Part of B-17 Formation (4 of 6)

Part of B-17 Formation (4 of 6)

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Part of B-17 Formation (4 of 6)

A view to the starboard of a B-17 in a formation of aircraft from the 1st Air Division, 8th Air Force.

Pictures provided by Sgt. Robert S. Tucker Sr. (Member of: The American Air Museum in Britain {Duxford} ).
Robert S. WWII Photo Book, Mighty 8th. AF, Ground Crew


All of this information is part of a ___ in a database.

a. record
b. row
c. column
d. field

What other information do you need to add to complete the database above?

a. cell fill color
b. fields
c. field names
d. borders

What database?? These don't make any sense.

hey do you know the answers for this thank you

1. Record.
2. Field names.
It shows in the lesson

I know cause that's the answer they gave me. Blah blah was 75% cause number 4 was wrong.

Blah Blah was incorrect its

souler is correct. Its


i promise just took it thank you!!

If you are a connexus student the answers are

1. A
2. C
3. A
4. C
These are connexus answers for Quickcheck 2018
Lesson 4: Unit 4 : Microsoft
Educational Tech and Online Learning 8
Your Welcome 100%

blah blah is correct for Connexus.

Main Lesson Content.
Lesson 5: Creating a Pivot Table Connections Education
Educational Technology and Online Learning 8 Unit 4: Microsoft® Excel

2. C
3. A
4. C
Is correct for connections academy.

i know that previous people said it but what got me 100% were these answers,

blah blah, souler, and armonandtrey are spome people that i know have the correct answers for Connexus Ed Tech Unit 4 Lesson 4

Ask someone for a hint

Guys talk in code using words so ur message won’t be blocked

100% i just did it
Connexions academy
You're welcome ya'll

1. A - record
2. C - field names
3. A - format the table
4. C - blank fields or records
100% for 2019

scew you blah blah was incorrect 4 is C you frickin noobie

blah blah is still correct as of 2019.

Surprised they haven't gotten around to changing any of the stuff on the quick checks.

aye mate, they screw you over on the unit tests though.

ACAC for 2019 Lesson 3: Creating a Database Unit 5

If you put ACAC then your right

november 2019, A C A C is correct

Hal once again correct. 1A, 2C, 3A, 4C

Blah blah is right its

its acac that goes for the new quick check

Stop trying to give people the wrong answers, if its a typo, make sure to check before you submit next time.

It's still A C A C! as of 6 PM 12/7/2020

believe it or not the answer is still ACAC. thats all folks *flies away*

1. Operation Spring of Youth

Spring of Youth was part of a larger operation with a cooler name (Wrath of God. Awesome). It was Israeli Mossad’s (intelligence service) response to the 1972 Munich Massacre. Israeli agents systematically hunted down and assassinated those involved with planning the Olympic massacre.

I know this is from the movie Munich, but still – anyone who kills a bunch of Israelis shouldn’t look so surprised that they died.

In 1973, Israeli commandos from Sayeret Matkal, Sayeret 13, and Sayeret Tzanhanim – elite special forces squads – came ashore in Lebanon near Beirut. Mossad agents drove them to buildings where senior members of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), and Black September terrorist organizations lived. The commandos were disguised as tourists, some even dressed as women.

All three Palestinian targets were killed in the raids, along with hundreds of bodyguards, some Lebanese troops and policemen, and an Italian neighbor. One team of paratroopers met heavy resistance attacking the PFLP building, and so ended up destroying the whole building with explosives. The Israelis lost two soldiers in the raid. The commandos were then casually driven back to the beaches for exfiltration.

Part of B-17 Formation (4 of 6) - History

Wartime History
On December 6, 1941 took off piloted by 1st Lt. Frank P. Bostrom as part of an unarmed ferry flight that departed Hamilton Field bound for Hickam Field. On December 7, 1941 in the the morning incoming Japanese aircraft detected on radar were dismissed as the expected flight of B-17s. The formation of B-17s arrived during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and Oahu. This bomber was accidentally fired on by a U.S. Navy (USN) destroyer and attacked by A6M2 Zeros. This B-17 sustained some damage but none of the crew were injured. Afterwards, this B-17 landed at Kuhuku Golf Course but sank into the ground.

Afterwards, the landing gear was dug out and readied for take off from the golf course. On December 9, 1941 took off from Kuhuku Golf Course and landed at Hickam Field. Sometime afterwards, painted in Hawaiian Air Depot (HAD) three color camouflage scheme consisting of dark green, olive drab and tan upper surfaces with standard gray lower surfaces. For the remainder of December 1941, flew reconnaissance missions from Hickam Field over the Pacific Ocean area off Hawaii.

On February 10, 1942 departed Hickam Field on a ferry flight bound for Australia. During the flight, a directive was issued that all B-17 type aircraft were to be referred to as Hudson Mark 6 aircraft in all communications that involved wireless transmission.

On February 22, 1942 in the evening at Garbutt Field at Townsville sustained damage to the right wing and no. 4 engine when the left wing of B-17E 41-2434 hit this bomber while taxing. As a result, both bombers were unable to participate in the first American bombing mission against Rabaul. Heavily damaged, this B-17 was stripped for usable parts. Immediately, the left wing tip was used to repair B-17E 41-2434.

By April 1942, it was stripped of all usable parts. Officially written off at Brisbane January 31, 1944.

USAF Serial Number Search Results - B-17E Fortress 41-2416
"2416 delivered Salt Lake SAD Nov 28, 1941. Assigned to 88th RS, 7th BG, then 19th BG, 40th RS. Was one of the planes that arrived over Pearl Harbor Dec 7, 1941. slightly damaged by Japanese strafing and landed at Kuhuku golf course. Transferred to 88th RS, 19th BG, then to 7th BG. Damaged at Townsville, Australia Feb 22, 1942 when collided with 41-2434. *San Antonio Rose * staged through Batchelor Field to Del Monte Philippines on bombing sortie against Japanese landings at Legaspi Mar 1942. Eventualy used as hangar queen in Australia. WFU at Brisbane Jan 31, 1944."
Fortress Against The Sun (2001) pages 19, 153

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The B-24

The Davis Wing

&ldquoEarly in January, 1939 Fleet called designer Frank W. Fink into his office and told him they had decided to build a better bomber than Boeing's B-17. They informed Fink that he was to be project engineer for the new design and that a wooden mockup was to be ready in two weeks. When Fink asked what the new bomber looked like, he was told that this was to be a completely new project and the design hadn't even reached the basic drawing stage. He was then given a quick description of the new bomber - he would use the Model 31's Davis wing, its twin tail, four engine nacelles from the PBY Catalina and he would design a new fuselage with two bomb bays, each as large as the bomb bay of the B-17. He had 14 days to create the mock up, while Fleet and Laddon went to Washington to sell the new bomber to the U.S. Army.&rdquo

December 28, 1939 was the first flight for the B-24 prototype.

And you thought the 90 days to design and build a P-51 from drawing to first flight was fast.

The US Army after getting a look at the B-17, and with the chances of war in China and Europe likely, looked at the bomb load, the distance to targets in Germany, Japan, Italy, that would have to be hit to fulfill the theory of air victory, had asked the aviation industry for a plane that could carry even more bombs and fly farther than what the B-17 could achieve.

The design team choose a wing - the 'Davis' wing - that is thinner when compared to the B-17 but generates more lift. However, the plane is heavier and the plane has to fly faster to achieve takeoff speed and just in cruise.

However, the Davis wing on the Liberator creates an altitude design limit by using the efficient wing which limited its high altitude ceiling since it used the same horsepower as the Fortress - thus with a combat load it could not get to the same altitude as a B-17. The pre-war thick B-17 wing is more lift efficient at a slower speed in thinner air.

The disk instability model

Although the core accretion model works fine for terrestrial planets, gas giants would have needed to evolve rapidly to grab hold of the significant mass of lighter gases they contain. But simulations have not been able to account for this rapid formation. According to models, the process takes several million years, longer than the light gases were available in the early solar system. At the same time, the core accretion model faces a migration issue, as the baby planets are likely to spiral into the sun in a short amount of time.

According to a relatively new theory, disk instability, clumps of dust and gas are bound together early in the life of the solar system. Over time, these clumps slowly compact into a giant planet. These planets can form faster than their core accretion rivals, sometimes in as little as a thousand years, allowing them to trap the rapidly-vanishing lighter gases. They also quickly reach an orbit-stabilizing mass that keeps them from death-marching into the sun.

According to exoplanetary astronomer Paul Wilson, if disk instability dominates the formation of planets, it should produce a wide number of worlds at large orders. The four giant planets orbiting at significant distances around the star HD 9799 provides observational evidence for disk instability. Fomalhaut b, an exoplanet with a 2,000-year orbit around its star, could also be an example of a world formed through disk instability, though the planet could also have been ejected due to interactions with its neighbors.

Operation Aphrodite: America's World War II Experiment with B-17 Suicide Drones

Key point: Even as early as the 1940s many countries were experimenting with what are today called drones.

When it came to advanced military technology in World War II, arguably no one was better at it than Nazi Germany, whose scientists Adolf Hitler keep busy trying to invent the ultimate “super weapon” capable of defeating his enemies.

For a while, it seemed that Germany might just succeed. After all, it was the Germans who had created, tested, and deployed the V-1 flying bomb, the V-2 ballistic missile, the Fritz X glide bomb, and a family of jet-powered aircraft. German tanks were, in many respects, superior to American tanks. Only in the race to build an atomic bomb were the German scientists lagging behind the United States and Great Britain.

During Operation Avalanche—the invasion of Salerno, Italy, on September 9, 1943—the Allies had their first encounter with German drones. After Allied landing craft deposited infantry on the beaches south of the city, the battleships, cruisers, and destroyers accompanying the troop transports became targets of an unexpected new weapons system: a radio-controlled glide bomb called the Fritz X.

The Fritz X (also known variously as the Ruhrstahl SD 1400 X, Kramer X-1, FX 1400, and PC 1400X) was 11 feet long, had four stubby wings, carried 705 pounds of amatol explosive in an armor-piercing warhead, and had an operational range of just over three miles. It could reach a speed of 770 mph—faster than any aircraft of the day.

Early on September 13, a Dornier Do-217 K-2 bomber released a Fritz X from an altitude of 18,700 feet gunners aboard the USS Savannah (CL-42), a 9,475-ton Brooklyn-class light cruiser, saw the missile and tried to shoot it down as it streaked toward them, but without success. The drone slammed into the top of a 6-inch gun turret and penetrated deep into Savannah’s hull before exploding and killing 197 sailors and wounding 15 more. Only through sheer luck and incredible bravery on the part of her remaining crew was the badly damaged ship able to make port in Malta.

That drone was one of several used against American warships on September 13. Others barely missed the cruiser USS Philadelphia, while the British light cruiser HMS Uganda was hit that same afternoon two cargo ships may also have been struck. Three days later, the British battleship HMS Warspite was also hit by a guided bomb but remained afloat.

The United States was shocked by the technological lead the Germans had opened up in sky-borne weapons. Of course, by August 1944, the United States was already well along in its development of an atomic bomb, but in other aspects of weaponry America had slipped behind.

The United States began looking at ways to deliver a huge, conventional payload precisely on target. Even with the vaunted Norden bombsight, the boasted concept of “precision daylight bombing” rarely lived up to its billing.

What if, some officer in Washington D.C., said, we stuffed an unmanned bomber full of explosives and, by radio control or some other method, flew it directly into a target? The idea sounded good, especially since the United States (and Britain, too) was losing so many aviators on bombing runs over enemy-held territory. But how to accomplish it?

Engineers began working on the concept but discovered that it was well nigh impossible, given the technology of the time, to get a pilotless bomber to taxi and take off by remote control. The idea then evolved to a pilot and co-pilot taking off in an explosives-laden B-17 or B-24, gaining altitude, then bailing out over England while a trailing aircraft controlled the plane by radio signals, finally crashing it into the target.

