. [36] Mis pi was also performed whenever a new temple or statue was created. [35] Though each statue is unique, they all share the same style and have recognizable facial features, dress, and an upright, broad-shouldered pose with clutched hands. [38] The Metropolitan exhibition opens with a limestone statue of a full-bearded "priest king" believed to be from 3300-3000 b.c. [31] The deity takes form in the statue, just as in a sacred animal or natural phenomena." [37]

Ancient Mesopotamia is known as the "land of rivers" and is also considered the cradle of civilization. [33] The artworks of Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are both strikingly different and similar at the same time. [36]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(38 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

How the vandalism of statues challenges our understanding of Canadian history

Last month, a monument of Canada's first prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, was toppled in Montreal. But it wasn't the first statue to come down in Canada.

In 2018, a statue of Macdonald was removed from the grounds of Victoria's city hall. That same year, a statue of Edward Cornwallis — who is called one of the founders of Halifax — was removed from a park in that city.

In 2020, the actions of these historical figures are being seen in a different light — with many acknowledging the harm they caused to Indigenous people.

Omeasoo Wahpasiw is Cree and a professor at the University of Prince Edward Island, and she has studied how public spaces — and the statues that adorn them — give preference to a particular side of Canada's history.

"All of the spaces that we are surrounded by shape our perception of that location … and statues contribute very much to that perception of how the society operates, what are its rules, what are its values and what does it stand for?" said Wahpasiw.

Wahpasiw said she watched the video of the John A. Macdonald statue in Montreal being toppled several times, and found it particularly telling of the side of history given preference in this country.

"[The statue] valorizes one side of the story that Canada wants to share, it valorizes a story that has been violent, resulted in genocide and created a strong dynamic of inequality within our country that we don't like to acknowledge," said Wahpasiw.

"[The inequality is] embodied in the actions of John A. McDonald, who is seen by Canadians as a great hero, the architect of confederation, the creator of the railroads."

"It undermines and hides the story of the actual people, [the Indigenous people], who welcomed newcomers to this land, the people who had a different worldview and values that could have shaped this country in a different scenario."

In Charlottetown, where Wahpasiw currently lives, there's a statue of John A. Macdonald sitting on a bench. The statue has been vandalized several times, including being tipped over just last month.

Like with other statues of the controversial prime minister found across the country, Wahpasiw said there are people who want to see the Charlottetown statue removed.

"The local Mi'kmaq community got together a few weeks ago [at the statue] … and a residential school survivor draped a Mi'kmaq flag over top of John A. Macdonald's shoulder, and then discussed her experience of residential school," said Wahpasiw.

"[The survivor explained] how painful it was that . the city was valorizing a human being that destroyed a significant portion of [her] life."

Last June, the Charlottetown statue had red paint poured on it, which Wahpasiw sees as an interesting commentary on how our views of history are always evolving.

"I think that the continued vandalism of these kinds of statues is an important representation of continued engagement in that history," said Wahpasiw.

"By pouring red paint on it, we demonstrate a new way of looking at history … it demonstrates that as a society and citizens, we continue to change and reevaluate our histories."

The use of red paint is particularly telling of the new narratives being told.

"The red paint represents … the blood that is on John A. Macdonald's hands," said Wahpasiw.

"[It represents Macdonald's] efforts to erase, delete, and murder us through various policies, including the removal of the buffalo for the purpose of the railroad, the starvation that took place because of the loss of the buffalo, the starvation that took place because of Indian Act policies, including the reserve system and high mortality rates in residential schools."

But for Wahpasiw, red paint is also an inspirational colour that speaks to the resistance and survival of Indigenous people.

"The red also represents … the national colour of Indigenous people across Turtle Island … and so [it represents] the power and resilience of our nations … and our celebration of life," said Wahpasiw.

Watch the video: Statue honouring real women unveiled in New Yorks Central Park


  1. Takis

    but another variant is?

  2. Odakota

    Of course. This was and with me. We can communicate on this topic.

  3. Yunus

    Rather good idea

  4. Evinrude

    The youth rock group Ranetki says thank you for such a wonderful blog!

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