On August 4, 1944, the Air Force put the concept to the test against hard-to-knock-out targets (such as V-1 and V-2 missile-launching sites, submarine pens, and deep underground installations) in what was called Operation Aphrodite.

The U.S. Army Air Forces loaded four war-weary, modified B-17 bombers, redesignated BQ-7s, each with 12,000 pounds of Torpex, which was used in both aerial and underwater torpedoes and was 50 percent more powerful than TNT.

The first test run out of RAF Fersfield, home of the 38th Bomb Group located northeast of London near Norwich, did not go well. The first B-17 took to the air and the pilots bailed out safely the plane, however, spiraled into the ground with a resultant massive explosion near the coastal village of Orford. The second plane developed problems with the radio-control system and it, too, crashed the pilot was also killed when he bailed out too soon. A third B-17 met a similar fate.

The fourth plane fared better, although it crashed about 1,500 feet short of its target, a massive, hardened V-2 site at Watten-Eperlecques in the Pas-de-Calais region of France, doing very little damage.

Three days later, Aphrodite was repeated––with similarly disappointing results. Two planes crashed into the sea off England, while a third was shot down over Gravelines, France. A third test resulted in a B-17 crewmember dying when something went wrong during his parachute jump the plane continued on to its destination in Heligoland but was shot down before it reached its target.

On September 3, 1944, an Aphrodite B-17 (#63945) attempted to attack the U-boat pens at the small German coastal town of Heide, Heligoland, Schleswig-Holstein, but the U.S. Navy controller accidentally crashed the plane into Düne Island. Eight days later, in one more attempt to hit the submarine pens, another radio-controlled B-17 came close but was downed by ground fire.

As terrifying as the V-2 rockets were to those on the receiving end, the Nazis were preparing an even more diabolical weapon: the V-3 “super cannon,” also called the London Gun. When completed, the underground cannon, whose barrel was 460 feet long, was supposedly capable of firing in an hour five 300-pound shells more than 100 miles. The muzzle velocity of the monster gun was estimated to be almost 5,000 feet per second. In September 1943, German engineers had begun preparing a site at Mimoyecques, France, from which the shells could be fired across the Pas de Calais and into London.

The Allies were tipped off to this new weapon by the French Resistance, which also reported that slave laborers were involved in its construction. Considered even more accurate and devastating than the V-1s and V-2s, the V-3 had to be neutralized. On July 6, 1944, RAF 617 Squadron attacked the site with several five-ton “Tall Boy” bombs and essentially put the site out of commission no V-3 shells were ever fired.

Either the U.S. Army Air Forces was not informed that the V-3 site was hors d’combat or, for some reason, decided to hit it again an Aphrodite mission was scheduled to hit Mimoyecques on August 12, 1944. This mission would be carried out by U.S. Navy aviator Lieutenant Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., and his flight engineer, Lieutenant Wilford J. Willy flying a PB4Y-1—the Navy’s version of a B-24J Liberator. Packed into the plane’s fuselage were 21,170 pounds of Torpex.

Kennedy, of course, was the oldest son of the former U.S. ambassador to Great Britain and older brother of future American president John F. Kennedy. Willy, from New Jersey, had “pulled rank” over Ensign James Simpson, Kennedy’s regular co-pilot, to fly the mission.

On that August day, Kennedy’s plane took off from RAF Fersfield, accompanied by two Lockheed Ventura aircraft equipped with radio-control sets that would fly the bomber once Kennedy and Willy bailed out two P-38 Lightning fighters approached to escort the BQ-18 across the Straits of Calais. A sixth aircraft, a de Havilland Mosquito camera plane, joined the formation aboard the Mosquito was Air Force Colonel Elliott Roosevelt, one of President Roosevelt’s sons, and the commanding officer of the 325th Photographic Reconnaissance Wing.

As they approached the coast over Halesworth, Lieutenants Kennedy and Willy transferred control of their aircraft to the Venturas. Before the two men bailed out, Willy switched on a primitive television camera in the bomber’s nose that would help guide the BQ-8 to its target Kennedy armed the 21,170 pounds of Torpex carried in 374 boxes. But then something inexplicable went terribly wrong.

At 6:20 pm, the plane suddenly disappeared in an enormous fireball, and pieces of the aircraft began raining on the rural countryside below. Hundreds of trees were destroyed, nearly 150 properties on the ground were damaged, and some 50 people on the ground were injured. Chunks of the exploding BQ-8 struck Colonel Roosevelt’s plane, but he was able to land safely. The bodies of Kennedy and Willy were never found.

Nine-year-old Mick Muttitt, a resident of nearby Darsham, told a reporter 60 years later that he and his brother were watching the formation flying about 2,000 feet above them. He said, “All of a sudden, there was a tremendous explosion and the Liberator aircraft was blown apart, with pieces falling in all directions over New Delight Wood, at Blythburgh.”

New Film on HBO Will Put You Inside The Mythical B-17: “The Cold Blue”

Boeing’s four-engine strategic bomber masterpiece was at the heart of the most important Allied bombing missions in the European Theater: It was fast for its size, and it had a remarkable operational ceiling. These, along with its other cutting-edge attributes, equipped the B-17 for epic raids and grandiose displays of large formations that tore through the skies above the Reich.

Because of its legend, it has been heavily featured in newsreels and the silver screen, yet there is no single footage that captured what flying the B-17 really looks and feels like.

This would all change on May 23, just in time for Memorial Day.

Mark that day on your calendars folks, because there will be a nationwide, one-night-only screening of The Cold Blue – a groundbreaking documentary featuring the B-17, and one which has all the makings of a cinematic masterpiece.

See all the action on the big screen when The Cold Blue comes to the cinemas for a special one night premiere event May 23 featuring exclusive behind the scenes footage of the making of the film.

&mdash Fathom Events (@fathomevents) May 13, 2019

The film is the brainchild of Erik Nelson, a documentarian whose prolific career has spanned four decades and whose brilliance has been lauded by the likes of Werner Herzog and Paul Allen. Nelson initially worked on researching color footage of WWII aircraft, but his laborious work led him to a collection of outtake shots of the highly-touted 1943 documentary Memphis Belle, which was made by the filmmaker William Wyler. His bulb of inspiration lit up.

"The Cold Blue builds a mesmerizing historical journey with a one-two punch of technological wizardry and emotional but never cloying artistry. The result is one of the most visceral World War II documentaries ever produced." See it in theaters May 23.

&mdash Fathom Events (@fathomevents) May 16, 2019

The discovered footages were stitched together to form a compelling narrative that is so visceral and surreal, it felt like the depicted events happened just yesterday. The project took three years to complete, yet Nelson was quick to admit that it was rushed in order to show the film to the veteran B-17 crews who took part in the film. In an interview, he said:

“Every year there are 20 to 30 percent fewer people at their reunions. This film needed to get out. I wanted these guys to know that they’re not going to be forgotten.”

The Cold Blue is more than a manifestation of today’s highly advanced filmmaking technology: It is a fitting tribute to a history-altering aircraft and the people who flew it. To those who fought in it.

To those who died in it, and to those who came home with it.

Let us celebrate Memorial Day by honoring America’s wartime heroes in this extraordinary film.

4. The Historical Books

As previously mentioned, the Old Testament can be divided into four basic sections with each providing a specific focus with regard to the person to Christ. With Joshua through Esther, we come to the second group of twelve books that deals with the history of the nation of Israel. These books cover the life of the nation from their possession of the land down to the two deportations and loss of the land because of unbelief and disobedience. Covering about 800 years of Israel’s history, these twelve books tell about the conquering and possession of Canaan, the reigns of the judges, the establishment of kings, the division of Israel into the northern and Southern Kingdoms, the fall of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria, the exile of the Southern Kingdom into Babylon, and the return to Jerusalem under the leadership of men like Nehemiah and Ezra.

As these books prepare us for the coming of Christ, the Messiah, they can be seen as follows:

Historical Books: The Preparation for Christ 4

the possession of the land by the nation

the oppression of the nation

The Theocracy: These books cover the period when Israel was ruled by God (1405-1043 B.C.).

the stabilization of the nation

the expansion of the nation

the glorification of the nation

the division of the nation

the deterioration of the Northern Kingdom

the deportation of the Southern Kingdom

the preparation of the Temple

the destruction of the Temple

The Monarchy: These books trace the history of Israel’s monarchy from its establishment to its destruction in 586 B.C.

the restoration of the Temple

the reconstruction of the city

the protection of the nation’s people

The Restoration: These books describe the return of a remnant to the land after 70 years of captivity (605-536 B.C.).

JOSHUA (Possession and Conquest)


Title of the Book:

Unlike the first five books of the Old Testament, this book appropriately takes its name from the chief human personality of the book, Joshua, the son of Nun, Moses’ servant. Joshua’s original name was Hoshea (Num. 13:8 Deut. 32:44) which means “salvation.” But during the wilderness wanderings Moses changed his name to Yehoshua, meaning “Yahweh is salvation” or “Save, Yahweh” (Num. 13:16). Joshua is a contracted form of Yehoshua. This amounted to a prophetic anticipation and reminder to Joshua, to the spies, and the people that victory over the enemies and possession of the land would be by the power of the Lord rather than by human skill or wisdom or power. This book is given the name Joshua because, though Joshua was one of the world’s greatest military strategist of history, his wisdom and military achievements came from the Lord who alone is our Salvation. It was the Lord Himself who brought about victory for Israel and vanquished Israel’s enemies giving them possession of the land.

Theme and Purpose:

Possessing, conquering, and dividing of the promised land is the theme and purpose of Joshua. The book of Joshua is designed to show God’s faithfulness to His promises, doing for Israel exactly as He had promised (cf. Gen. 15:18 with Josh. 1:2-6 and 21:43-45). The events recorded in Joshua are selective to set forth God’s special intervention on behalf of His people against all kinds of tremendous odds. The fulfillment of God’s promises, as so evident in the birth of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah and in possessing the land with its fortified cities, is the work of God and that which man could never do no matter how hard he might try (see Rom. 4).

Key Words:

Possession, conquest, victory, dividing the land.

Key Verses:

1:3 Every place on which the sole of your foot treads, I have given it to you, just as I spoke to Moses. [In this regard, Joshua compares to Ephesians 1:3 in the New Testament, “… blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenlies.”]

1:8-9 This book of the law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do according to all that is written in it for then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have success. 9 Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous! Do not tremble or be dismayed, for the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.

11:23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the Lord had spoken to Moses, and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. Thus the land had rest from war.

24:14-15 Now, therefore, fear the Lord and serve Him in sincerity and truth and put away the gods which your fathers served beyond the River and in Egypt, and serve the Lord. 15 And if it is disagreeable in your sight to serve the Lord, choose for yourselves today whom you will serve: whether the gods which your fathers served which were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.

Key Chapter(s):

Changes in leadership are always critical times for any nation. For that reason, the following chapters are key chapters in Joshua.

Chapters 1-4 record the change of leadership from Moses to Joshua and God’s personal promises and words of encouragement to Joshua in his new commission from the Lord, the crossing of the Jordan by the power of God, the commemoration of the crossing followed by the statement, “On that day the Lord exalted Joshua in the sight of all Israel so that they revered him, just as they had revered Moses all the days of his life.”

Chapter 24: In keeping with the crucial nature of changes in leadership, chapter 24 is likewise an important chapter. Here Joshua reminds the people of God’s faithfulness from the time of Abraham through their deliverance out of Egypt, the crossing of the Jordan and victory over the Canaanites. Then he calls on them to remember the necessity of their faithfulness or they would be consumed by the Lord.

Key People:

Christ as Seen in Joshua:

Though there are no direct Messianic prophecies of Christ, there are a number of types which point to the Savior. Joshua is a type of Christ in two very important ways. First, his name, Yeshua, a contracted form of Yehoshua, meaning, “Yahweh is salvation,” is the Greek equivalent of the name Jesus. Joshua is actually called by the name Jesus in Acts 7:45. Second, Joshua is seen as a type of Christ in his work of leading Israel triumphantly into the rest of their promised possession, the land of Canaan (cf. Heb. 4:8). This is but a foretaste of the rest we enter by faith in Christ. He surely foreshadows the Savior who leads “many sons to glory” (Heb. 2:9-10). Further, Joshua was met by the Commander of the Lord’s army in 5:13-15. This is undoubtedly a Christophany, a preincarnate appearance of Christ who was there to teach Joshua that He had come not to take sides, but to take over as commander. Finally, Rahab’s scarlet cord (2:21) portrays salvation through the blood and death of Christ (cf. Heb. 9:19-22). This Gentile prostitute heard of the mighty works of God, believed, hid the spies, was delivered when Jericho was destroyed, and is found in the genealogy of Christ (Matt. 1:5).


I. The Invasion of Canaan (1:1-5:12)

A. The Commissioning of Joshua (1:1-9)

B. The Command of Joshua to the People and Their Response (1:10-18)

C. The Canvassing of Jericho (chap. 2)

D. The Crossing of the Jordan (chap. 3)

E. The Commemoration of the Crossing (chap. 4)

F. The Consecration of the People (chap. 5:-12)

II. The Conquest of Canaan (5:13-12:24)

A. Conditioned for Victory: The Divine Commander (5:13-15)

B. The Campaign in the Central Portion (chaps. 6-8)

C. The Campaign in the South (chaps. 9-10)

D. The Campaign in the North (11:1-15)

E. The Review of the Victories (11:16-12:24)

III. The Division of Canaan (chaps. 13-21)

A. The Inheritance for the Two and One-Half Tribes (chap. 13)

B. The Inheritance for Caleb (chap. 14)

C. The Inheritance for the Nine and One-Half Tribes (15:1-19:48)

D. The Inheritance for Joshua (19:49-51)

E. The Cities of Refuge (20:1-9)

F. The Cities for the Levites (21:1-45)

A. The Dispute About the Altar (chap. 22)

B. The Discourse of Joshua (23:1-24:28)

C. The Death of Joshua (24:29-33)

JUDGES (Seven Cycles of Apostasy, Judgment, and Deliverance)


Tradition tells us that Samuel wrote the book, but its authorship is actually uncertain. Samuel may have assembled some of the accounts from the period of the judges and prophets like Nathan and Gad may have had a hand in editing the material (see 1 Chron. 29:29).

The Hebrew title is Shophetim, meaning “judges, rulers, deliverers, or saviors.” Shophet not only carries the idea of maintaining justice and settling disputes, but it is also used to mean “liberating and delivering.” First the judges deliver the people then they rule and administer justice… 5

Title of the Book:

The book gets its name from the number of leaders called judges whom God raised up to deliver Israel from their oppressors. The title for the book is best expressed in 2:16, “Then the Lord raised up judges who delivered them from the hands of those who plundered them.” Ultimately, however, God was Israel’s Judge and Deliverer because it was God Himself who would first allow the times of oppression as divine discipline for Israel’s repeated apostasy, and then raise up judges to bring deliverance after the nation repented and cried out for help (cf. 11:27 and 8:23).

Theme and Purpose:

The contrast between the moods of Joshua and Judges is striking. Israel goes from the thrill of victory to the agony of defeat, from freedom to oppression, and from advancement to retrogression. So why the book?

Historically, Judges bridges the gap from the time of Joshua to the time of the prophet Samuel and the beginning of the monarchy under Saul and David. It records the history of seven cycles of decline, oppression, supplication, and deliverance. In doing so, it becomes an explanation and reason for the need of a monarchy in Israel. With every man doing that which was right in his own eyes (21:25), the nation needed the leadership of a righteous king.

Doctrinally, Judges draws our attention to a number of important truths. As God had warned in Deuteronomy, obedience brings blessing, but disobedience results in God’s discipline and oppression. But Judges also reminds us that when people will turn to the Lord, cry out to Him and repent, God, who is long-suffering and gracious, responds in deliverance. Judges unfolds its theme by describing cycles of apostasy followed by oppression as a form of divine discipline followed by supplication and repentance by the people followed by judges whom God raised up to deliver the nation.

Key Words:

Evil (14 times), judge, judged, judgment (22 times) Cycles.

Key Verses:

2:15-16 Wherever they went, the hand of the Lord was against them for evil, as the Lord had spoken and as the Lord had sworn to them, so that they were severely distressed. 16 Then the Lord raised up judges who delivered them from the hands of those who plundered them.

2:20-23 So the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and He said, “Because this nation has transgressed My covenant which I commanded their fathers, and has not listened to My voice, 21 I also will no longer drive out before them any of the nations which Joshua left when he died, 22 in order to test Israel by them, whether they will keep the way of the Lord to walk in it as their fathers did, or not.” 23 So the Lord allowed those nations to remain, not driving them out quickly and He did not give them into the hand of Joshua.

21:25 In those days there was no king in Israel everyone did what was right in his own eyes.

Key Chapter:

Chapters 1-2 give a backward look to Israel’s sin and a forward look to Israel’s servitude. As such, these two chapters provide a kind of overview of the key issues in the book. One of the keys to Israel’s failure is found in the repeated phrase, they “did not drive out the inhabitants” of the land (Judges 1:21, 27, 29, 30). This early failure was an ingredient in Israel’s later failure to remain faithful to the Lord. Then, chapter 2 gives a kind of summary of the rest of the book which records the picture of the cycles: from being godly to ungodly to oppression to deliverance through the judges.

Key People:

The Judges—Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah and Barak, Gideon, Tola and Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon, and Samson. The best known judges are Deborah, Gideon, and Samson.

Christ as Seen in Judges:

Since each judge functioned as a ruler-deliverer, they served as pictures of the Savior in His work as Savior and Lord, the Righteous Deliverer King.


Judges easily divides into three sections: Deterioration (1:1-3:4), Deliverance (3:5-16:31), and Depravity (17:1-21:25). Some like to divide the book around the seven cycles of apostasy.

I. Deterioration—An Introduction, the Reason for the Period of the Judges (1:1-3:6)

A. The Political Condition (1:1-36)

B. The Spiritual Condition (2:1-3:6)

II. Deliverance—The History and Rule of the Period of the Judges (3:7-16:31)

A. Mesopotamian Oppression and Othniel’s Deliverance (3:7-11)

B. Moabite Oppression and Ehud’s Deliverance (3:12-30)

C. Shamgar’s Victory Over the Philistines (3:31)

D. Canaanite Oppression and Deliverance by Deborah and Barak (4:1-5:31)

E. Midianite Oppression and Gideon’s Deliverance (6:1-8:35)

F. Abimelech’s Tyranny (9:1-57)

I. Ammonite Oppression and Jephthah’s Deliverance (10:6-12:7)

L. Abdon’s Judgeship (12:13-15)

M. Philistine Oppression and Samson’s Career (13:1-16:31)

III. Depravity—Apostasy and Anarchy, the Ruin of the Period of the Judges (17:1-21:25)

A. Micah and the Migration of the Danites (17:1-18:31)

B. The Benjamite War (19:1-21:25)

RUTH (An Addendum to Judges)


As with Judges, the author is uncertain though Jewish tradition points to Samuel. This is unlikely, however, since the author of Ruth mentions David, and Samuel died before David’s coronation (4:17, 22).

Title of the Book:

The book of Ruth gets its name from one of its main characters, a young woman of Moab, the great-grandmother of David and one who is in the genealogical line of the Savior (Matt 1:5). Another book of the Bible named after a woman is Esther.

Theme and Purpose:

Ruth is the story of a couple in Israel who, during a time of famine, moved to Moab. There the husband and his two sons died, leaving the mother (Naomi) alone with her two daughters-in-law (Orpah and Ruth). Naomi decided to move back to Israel and Ruth insisted on returning with her. Once in Israel, they turned to a relative by the name of Boaz for help. Eventually, Ruth married Boaz.

Like a brilliant diamond against black velvet, Ruth sparkles against the dark days of the book of Judges. Ruth is the story of loyalty, purity, and love in a day when anarchy, selfishness, and depravity was generally the rule. As such, Ruth serves as a positive picture of faith and obedience in the midst of apostasy and shows how such faith brings blessing. Ruth also serves as an important link in the ancestry of King David and, as mentioned, is found in the line of Messiah. Other purposes of Ruth are seen in the way it illustrates the truths of the Kinsman-Redeemer, the presence of a godly remnant even in times of great apostasy, and God’s faithfulness to those who will walk with Him by faith. Since Ruth was a Gentile, the book illustrates God’s desire to bring the Gentile world into the family of God.

It may seem surprising that one who reflects God’s love so clearly is a Moabitess. Yet her complete loyalty to the Israelite family into which she has been received by marriage and her total devotion to her desolate mother-in-law mark her as a true daughter of Israel and a worthy ancestress of David. She strikingly exemplifies the truth that participation in the coming kingdom of God is decided, not by blood and birth, but by the conformity of one’s life to the will of God through the “obedience that comes from faith” (Rom. 1:5). Her place in the ancestry of David signifies that all nations will be represented in the kingdom of David’s greater Son. 6

Key Words:

Kinsman (14 times), Redeem (9 times). In thought, a key term would be Kinsman-Redeemer.

Key Verses:

1:15-17 Then she said, “Behold, your sister-in-law has gone back to her people and her gods return after your sister-in-law.” 16 But Ruth said, “Do not urge me to leave you or turn back from following you for where you go, I will go, and where you lodge, I will lodge. Your people shall be my people, and your God, my God. 17 Where you die, I will die, and there I will be buried. Thus may the Lord do to me, and worse, if anything but death parts you and me.”

3:11-13 “And now, my daughter, do not fear. I will do for you whatever you ask, for all my people in the city know that you are a woman of excellence. 12 And now it is true I am a close relative however, there is a relative closer than I. 13 Remain this night, and when morning comes, if he will redeem you, good let him redeem you. But if he does not wish to redeem you, then I will redeem you, as the Lord lives. Lie down until morning.”

Key Chapters:

Chapter 1 is a key chapter because it demonstrates Ruth’s decision of faith, devotion, and commitment to stay with Naomi, a decision that led to her redemption.

Chapter 4 is another key chapter because in this chapter, Ruth goes from being a widow and poverty to marriage and wealth through the Kinsman-Redeemer.

Key People:

Christ as Seen in Ruth:

In the Old Testament, if a person or an estate were sold into bondage, they could be redeemed if certain requirements were met by what is called the Kinsman-Redeemer or goel, “close relative.” This is a perfect illustration of the redemptive work of the Savior. The goel must:

1. be a blood relative (a kinsman) of those he redeems (Deut. 25:5, 7-10 John 1:14 Rom. 1:3 Phil. 2:5-8 Heb. 2:14-15)

2. be able to pay the price of redemption (cf. 2:1 1 Pet. 1:18-19)

3. be willing to redeem or pay the price (cf. 3:11 Matt. 20:28 John 10:15, 19 Heb. 10:7)

4. be free himself, as Christ was free from the curse of sin, being without sin (2 Cor. 5:21 1 Pet. 2:22 1 John 3:5).


I. The Resolve and Return of Ruth (1:1-22)

C. Her Arrival in Bethlehem, 1:19-22

II. The Reaping Rights of Ruth (2:1-23)

B. The Results of Her Gleaning (2:4-17)

C. The Report of Her Gleaning (2:17-23)

III. The Request of Ruth (3:1-18)

C. Agreed to by Boaz (3:10-18)

IV. The Reward of Ruth (4:1-22)

FIRST SAMUEL (Transition From Judges to Kingship)


Precisely who wrote 1 and 2 Samuel is not certain. The Jewish talmudic tradition says that it was written by Samuel. However, though 1 and 2 Samuel take their name from the prophet Samuel, the key figure of the early chapters, the prophet could not possibly have written more than part of 1 Samuel, since his death is recorded in chapter 25. But 1 Samuel 10:25 does attest to the fact that Samuel did write a book. Further, 1 Chronicles 29:29 indicates that Nathan and Gad also wrote about the events recorded in Samuel.

Title of the Book:

Originally, the books of 1 and 2 Samuel were placed together as one book in the Hebrew Bible. These two books give the history of the monarchs of Israel in the early period of the monarchy. Fundamentally, 1 Samuel is about king Saul and 2 Samuel is about king David. Both 1 and 2 Samuel get their names from the prophet Samuel whom God used in the transition from using judges to the establishment of the monarchy.

Though originally one book, 1 and 2 Samuel were divided into two books by the translators of the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the OT). This division was later followed by Jerome (the Latin Vulgate) and by modern versions. The title of the book has varied from time to time, having been designated “The First and Second Books of Kingdoms” (Septuagint), “First and Second Kings” (Vulgate) and “First and Second Samuel” (Hebrew tradition and most modern versions).

Theme and Purpose:

Beginning with the birth of Samuel and his training in the temple, 1 Samuel describes how this great man of God led Israel as prophet, priest, and the last judge. During Samuel’s leadership, the people of Israel, wanting to be like the nations, demanded a king. Under God’s direction, Samuel then anointed Saul to be the first king. But Saul was rejected by God because of his disobedience. To replace Saul, again under God’s directions, Samuel anointed David, a man after God’s own heart to become the king of Israel. The rest of the book describes the struggles between jealous and demented Saul and godly David.

First Samuel picks up the history of Israel where Judges left off with Samuel following Samson (cf. Judges 16:31). This book traces the transition of leadership in the nation from judges to kings, from a theocracy to a monarchy. Because the people of Israel would not allow Yahweh to rule their lives, with every man doing that which was right in his own eyes, the monarchy brought stability because the people were more willing to follow an earthly king. “And the Lord said to Samuel, “Listen to the voice of the people in regard to all that they say to you, for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me from being king over them” (8:7).

The clamor for an earthly king in First Samuel was a natural outcome of this practical rejection (8:7). God had intended to give Israel a king (see Gen. 49:10 Deut. 17:14-20), but the people insisted on the king of their choice instead of waiting for God’s king. … Saul was rejected by the Lord because he failed to learn the truth that “to obey is better than sacrifice” (15:22). He became characterized by mental imbalance, raging jealousy, foolishness, and immorality. David illustrated the principle that, “the Lord does not see as man sees” (16:7). The Lord established the Davidic dynasty because of David’s obedience, wisdom, and dependence on God. 7

Historically, one of the key purposes of 1 Samuel is to record the divine origin of the Davidic dynasty.

Key Word:

In thought, the key word is transition, but in use, anoint (7 times) and rejected (7 times) are two key terms to this period of transition.

Key Verses:

8:6-7 But the thing was displeasing in the sight of Samuel when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.” And Samuel prayed to the Lord. 7 And the Lord said to Samuel, “Listen to the voice of the people in regard to all that they say to you, for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me from being king over them.”

13:14 But now your kingdom shall not endure. The Lord has sought out for Himself a man after His own heart, and the Lord has appointed him as ruler over His people, because you have not kept what the Lord commanded you.

15:22-23 And Samuel said, “Has the Lord as much delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices As in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, And to heed than the fat of rams. 23 For rebellion is as the sin of divination, And insubordination is as iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, He has also rejected you from being king.”

Key Chapters:

Chapter 8, particularly verses 19-22, record the sad complaint of the nation in their desire for a king over them like that of the nations to judge them and fight their battles. Here, in answer to their request, Samuel is told by the Lord to appoint them a king and the prophet assumes his role of becoming a king-maker.

Chapter 15 is another key chapter in that it records the transition of kingdom authority from Saul to David because of Saul’s disobedience and self-willed character (cf. 15:23).

Chapter 16 forms another key chapter in that it records the choice and anointing of David.

Key People:

Samuel the prophet, Saul the disobedient king, and David the shepherd.

Christ as Seen in 1 Samuel:

Samuel forms an interesting portrait of Christ in that he was a prophet, a priest, and though he was not a king, he was a judge who was used of God to inaugurate a new age.

Messiah is literally “the anointed one” and Samuel is the first biblical book to use the word anointed (2:10). Furthermore, the primary portrait and anticipation of Messiah is found in the life of David. He was born in Bethlehem, worked as a shepherd, was ruler over Israel, and became the forerunner of Messiah King through the Davidic dynasty. In the New Testament, Christ is described as a “descendant of David according to the flesh” (Rom. 1:3).


I. Samuel, the Last Judge (1:1-8:22)

A. The Call of Samuel (1:1-3:21)

B. The Commission of Samuel (4:1-7:17)

C. The Concern of Samuel (8:1-22)

II. Saul, the First King (9:1-15:35)

A. The Selection of Saul (9:1-12:25)

B. The Rejection of Saul (13:1-15:35)

III. David, the Next King (16:1-31:13)

A. David, the Shepherd, Chosen and Anointed (16:1-23)

B. David, the Giant Killer, Acclaimed by the Court of Saul (17:1-58)

C. David, the Friend of Jonathan, but Rejected by Saul (18:1-19:24)

D. David, the Fugitive, Pursued by Saul (20:1-26:25)

1. David protected by Jonathan (20:1-42)

2. David protected by Ahimelech (21:1-9)

3. David protected by Achish (21:10-15)

4. David and his band of men (22:1-26:25)

E. The Refuge of David in Philistine Territory (27:1-31:13)

1. David becomes a Philistine servant (27:1-28:2)

2. Saul consults the medium at En-dor (28:3-25)

3. David dismissed by the Philistines (29:1-11)

4. David destroys the Amalekites (30:1-31)

5. The Philistines and the death of Saul (31:1-13)

SECOND SAMUEL (David’s Reign Expansion of the Nation)


See comments under 1 Samuel.

See comments under 1 Samuel.

Theme and Purpose:

With no real break in the story of Israel’s kingdom, 2 Samuel continues the narrative of the beginning of Israel’s kingdom beginning with Saul’s death and continuing with the reign of David. It is distinctively about the forty-year reign of David (5:4-5) and traces his reign through his triumphs and tragedies, which include his sins of adultery, murder, and their consequences on his family and the nation. The theme, as 2 Samuel recounts David’s reign, could be summarized as “how sin turns triumphs into troubles.” Whereas the kingdom was established under Saul, it is expanded by David. Saul’s kingdom gave stabilization to Israel from the time of the judges, but David’s reign brought growth or expansion. In the typical fashion of the Bible which candidly tells the story of its leaders with warts and all, 2 Samuel portrays the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of the life of King David.

Key Word:

Since the name of David occurs some 267 times (NASB), his name clearly becomes the key word.

Key Verses:

7:12-16 When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men, 15 but My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 And your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever your throne shall be established forever.

12:12-14 “‘Indeed you did it secretly, but I will do this thing before all Israel, and under the sun.’” 13 Then David said to Nathan, “I have sinned against the Lord.” And Nathan said to David, “The Lord also has taken away your sin you shall not die. 14 However, because by this deed you have given occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, the child also that is born to you shall surely die.”

Key Chapters:

Chapter 5 is a key chapter in that it records David’s reign as king over all Israel, but chapters 11-12 are perhaps the more pivotal chapters in that they record David’s sin with Bathsheba and her husband Uriah, his rebuke by Nathan the prophet, and the discipline that came on David’s house as a result.

Key People:

David, Bathsheba, Nathan, Absolom, Joab, Amnon, and Ahithophel.

Christ as Seen in 2 Samuel:

With the exception of his sins, David remains a type of Christ as the king of Israel. It is in this chapter that God establishes the Davidic Covenant which ultimately has its fulfillment in the person of Christ.


Second Samuel naturally falls into three sections: The Triumphs of David (1-10), the Transgressions of David (11), and the Troubles of David (12-24).

I. The Triumphs of David (1-10)

A. The Coronation of the King (1:1-5:6)

B. The Consolidation of the Kingdom (5:7-6:23)

C. The Covenant Concerning the Kingdom (7:1-29)

D. The Conquests of the King (8:1-10:19)

II. The Transgressions of the King (11:1-27)

A. The Adultery by the King (11:1-13)

B. The Murder Caused by the King (11:14-27)

III. The Troubles of the King (12:1-24:25)

A. Troubles at Home (12:1-13:36)

B. Troubles in the Kingdom (13:37-24:25)

FIRST KINGS (David’s Death Disruption of the Kingdom)


The author is unknown, though the Jews credit its writing to Jeremiah. As Ryrie points out:

Whoever the author or compiler of these books was, he used historical sources (11:41 14:19, 29). He likely was one of the exiles who lived in Babylon, perhaps an unknown one, or Ezra or Ezekiel or Jeremiah (though someone other than Jeremiah would have had to write the last chapter of 2 Kings, since Jeremiah apparently died in Egypt, not Babylon Jer. 43:6-7). 8

About 550 B.C. The release of Jehoiachin from prison is the last event recorded in 2 Kings. This took place in the 37th year of his imprisonment (560 B.C.). Therefore 1 and 2 Kings could not have been written before that event. It seems unlikely that the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity in 538 B.C. had taken place when 1 and 2 Kings were written had it occurred, the author would probably have referred to it. Probably 1 and 2 Kings were completed in their final form between 560 and 538 B.C. 9

Title of the Book:

First and Second Kings, originally one book (like 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Chronicles) and simply called “Kings” in the Hebrew tradition (Melechim), are appropriately titled since they trace the history of the kings of Israel and Judah from the time of Solomon to the Babylonian captivity. First Kings abruptly ends with the beginning of the reign of Ahaziah in 853 B.C.

Theme and Purpose:

After David’s death (chaps. 1-2), his son Solomon became king. Chapters 1-11 trace the life and reign of Solomon, including Israel’s rise to the peak of her glory, the spread of the nation’s kingdom, and the construction of the temple and palace in Jerusalem. But in Solomon’s later years, he drifted from the Lord because of his pagan wives who wrongly influenced him and turned his heart away from the worship of God in the temple.

As a result, the king with the divided heart leaves behind a divided kingdom. For the next century, the book of First Kings traces the twin histories of two sets of kings and two nations of disobedient people who are growing indifferent to God’s prophets and precepts. 10

The next king was Rehoboam, who lost the northern part of the kingdom. After this the Northern Kingdom, which included 10 tribes, was known as Israel, and the Southern Kingdom, which included the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, was called Judah. In the last chapters of 1 Kings, the focus is on the evil of King Ahab and righteous prophet Elijah who condemned Ahab’s wickedness and Israel’s disobedience.

The central theme, therefore, is to show how disobedience led to the disruption of the kingdom. The welfare of the nation depended on the faithfulness of its leadership and people to the covenants of God with Israel. First Kings not only gives a record of the history of these kings, but it demonstrates the success of any king (and of the nation as a whole) depends on the measure of the king’s allegiance to God’s law or truth. The book truly illustrates how “righteousness exalts a nation, but sin is a disgrace to any people” (Prov. 14:34). Unfaithfulness to God’s covenant resulted in decline and captivity.

Key Word:

While the key word is “kingdom,” which occurs some 357 times (NASB), the key concept is the division of the kingdom.

Key Verses:

9:3-7 And the Lord said to him, “I have heard your prayer and your supplication, which you have made before Me I have consecrated this house which you have built by putting My name there forever, and My eyes and My heart will be there perpetually. 4 And as for you, if you will walk before Me as your father David walked, in integrity of heart and uprightness, doing according to all that I have commanded you and will keep My statutes and My ordinances, 5 then I will establish the throne of your kingdom over Israel forever, just as I promised to your father David, saying, ‘You shall not lack a man on the throne of Israel.’ 6 But if you or your sons shall indeed turn away from following Me, and shall not keep My commandments and My statutes which I have set before you and shall go and serve other gods and worship them, 7 then I will cut off Israel from the land which I have given them, and the house which I have consecrated for My name, I will cast out of My sight. So Israel will become a proverb and a byword among all peoples.”

11:11 So the Lord said to Solomon, “Because you have done this, and you have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you, and will give it to your servant.”

Key Chapters:

Chapters 11 and 12: The key chapters are 11 and 12 which describe the demise of Solomon and the division of the kingdom.

Other significant chapters that have key roles are 3 and 4 dealing with Solomon’s choice of wisdom and wise rule, chapter 8 the dedication of the temple, chapters 17 through 19 recording the great ministry of Elijah.

Key People:

Solomon, Jeroboam, Rehoboam, Elijah and Elisha, Ahab and Jezebel.

Christ as Seen in 1 Kings:

Like David, Solomon is one of the greatest types in the Old Testament of Christ, portraying Messiah in His future reign on earth. Solomon especially does this as his fame, glory, wealth, and honor all speak of Christ in His earthly kingdom. Solomon also portrays Christ in the great wisdom he demonstrated.


First Kings naturally falls into two sections: the united kingdom (1-11) and the divided kingdom (12-22).

I. The United Kingdom: The Forty Year Reign of Solomon (1:1-11)

A. Solomon’s Accession (1:1-3:1)

C. Solomon’s Temple (5:1-8:66 cf. 2 Chron. 2:1-7:22)

D. Solomon’s Fame (9:1-10:29 cf. 2 Chron. 8:1-9:28)

E. Solomon’s Decline and Downfall (11:1-43)

II. The Divided Kingdom: The First Eighty Years of the Two Kingdoms (12-22)

A. The Cause of Division (12:1-24)

B. The Reign of Jeroboam in Israel (12:25-14:20)

C. The Reign of Rehoboam in Judah (14:21-31)

D. The Reign of Abijam in Judah (15:1-8)

E. The Reign of Asa in Judah (15:9-24)

F. The Reign of Nadab in Israel (15:25-31)

G. The Reign of Baasha in Israel (15:32-16:7)

H. The Reign of Elah in Israel (16:8-14)

I. The Reign of Zimri in Israel (16:15-20)

J. The Reign of Omri in Israel (16:21-28)

K. The Reign of Ahab in Israel (16:29-22:40)

L. The Reign of Jehoshaphat in Judah (22:41-50)

M. The Reign of Ahaziah in Israel (22:51-53)

SECOND KINGS (Dispersion—Willful Sin Has a Woeful End)


Since 1 and 2 Kings were originally one book and were artificially divided, see the previous discussion regarding the author in the 1 Kings overview.

About 550 B.C. Again, since 1 and 2 Kings were originally one book, see the discussion on the date in 1 Kings.

Title of the Book:

Theme and Purpose:

Second Kings continues the history of Elijah and his successor, Elisha, but it also continues what might be termed, the “Tale of the Two Kingdoms.” As such, it continues to trace the history of the Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Southern Kingdom of Judah until they are finally conquered and taken into captivity. Israel fell to Assyria in 722 B.C. and Judah fell to the Babylonians in 586 B.C. In both kingdoms the prophets continued to warn the people that God would punish them unless they repented. Second Kings teaches that willful sin in a nation has a woeful end. In 1 and 2 Samuel, the nation is born, in 1 Kings it is divided, and in 2 Kings it is dispersed. After years of pleading with His people through the prophets, God’s patience finally turns to discipline just as He promised. Because both books were originally one, 1 and 2 Kings share the same theme and goal. They teach us how unfaithfulness (disobedience to God’s law and rebellion) must lead to God’s discipline and the overthrow of the monarchy. The two kingdoms collapsed because of the failure of the kings to rule righteously and give heed to God’s truth.

Key Word:

Two key words are the word, “king,” occurring over 400 times (NASB), and the word “prophet,” which occurs some 34 times (NASB). But the key term that describes the content would be dispersion or captivities since this book describes the historical demise that lead to the loss of the monarchies and the dispersion of the two kingdoms.

Key Verses:

17:18-23 So the Lord was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight none was left except the tribe of Judah. 19 Also Judah did not keep the commandments of the Lord their God, but walked in the customs which Israel had introduced. 20 And the Lord rejected all the descendants of Israel and afflicted them and gave them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them out of His sight. 21 When He had torn Israel from the house of David, they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. Then Jeroboam drove Israel away from following the Lord, and made them commit a great sin. 22 And the sons of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did they did not depart from them, 23 until the Lord removed Israel from His sight, as He spoke through all His servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away into exile from their own land to Assyria until this day.

23:27 And the Lord said, “I will remove Judah also from My sight, as I have removed Israel. And I will cast off Jerusalem, this city which I have chosen, and the temple of which I said, ‘My name shall be there.’”

Key Chapters:

A number of chapters fall into this category: chapter 2, Elijah taken to heaven chapter 4, Elisha’s miracle for the widow chapter 5, the healing of Naaman and Gehazi’s greed chapter 6, Elisha’s prayer for his servant and the capture of Syria chapter 17, Israel’s fall and the Assyrian Captivity (722 B.C.) chapters 18-19, Sennacherib’s invasion of Judah and Hezekiah’s prayer chapters 22-23, Josiah’s revival, reforms, and renewal chapters 24-25, the fall of Judah to Babylon (586 B.C.)

Key People:

Elijah, Elisha, Josiah, Naaman, Hezekiah.

Christ as Seen in 2 Kings:

Elijah naturally anticipates the forerunner of Christ in John the Baptist (Matt. 11:14 17:10-12 Luke 1:17) and Elisha in many ways reminds us of Jesus Christ in His ministry. Jensen compares and summarizes their ministry:

Elijah is noted for great public acts, while Elisha is distinguished by the large number of miracles he performed, many of them for individual needs. Elijah’s ministry emphasized God’s law, judgment, and severity. Elisha supplemented this by demonstrating God’s grace, love and tenderness. Elijah was like John the Baptist, thundering the message of repentance for sin. Elisha followed this up by going about, as Christ did, doing deeds of kindness, and by doing miracles attesting that the words of the prophets were from God. 11


Second Kings also naturally falls into two section. The first section, The Divided Kingdom (1:1-17:41), selectively traces the reign of the kings of both nations until the dispersion of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The second section, The Surviving Kingdom of Judah (18:1-25:30), then traces the reign of the surviving kings of the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

I. The Divided Kingdom (1:1-17:41)

A. The Reign of Ahaziah in Israel (1:1-18 )

B. The Reign of Jehoram (Joram) in Israel (2:1-8:15)

1. The translation of Elijah (2:1-11)

2. The beginning of Elisha’s ministry (2:12-25)

3. Jehoram’s expedition against Moab (3:1-27)

C. The Reign of Joram (Jehoram) in Judah (8:16-24)

D. The Reign of Ahaziah in Judah (8:25-29)

E. The Reign of Jehu in Israel (9:1-10:36)

F. The Reign of Athaliah in Judah (11:1-16)

G. The Reign of Jehoash (Joash) in Judah (11:17-12:21)

H. The Reign of Jehoahaz in Israel (13:1-9)

I. The Reign of Jehoash (Joash) in Israel (13:10-25)

J. The Reign of Amaziah in Judah (14:1-22)

K. The Reign of Jeroboam II in Israel (14:23-29)

L. The Reign of Azariah (Uzziah) in Judah (15:1-7)

M. The Reign of Zechariah in Israel (15:8-12)

N. The Reign of Shallum in Israel (15:13-15)

O. The Reign of Menahem in Israel (15:16-22)

P. The Reign of Pekahiah in Israel (15:23-26)

Q. The Reign of Pekah in Israel (15:27-31)

R. The Reign of Jotham in Judah (15:32-38)

S. The Reign of Ahaz in Judah (16:1-20)

T. The Reign of Hoshea in Israel (17:1-41)

3. Israel’s Dispersion (17:24-41)

II. The Surviving Kingdom of Judah (18:1-25:30)

A. The Reign of Hezekiah (18:1-20:21)

B. The Reign of Manasseh (21:1-18)

C. The Reign of Amon (21:19-26)

D. The Reign of Josiah (22:1-23:30)

E. The Reign of Jehoahaz (2 Chron. 36:1-4) (23:31-33)

F. The Reign of Jehoiakim (23:34-24:7)

G. The Reign of Jehoiachin (24:8-16)

H. The Reign of Zedekiah (24:17-25:21)

1. Rebellion against Babylon and destruction of the Temple (24:17-25:10)

2. Third deportation to Babylon (25:11-21)

I. The Governorship of Gedaliah, a Puppet Governor (25:22-26)

J. The Release of Jehoiachin in Babylon (25:27-30)

Note carefully the instructive contrasts Ryrie demonstrates for us in the content of 1 and 2 Kings. 12 These contrasts clearly demonstrate the truth that Willful Sin has a Woeful End.

FIRST CHRONICLES (Preparation of the Temple)


Chronicles (originally both 1 and 2 Chronicles were one book) does not identify the author, but Jewish tradition has traditionally ascribed the book to Ezra. The consistency of style throughout the book indicates that though several sources were used in compiling the book, one editor shaped the final product. The various sources include the prophetic records by Samuel (1 Chron. 29:29), Isaiah (2 Chron. 32:32), and others (2 Chron. 9:29 12:15 20:34 33:19) but particularly a source called “the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel” (2 Chron. 16:11 25:26). The content suggests a priestly authorship because of the strong focus on the temple, the priesthood, and the theocratic line of David and the Southern Kingdom of Judah. That Ezra is the compiler of the book is also supported by the common themes of Ezra and Chronicles as the building and dedication of the temple.

Title of the Book:

Though the books of 1 and 2 Chronicles cover the same period of Jewish history, the perspective is very different. So while the content is similar, it is not a mere repetition, but more of a spiritual editorial of the history of the people of Israel. The Kings give man’s viewpoint while the Chronicles give God’s perspective.

Originally one book with 2 Chronicles (until 180 B.C.), the book’s Hebrew title means “the words (affairs) of the days,” i.e., the annals of Israel from Adam to the Babylonian captivity and Cyrus’s decree allowing the exiled Jews to return. In a sense it is a “miniature Old Testament,” tracing in capsule form the flow of Old Testament history. 13

When producing the Septuagint, the translators divided Chronicles into two sections. At that time it was given the title, “Of Things Omitted,” referring to the things omitted from Samuel and Kings. The name “Chronicles” comes from Jerome in his Latin Vulgate Bible (A.D. 385-405): Chronicorum Liber. He meant his title in the sense of “The Chronicles of the Whole of Sacred History.” 14

Theme and Purpose:

First Chronicles begins with an outline of history from Adam through the death of King Saul. The rest of the book is about the reign of King David. The books of Chronicles seem like a repeat of Samuel and Kings, but they were written for the returned exiles to remind them that they came from the royal line of David and that they were God’s chosen people. The genealogies point out that the Davidic promises had their source in those pledged to Abraham that He would make him the father of a great nation, one through which He would bless the nations. The main theme is that God is faithful to His covenant.

Chronicles emphasizes the role of the Law, the priesthood, and the temple. Although Solomon’s temple was gone, the second temple could be regarded as the Remnant’s link to the first. This book also taught that the past was pregnant with lessons for their present. Apostasy, idolatry, intermarriage with Gentiles, and lack of unity were the reasons for their recent ruin. It is significant that after the Exile, Israel never again worshiped foreign gods. 15

Key Word:

The key words are David (183 times) and the Davidic Covenant.

Key Verses:

11:1-3 Then all Israel gathered to David at Hebron and said, “Behold, we are your bone and your flesh. 2 In times past, even when Saul was king, you were the one who led out and brought in Israel and the Lord your God said to you, ‘You shall shepherd My people Israel, and you shall be prince over My people Israel.’” 3 So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the Lord and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the Lord through Samuel.

17:11-14 “And it shall come about when your days are fulfilled that you must go to be with your fathers, that I will set up one of your descendants after you, who shall be of your sons and I will establish his kingdom. 12 He shall build for Me a house, and I will establish his throne forever. 13 I will be his father, and he shall be My son and I will not take My lovingkindness away from him, as I took it from him who was before you. 14 But I will settle him in My house and in My kingdom forever, and his throne shall be established forever.”

29:11-12 Thine, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, indeed everything that is in the heavens and the earth Thine is the dominion, O Lord, and Thou dost exalt Thyself as head over all. 12 Both riches and honor come from Thee, and Thou dost rule over all, and in Thy hand is power and might and it lies in Thy hand to make great, and to strengthen everyone.

Key Chapters:

Chapter 17. Because of the importance of God’s covenant with David to all of Scripture and its fulfillment in the person of Christ, this chapter is the pivotal and key chapter since it unfolds the Davidic Covenant as does 1 Samuel 7.

Key People:

As mentioned, it is a book about David, though others that were prominent in 1 Samuel are also important here like Nathan, Bathsheba, and Uriah.

Christ as Seen in 1 Chronicles:

What was said in 1 and 2 Samuel regarding David as a type of Christ would naturally be prominent here also.


First Chronicles naturally divides into four sections: (1) The Genealogies or the Royal Line of David (1:1-9:44) (2) the Rise of David or His Anointing (10:1-12:40), (3) The Reign of David (13:1-29:21), and (4) The Assession of Solomon and the Death of David (29:22-30).

I. Genealogies from Adam to David (1:1-9:44)

D. David to the Captivity (3:1-24)

E. Genealogies of the Twelve Tribes (4:1-8:40)

F. Jerusalem’s Inhabitants (9:1-34)

G. The Family of Saul (9:35-44)

II. The Rise and Anointing of David (10:1-12:40)

A. The Death of Saul (10:1-14)

B. The Accession of David (11:1-3)

C. The Capture of Jerusalem (11:4-9)

D. The Heroes of David (11:10-12:40)

A. David and the Ark (13:1-17:27)

1. David brings the Ark to Chidon: Uzza’s death (13:1-14)

2. David’s fame and victory over the Philistines (14:1-17)

3. David brings the ark to Jerusalem (15:1-29)

4. David’s celebration and arrangements for the ark (16:1-43)

5. David’s desire to build a Temple: the Davidic covenant (17:1-27)

C. David’s Sinful Census (21:1-30)

D. David’s Preparations for the Temple (22:1-23:1)

E. David’s Organization of the Levites (23:2-26:32)

1. Numbering of and duties of the Levites (23:2-32)

2. Dividing the Levites into twenty-four groups (24:1-31)

3. Assigning the musicians (25:1-31)

4. Appointing gatekeepers (26:1-19)

5. Assigning the treasures (26:20-28)

6. Delegating magistrates (26:29-32)

F. David’s Civil Leaders (27:1-34)

G. David’s Last Instructions to the People and to Solomon (28:1-21)

H. David’s Offerings and Worship (29:1-21)

IV. The Accession of Solomon and Death of David (29:22-30)

SECOND CHRONICLES (Destruction of the Temple)


As previously mentioned, 1 and 2 Chronicles were originally one book. As with 1 Chronicles, it does not state who wrote it, but Jewish tradition, which identifies the author as Ezra, and the consistency of viewpoint and style suggest it was probably the work of one person sometimes referred to by writers as the chronicler. In support of Ezra as the author are certain commonalties like the extensive lists, the Levites, and the temple. Whoever he was, he had access to a number of official sources like: (1) the book of the kings of Israel and Judah (27:7 35:27 36:8) (2) the book of the kings of Judah and Israel (16:11 25:26 28:26 32:32) (3) the book of the kings of Israel (20:34 33:18) (4) the annals of the book of the kings (24:27) (5) the book Nathan, the prophecy of Ahijah, and the visions of Iddo (9:29) (6) the history of Shemaiah (12:15) (7) the annals of Iddo (13:22) (8) the writings of the prophet Isaiah (26:22) (9) the sayings of Hozai (33:19) (10) the Laments (35:25) and (11) the writings of David and his son Solomon (35:4).

Title of the Book:

Theme and Purpose:

While 1 Chronicles parallels 1 and 2 Samuel, 2 Chronicles continues the history of David’s line and parallels 1 and 2 Kings. But for all practical purposes, it ignores the Northern Kingdom because of apostasy and total absence of any godly kings who patterned their life after David. By contrast, 2 Chronicles focuses on those kings who did walk after the lifestyle of David. Chapters 1-9 describe the building of the temple during Solomon’s reign. Chapters 10-36 trace the history of the Southern Kingdom of Judah to the final destruction of Jerusalem and the exile of the people to Babylon. Therefore, it devotes extended sections to the lives of those kings who brought revival and reform to the nation like Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Hezekiah, and Josiah.

As mentioned, Chronicles goes over some of the same history as Samuel and Kings, but from a different perspective in order to emphasize certain things: In 1 Chronicles, David is the subject while in 2 Chronicles the house of David is central. In Kings the history of the nation is given from the throne whereas in Chronicles it is given from the altar (the temple). In Kings the palace is central, but in Chronicles the temple is prominent. In Kings the focus is on the political history while in Chronicles the focus is on the religious or spiritual element of Israel’s history.

Chronicles is more than simply an historical record. It is God’s commentary on the spiritual characteristics of David’s dynasty. Because of this, the focus is on the kingdom of Judah, the Southern Kingdom where there were revival and godly kings in David’s line and why the Northern Kingdom, with no godly kings, is basically ignored.

Key Word:

References to the House of God and the priest(s) occur often. For this reason, the key word conceptually is “the priestly perspective of Judah.”

Key Verses:

7:14 … and My people who are called by My name humble themselves and pray, and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.

16:9 For the eyes of the Lord move to and fro throughout the earth that He may strongly support those whose heart is completely His. You have acted foolishly in this. Indeed, from now on you will surely have wars.

Key Chapters:

The chapters covering the reforms of godly kings are key chapters in the way they illustrate the promise of 7:14. See especially chapter 34 and the reforms under Josiah when the book of the Law was found, read, and obeyed.

Key People:

Christ as Seen in 2 Chronicles:

The throne of David has been destroyed, but the line of David remains. Murders, treachery, battles, and captivity all threaten the messianic line but it remains clear and unbroken from Adam to Zerubbabel. The fulfillment in Christ can be seen in the genealogies of Matthew 1 and Luke 3. 16

The temple which is so prominent in 2 Chronicles is a beautiful portrait of Christ (see Matt. 12:6 John 2:19 and Revelation 21:22).


I. The Reign of Solomon (1:1-9:31)

A. Solomon’s Inauguration (1:1-17)

II. The Kings of Judah (10:1-36:21)

III. The Decree of Cyrus (36:22-23)

EZRA (Reconstruction of the Temple and Restoration of the People)


Though the book of Ezra does not name its author, Jewish tradition (the Talmud) ascribes it to Ezra along with Chronicles and Nehemiah. Modern scholarship often agrees that Ezra is the author and that he wrote these using various documents (e.g., 4:7-16), genealogies (e.g., 2:1-70), and personal memoirs (e.g., 7:27-9:15) as his sources. In the Vulgate (Latin Bible), Ezra and Nehemiah are titled 1 and 2 Esdras, while the apocryphal book called 1 Esdras in the English text is 3 Esdras in the Vulgate.

The fact that Ezra is the principal character of the major sections of Ezra lends further support to his authorship. He takes part in the events described in chapters 1-10 and also in chapters 8-10 of Nehemiah. In both cases, the passages are written in the first person.

Tradition holds that Ezra was the founder of the Great Synagogue where the canon of Old Testament scripture was settled. Another tradition says that he collected the biblical books into a unit and that he originated the synagogue form of worship. 17

Ezra wrote between 457 B.C. and 444 B.C.

Although some date the book around 330 B.C., its linguistic similarities with the fifth-century Aramaic papyri from the Jewish community at Elephantine, Egypt, argue for an earlier date during the lifetime of Ezra (who lived to the time of Nehemiah, Neh. 8:1-9 12:36). Ezra probably finished the book between 456 (when the events of 10:17-44 took place) and 444, when Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem. 18

Title of the Book:

In the ancient Hebrew Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah were treated as one book and called “The Book of Ezra.” Modern Hebrew Bibles designate the two-fold arrangement of Ezra and Nehemiah as in our English versions. Further, Josephus (Against Apion 1. 8) and Jerome (Preface to the Commentary on Galatians) also considered the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one. But not all agree.

… there is evidence that the two books were originally separate. The lists in Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7 are basically the same. This would militate against the idea that the two books were originally one, for it would seem strange to repeat the same list in one volume. The name Ezra for the title of the first work comes from the major person in the second half of the book, who also appears in chapters 8 and 12 of the Book of Nehemiah. 19

Theme and Purpose:

From an historical standpoint, Ezra continues the narrative where 2 Chronicles ends and traces the history of the return of the Jews from exile in Babylon and the rebuilding of the temple. From a spiritual and doctrinal standpoint, Ezra demonstrates how God fulfilled His promise to return His people to the land of promise after seventy years of exile as announced by the prophets. As in Chronicles, Ezra, as a priest, shows the centrality of the temple and its worship to the life of the nation as God’s people. It begins with the decree of Cyrus, king of Persia, which allowed a remnant of the people to return. The people enthusiastically began rebuilding the temple, but were delayed for 18 years by enemies from the north. Finally a decree from Darius let them finish (see Ezra 1-6). Chapters 7-10 tell about the return of the priest Ezra who taught the people the law and reformed the nation’s spiritual life.

The theme can be summarized as the spiritual, moral, and social restoration of the Remnant who returned under the leadership of Zerubbabel and Ezra.

Key Word:

Fitting with the concepts to return to the land and the temple in Jerusalem, two key words are “Jerusalem,” which occurs 48 times, and “temple,” which occurs 25 times.

Key Verses:

1:3 Whoever there is among you of all His people, may his God be with him! Let him go up to Jerusalem which is in Judah, and rebuild the house of the Lord, the God of Israel He is the God who is in Jerusalem.

2:1 Now these are the people of the province who came up out of the captivity of the exiles whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away to Babylon, and returned to Jerusalem and Judah, each to his city.

6:21-22 And the sons of Israel who returned from exile and all those who had separated themselves from the impurity of the nations of the land to join them, to seek the Lord God of Israel, ate the Passover. 22 And they observed the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days with joy, for the Lord had caused them to rejoice, and had turned the heart of the king of Assyria toward them to encourage them in the work of the house of God, the God of Israel.

7:10 For Ezra had set his heart to study the law of the LORD, and to practice it, and to teach His statutes and ordinances in Israel.

Key Chapters:

Key chapters would include (1) the decree of Cyrus allowing the remnant to return, chapter 1, (2) the foundation of the temple completed, chapter 3, (3) the completion and dedication of the temple and the keeping of the Passover, chapter 6, (4) the return under Ezra and his prayer, chapters 7-9.

Key People:

Cyrus (Persian king who decreed to allow the return), Ezra (priest and scribe), Jeshua (the high priest), and Zerubbabel.

Christ as Seen in Ezra:

In keeping with the Davidic covenant and God’s promises to keep the line of descendants alive for Messiah, Son of David, Ezra and Nehemiah show how God continued to keep His promises by restoring His people to their land.


Ezra divides into two sections: the earlier return under Zerubbabel, the restoration of the temple (1-6) and the later return under Ezra, the reformation of the people (7-10). Or it may be divided:

I. The Restoration The First Return to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel (1-6)

A. The Decree of Cyrus (1:1-11)

B. The Census of the People (2:1-70)

C. The Construction of the Temple Begun (3:1-13)

E. The Construction Renewed (5:1-6:12)

F. The Temple Completed (6:13-22)

II. The Reformation of the People the Return Under Ezra (7:1-10:44)

A. The Return to Jerusalem (7:1-8:36)

B. The Revival of Jerusalem (9:1-10:44)

NEHEMIAH (Reconstruction of the City)


Though some believe that Nehemiah wrote the book of Nehemiah because of the words, “The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah” (1:1), many believe the evidence suggests that Ezra is the author of Nehemiah and used Nehemiah’s memoirs and firsthand accounts as though quoting Nehemiah. On the other hand, many scholars believe that Nehemiah authored the book that bears his name since much of the book is presented as a first-person account of the circumstances surrounding his return to Jerusalem (chaps. 1-7 12:31-13:31). 20 Also, in view of the similarities of Ezra 2 and Nehemiah, one wonders why the same author would repeat the same material in one volume.

The historical setting is simply that of the last half of the ancient Hebrew book of Ezra-Nehemiah which means it was written about 445 B.C. to 425 B.C.

Title of the Book:

Though originally one book, the last half of that book draws its name from the prominence of Nehemiah, contemporary of Ezra and cupbearer to the king of Persia. Nehemiah’s name means “Yahweh consoles or comforts.”

Theme and Purpose:

The book of Nehemiah continues the history of the Jews who returned from exile. Nehemiah gave up his position as cupbearer to Artaxerxes, the Persian king, to become governor of Jerusalem and lead the people in repairing the city walls. Ezra and Nehemiah were contemporaries (see Neh. 8:2, 9), were both men of God but served Yahweh in different capacities. While Ezra was a priest and involved more with the religious restoration of returning Remnant, Nehemiah was a layman and served in a political capacity as governor in the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem.

Nehemiah was also written to show the obvious hand of God in the establishment of His people in their homeland in the years after their exile. Under the leadership of Nehemiah, they accomplished in fifty-two days what had not been done in the ninety-four years since the first return under Zerubbabel. By obedient faith they were able to overcome what appeared to be insurmountable opposition. 21

Key Words:

With the rebuilding of the walls the key element, the key words are “wall” and “walls,” used some 33 times and “build,” “building,” “rebuilding,” etc., is found more than 20 times.

Key Verses:

4:6 So we built the wall and the whole wall was joined together to half its height, for the people had a mind to work.

6:15-16 So the wall was completed on the twenty-fifth of the month Elul, in fifty-two days. 16 And it came about when all our enemies heard of it, and all the nations surrounding us saw it, they lost their confidence for they recognized that this work had been accomplished with the help of our God.

8:8 And they read from the book, from the law of God, translating to give the sense so that they understood the reading.

Key Chapters:

Key chapters would include, (1) Nehemiah’s prayer and God’s answer, chapters 1-2, (2) the work on the walls, the opposition, and its completion, chapters 3-7, (3) the confession of the people and their reaffirmation of the covenant, chapter 9.

Key People:

Nehemiah, Artaxerxes, Sanballet, Ezra.

Christ as Seen in Nehemiah:

Nehemiah surely portrays Christ in willingness to leave his high position in order to bring about His work of restoration. Further, the decree of Artaxerxes marks the beginning point of Daniel’s prophecy of seventy weeks of years which, though interrupted by an unspecified time, begins the countdown for the return of Messiah (Dan. 9:25-27).


Like Ezra, Nehemiah also falls into two specific issues: (1) the rebuilding of the walls (1-7) and the restoration of the people (8-13).

I. The Rebuilding of the Walls (1-7)

A. Preparation for Rebuilding (1:1-2:20)

II. The Restoration of the People (8:1-13:31)

A. The Renewal of the Covenant (8:1-10:39)

B. The Obedience of the People to the Covenant (11:1-13:31)

ESTHER (Protection of God’s People)


The book gives no hint of who wrote it. But whoever it was knew the Persian culture well. The account has all the marks of a person who was there for he described the events as an eyewitness. And he was probably a Jew. Some have suggested that Ezra or Nehemiah wrote the account but no specific evidence supports that view. 22

The events of Esther occurred between the sixth and seventh chapters of Ezra, between the first return led by Zerubbabel and the second return led by Ezra. Esther was written sometime between 470 and 465, during the latter years of Xerxes’ reign (see 10:2-3), or in the reign of his son Artaxerxes (464-424).

Title of the Book:

The book takes its name from the chief character, whose Hebrew name Hadassah (Myrtle) was changed to the Persian name Ester, which probably means “star.”

Theme and Purpose:

Esther tells the story of a beautiful Jewish girl whom King Xerxes of Persia chose to be his queen. When Haman plotted to murder all the Jews, Queen Esther’s cousin Mordecai persuaded Esther to try to save her people. Risking her own life, she appealed to the king and rescued the Jews. Although the name of God does not appear in this book, the theme and purpose of the book is to show God’s providential care of His people in their trials and persecutions.

Key Word:

The key word is “Jews,” which is repeated some 44 times. Thus, in concept, a key term is the word “providence,” God’s providence in caring for the Jews.

Key Verses:

4:14 For if you remain silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews from another place and you and your father’s house will perish. And who knows whether you have not attained royalty for such a time as this?

8:17 And in each and every province, and in each and every city, wherever the king’s commandment and his decree arrived, there was gladness and joy for the Jews, a feast and a holiday. And many among the peoples of the land became Jews, for the dread of the Jews had fallen on them.

Key Chapters:

The key chapters would include, (1) Haman’s persuading Ahasuerus to decree to annihilate the Jews, chapter 3, (2) the honoring of Mordicai and the hanging of Haman, chapters 6-7, (3) the reversal of the decree that led to the deliverance of the Jews, chapter 8, (4) the Jew’s defensive victory and the inauguration of the feast of Purim, chapter 9.

Key People:

Esther, Haman, Mordecai, Xerxes (Ahasuerus, Hebrew form of the name of the king of Persia).

Christ as Seen in Esther:

Esther provides a fitting picture of Christ in that she was willing to put herself in the place of death for her people’s salvation and also in that she acted as an advocate for them. In addition, we also see how God continued to providentially protect the Jews through whom He would give the Messiah.


Esther easily divides into two sections: (1) the danger or threat to the Jews (1-3) and (2) the deliverance or triumph of the Jews (4-10). Or it may be divided into three sections: (1) the danger to God’s people (1-3), (2) the decision of God’s servant (4-5), and (3) the deliverance of God’s people (6-10).

I. The Danger to the Jews (1:1-3:15)

A. The Choice of Esther as Queen in Place of Vashti (1:1-2:23)

B. The Conspiracy of Haman Against the Jews (3:1-15)

II. The Deliverance of the Jews (4:1-10:3)

A. The Decision of Esther for the Jews (4:1-5:14)

B. The Defeat of Haman (6:1-7:10)

C. The Decree of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes) and Mordecai (8:1-17)

D. The Defeat Over the Enemies of the Jews (9:1-19)

E. The Days of the Feast of Purim (9:20-32)

F. The Declaration of Mordecai’s Fame and Exaltation at Court (10:1-3)

4 Some of the ideas for this chart were drawn from A Popular Survey of the Old Testament, by Norman L. Geisler, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1977, p. 83 and Talk Thru The Bible, by Bruce Wilkinson and Kenneth Boa, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, 1983, p. 47-49.

6 Notes from the NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1985, electronic version.

8 Charles Caldwell Ryrie, Ryrie Study Bible, Expanded Edition, Moody, electronic media.

9 John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck, Editors, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Victor Books, Wheaton, 1983,1985, electronic media.

11 Irving L. Jensen, II Kings with Chronicles, A Self-Study Guide, Moody, p. 20.

12 Charles Caldwell Ryrie, Ryrie Study Bible, Expanded Edition, Moody, Chicago, electronic media.

19 John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck, Editors, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Victor Books, Wheaton, 1983,1985, electronic media.

B-17 Pilot Training Manual

B elow are excerpts from the "Pilot Training Manual for the B-17 Flying Fortress", which was issued to B-17 pilots during World War II and was considered to be the "textbook of the B-17". The manual begins with a brief history of the B-17, and then goes on to explain to the pilot the duties and responsibilities of each of his crew members. Following this is a series of topics dealing with the characteristics and operation of the B-17 itself and how the crew should handle various emergency situations.


  • Foreword
  • The Story of the B-17
  • Duties and Responsibilities of:
    • The Airplane Commander
    • The Copilot
    • The Navigator
    • The Bombardier
    • The Radio Operator
    • The Engineer
    • The Gunners

    T his manual is the text for your training as a B-17 pilot and airplane commander.

    The Air Forces' most experienced training and supervisory personnel have collaborated to make it a complete exposition of what your pilot duties are, how each duty will be performed, and why it must be performed in the manner prescribed.

    The techniques and procedures described in this book are standard and mandatory. In this respect the manual serves the dual purpose of a training checklist and a working handbook. Use it to make sure that you learn everything described herein. Use it to study and review the essential facts concerning everything taught. Such additional self-study and review will not only advance your training, but will alleviate the burden of your already overburdened instructors.

    This training manual does not replace the Technical Orders for the airplane, which will always be your primary source of information concerning the B-17 so long as you fly it. This is essentially the textbook of the B-17. Used properly, it will enable you to utilize the pertinent Technical Orders to even greater advantage.

    Henry H. Arnold,
    General U.S. Army,
    Commanding General,
    Army Air Forces

    I n 1934 the U. S. Army Air Corps asked for a battleship of the skies. The specifications called for a "multi-engine" bomber that would have a high speed of 200-250 mph at 10,000 feet, an operating speed of 170-200 mph at the same altitude, a range of 6 to 10 hours, and a service ceiling of 20,000-25,000 feet.

    Boeing designers figured that with a conventional 2-engine type of airplane they could meet all specifications and probably better them. But such a design probably would not provide much edge over he entries of competitors. They decided to build a revolutionary type of 4-engine bomber.

    In July 1935 an airplane such as the world had never seen before rolled out on the apron of the Boeing plant at Seattle, Wash. It was huge: 105 feet in wing span, 70 feet from nose to tail, 15 feet in height. It was equipped with 4 Pratt & Whitney Hornet 750 Hp engines, and 4 Hamilton Standard 3-bladed constant-speed propellers. To eliminate air resistance, its bomb load was tucked away in internal bomb bays. Pilots and crew had soundproofed, heated, comfortable quarters where they could operate efficiently while flying in any kind of climate. And the big bomber bristled with formidable firepower.

    "It's a regular fortress," someone observed, "a fortress with wings."

    Thus the Boeing 299, later designated the XB-17, was born -- the grandfather of the Flying Fortress that was to become champion and pace-setter of all heavy bombardment aircraft in World War II.

    The XB-17 surpassed all Army specifications for speed, climb, range and load-carrying requirements. Then, in October, 1935, it crashed at Wright Field when a test pilot neglected to unlock the elevators on takeoff.

    But the Army Air Corps recognized in this first Fortress the heavy bomber of the future. Thirteen airplanes, designated Y1B-17, were ordered. While one airplane was held at Wright Field for experimental purposes, the other 12 went out to set new range and speed records, cruising the Western Hemisphere, and confounding skeptics who said that the Flying Fortress was "too much airplane for any but super-pilots." Not one of the 12 was ever destroyed by accident. Once, one stalled and spun down over Langley Field, but recovered and landed safely. Recording instruments showed that it had held up under greater stress than it was designed to stand.

    With experience, the Fortress acquired new strength, virtues, possibilities. The Y1B-17A, equipped with Wright G Cyclone engines and General Electric turbo-superchargers, gave astonishing performances at altitudes above 30,000 feet. The B-17B, flight tested in 1939, had 1000 Hp Wright Cyclone engines and hydromatic full-feathering propellers. The first B-17B left Seattle on 1 August, 1939, and arrived in New York 9 hours, 14 minutes later, setting a new coast-to-coast non-stop speed record. Later, seven B-17Bs cruised the hemisphere to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Republic of Brazil.

    In the spring of 1940, when Hitler had over-run Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and France, the B-17C made its debut with more armor plate for crew protection and more power in its engines. The B-17D took on leakproof fuel tanks, increased armament, better engine cooling in fast climbs, and a speed increase to more than 300 mph.

    When the Japs attacked Pearl Harbor, the B-17C's and B-17D's were the first Fortresses to see action. But soon the B-17E's were on their way to join them in even greater numbers -- faster, heavier, sturdier Fortresses, packing .50-cal. waist and tail guns, with a Sperry ball turret under the fuselage, and another power turret on top.

    By the spring of 1942, still another Fortress -- the B-17F -- with longer range, greater bomb load capacity, more protective armament and striking power, was streaking across both Atlantic and Pacific in enormous numbers to provide what General Arnold called "the guts and backbone of our world-wide aerial offensive."

    Rugged Forts Make History

    The combat record of the Flying Fortress has been written daily in newspaper headlines since Dec. 7, 1941.

    From the hour of Pearl Harbor, through the dark, early months of the war in the Pacific, they were sinking Jap ships and shooting arrogant Zeros out of the skies.

    They carried the war to the enemy in the Coral Sea, over Guadalcanal, New Guinea, Java, Burma, the Bismarck Sea.

    Changing tactics, they hedgehopped volcanic peaks, flew practically at water level through unbroken fog, to bomb the Japs out of the Aleutians.

    They flew the blistering deserts to drive the enemy out of North Africa, and Mediterranean, Sicily, and open the way to Rome.

    Beginning in August, 1942, they brought daylight bombing to Hitler's Europe, first over strategic targets in Occupied France, then gradually spreading out over the continent until, in the spring of 1944, shuttle bombing from bases in Britain and Russia left no corner of the once haughty Festung Europa safe from concentrated Allied bombing attacks.

    Detailed Fortress history must remain a voluminous post-war job for military historians. For pilots, however, one important fact stands clear-cut now. The Flying Fortress is a rugged airplane.

    In the words of one veteran: "She'll not only get you to the target and do the job, but she'll fight her way out, take terrific punishment, and get you safely home."

    Headlines have reiterated that fact with heart-warming redundancy:


    The B-17's incredible capacity to take it -- to come flying home on three, two, even one engine, sieve-like with flak and bullet holes, with large sections of wing or tail surfaces shot away -- has been so widely publicized that U. S. fighting men could afford to joke about it.

    But the fact remains: the rugged Forts can take it and still fly home. Why?

    The B-17 is built for battle. Its wings are constructed with heavy truss-type spars which tend to localize damage by enemy fire so that basic wing strength is not affected.

    Because of its unusual tail design, the airplane can be flown successfully even when vertical or horizontal tail surfaces have been partially destroyed, or with one or more engines shot away.

    Even when battle damage prevents use of all other control methods, the autopilot provides near-normal maneuverability.

    Y our assignment to the B-17 airplane means that you are no longer just a pilot. You are now an airplane commander, charged with all the duties and responsibilities of a command post.

    You are now flying a 10-man weapon. It is your airplane, and your crew. You are responsible for the safety and efficiency of the crew at all times--not just when you are flying and fighting, but for the full 24 hours of every day while you are in command.

    Your crew is made up of specialists. Each man -- whether he is the navigator, bombardier, engineer, radio operator, or one of the gunners -- is an expert in his line. But how well he does his job, and how efficiently he plays his part as a member of your combat team, will depend to a great extent on how well you play your own part as the airplane commander.

    Get to know each member of your crew as an individual. Know his personal idiosyncrasies, his capabilities, his shortcomings. Take a personal interest in his problems, his ambitions, his need for specific training.

    See that your men are properly quartered, clothed, and fed. There will be many times, when your airplane and crew are away from the home base, when you may even have to carry your interest to the extent of financing them yourself. Remember always that you are the commanding officer of a miniature army -- a specialized army and that morale is one of the biggest problems for the commander of any army, large or small.

    Crew Discipline

    Your success as the airplane commander will depend in a large measure on the respect, confidence, and trust which the crew feels for you. It will depend also on how well you maintain crew discipline.

    Your position commands obedience and respect. This does not mean that you have to be stiff-necked, overbearing, or aloof. Such characteristics most certainly will defeat your purpose. Be friendly, understanding, but firm. Know your job and, by the way you perform your duties daily, impress upon the crew that you do know your job. Keep close to your men, and let them realize that their interests are uppermost in your mind. Make fair decisions, after due consideration of all the facts involved but make them in such a way as to impress upon your crew that your decisions are to stick. Crew discipline is vitally important, but it need not be as difficult a problem as it sounds. Good discipline in an air crew breeds comradeship and high morale, and the combination is unbeatable.

    You can be a good CO, and still be a regular guy. You can command respect from your men, and still be one of them.

    "To associate discipline with informality, comradeship, a leveling of rank, and at times a shift in actual command away from the leader, may seem paradoxical," says a brigadier general, formerly a Group commander in the VIII Bomber Command. "Certainly, it isn't down the military groove. But it is discipline just the same -- and the kind of discipline that brings success in the air."

    Crew Training

    Train your crew as a team. Keep abreast of their training. It won't be possible for you to follow each man's courses of instruction, but you can keep a close check on his record and progress.

    Get to know each man's duties and problems. Know his job, and try to devise ways and means of helping him to perform it more efficiently.

    Each crew member naturally feels great pride in the importance of his particular specialty. You can help him to develop his pride to include the manner in which he performs that duty. To do that you must possess and maintain a thorough knowledge of each man's job and the problems he has to deal with in the performance of his duties.

    • He must he able to fly the airplane under all conditions as well as you would fly it yourself.
    • He must he extremely proficient in engine operation, and know instinctively what to do to keep the airplane flying smoothly even though he is not handling the controls.
    • He must have a thorough knowledge of cruising control data, and know how to apply it at the proper time.
    • He is also the engineering officer aboard the airplane, and maintains a complete log of performance data.
    • He must be a qualified instrument pilot.
    • He must he able to fly good formation in any assigned position, day or night.
    • He must he qualified to navigate by day or at night by pilotage, dead reckoning, and by use of radio aids.
    • He must be proficient in the operation of all radio equipment located in the pilot's compartment.
    • In formation flying, he must be able to make engine adjustments almost automatically.
    • He must be prepared to take over on instruments when the formation is climbing through an overcast, thus enabling you to watch the rest of the formation.

    Always remember that the copilot is a fully trained, rated pilot just like yourself. He is subordinate to you only by virtue of your position as the airplane commander. The B-17 is a lot of airplane more airplane than any one pilot can handle alone over a long period of time. Therefore, you have been provided with a second pilot who will share the duties of flight operation.

    Treat your copilot as a brother pilot. Remember that the more proficient he is as a pilot, the more efficiently he will be able to perform the duties of the vital post he holds as your second in command.

    Be sure that he is allowed to do his share of the flying, in the pilot's seat, on takeoffs, landings, and on instruments.

    The importance of the copilot is eloquently testified to by airplane commanders overseas. There have been many cases in which the pilot has been disabled or killed in flight and the copilot has taken full command of both airplane and crew, completed the mission, and returned safely to the home base. Usually, the copilots who have distinguished themselves under such conditions have been copilots who have been respected and trained by the airplane commander as pilots.

    Bear in mind that the pilot in the right-hand seat of your airplane is preparing himself for an airplane commander's post too. Allow him every chance to develop his ability and to profit by your experience.

    T he navigator's job is to direct your flight from departure to destination and return. He must know the exact position of the airplane at all times.

    Navigation is the art of determining geographic positions by means of (a) pilotage, (b) dead reckoning, (c) radio, or (d) celestial navigation, or any combination of these 4 methods. By any one or combination of methods the navigator determines the position of the airplane in relation to the earth.

    Pilotage is the method of determining the airplane's position by visual reference to the ground. The importance of accurate pilotage cannot over-emphasized. In combat navigation, all bombing targets are approached by pilotage, and in many theaters the route is maintained by pilotage. This requires not merely the vicinity type, but pin-point pilotage. The exact position of the airplane must be known not within 5 miles but within ¼ of a mile.

    The navigator does this by constant reference to groundspeeds and ETA's established for points ahead, the ground, and to his maps and charts. During the mission, so long as he can maintain visual contact with the ground, the navigator can establish these pin-point positions so that the exact track of the airplane will be known when the mission is completed.

    Dead Reckoning

    Dead reckoning is the basis of all other types of navigation. For instance, if the navigator is doing pilotage and computes ETA's for points ahead, he is using dead reckoning.

    Dead reckoning determines the position of the airplane at any given time by keeping an account of the track and distance flown over the earth's surface from the point of departure or last known position.

      Dead reckoning as a result of a series of known positions obtained by some other means of navigation.

    For example, you, as pilot, start on a mission from London to Berlin at 25,000 feet. For the first hour your navigator keeps track by pilotage at the same time recording the heading and airspeed which you are holding. According to plan, at the end of the first hour the airplane goes above the clouds, thus losing contact with the ground. By means of dead reckoning from his last pilotage point, the navigator is able to tell the position of the aircraft at any time. The first hour's travel has given him the wind prevalent at altitude, and the track and groundspeed being made. By computing track and distance from the last pilotage point, he can always tell the position of the airplane. When your airplane comes out of the clouds near Berlin, the navigator will have a very close approximation of his exact position, and will be able to pick up pilotage points quickly.

    Radio navigation makes use of various radio aids to determine position. The development of many new radio devices has increased the use of radio in combat zones. However, the ease with which radio aids can be jammed, or bent, limits the use of radio to that of a check on DR and pilotage. The navigator, in conjunction with the radio man, is responsible for all radio procedures, approaches, etc., that are in effect in the theater.

    Celestial navigation is the science of determining position by reference to 2 or more celestial bodies. The navigator uses a sextant, accurate time, and many tables to obtain what he calls a line of position. Actually this line is part of a circle on which the altitude of the particular body is constant for that instant of time. An intersection of 2 or more of these lines gives the navigator a fix. These fixes can be relied on as being accurate within approximately 10 miles. One reason for inaccuracy is the instability of the airplane as it moves through space, causing acceleration of the sextant bubble (a level denoting the horizontal). Because of this acceleration, the navigator takes observations over a period of time so that the acceleration error will cancel out to some extent. If the navigator tells the pilot when he wishes to take an observation, extremely careful flying on the part of the pilot during the few minutes it takes to make the observation will result in much greater accuracy. Generally speaking, the only celestial navigation used by a combat crew is during the delivering flight to the theater. But in all cases celestial navigation is used as a check on dead reckoning and pilotage except where celestial is the only method available, such as on long over-water flights, etc.

    Instrument Calibration

    Instrument calibration is an important duty of the navigator. All navigation depends directly on the accuracy of his instruments. Correct calibration requires close cooperation and extremely careful flying by the pilot. Instruments to be calibrated include the altimeter, all compasses, airspeed indicators, alignment of the astrocompass, astrograph, and drift meter, and check on the navigator's sextant and watch.

    1. Pilot and navigator must study flight plan of the route to be flown and select alternate air fields.
    2. Study the weather with the navigator. Know what weather you are likely to encounter. Decide what action is to be taken. Know the weather conditions at the alternate airfields.
    3. Inform your navigator at what airspeed and altitude you wish to fly so that he can prepare his flight plan.
    4. Learn what type of navigation the navigator intends to use: pilotage, dead reckoning, radio, celestial, or a combination of all methods.
    5. Determine check points plan to make radio fixes.
    6. Work out an effective communication method with your navigator to be used in flight.
    7. Synchronize your watch with your navigator's.
    1. Constant course - For accurate navigation, the pilot -- you -- must fly a constant course. The navigator has many computations and entries to make in his log. Constantly changing course makes his job more difficult. A good navigator is supposed to be able to follow the pilot, but he cannot be taking compass readings all the time.
    2. Constant airspeed must be held as nearly as possible. This is as important to the navigator as is a constant course in determining position.
    3. Precision flying by the pilot greatly affects the accuracy of the navigator's instrument readings, particularly celestial readings. A slight error in celestial reading can cause considerable error in determining positions. You can help the navigator by providing as steady a platform as possible from which he can take readings. The navigator should notify you when he intends to take readings so that the airplane can be leveled off and flown as smoothly as possible, preferably by using the automatic pilot. Do not allow your navigator to be disturbed while he is taking celestial readings.
    4. Notify the navigator of any change in flight , such as change in altitude, course, or airspeed. If change in flight plan is to be made, consult the navigator. Talk over the proposed change so that he can plan the flight and advise you about it.
    5. If there is doubt about the position of the airplane, pilot and navigator should get together, refer to the navigator's flight log, talk the problem over and decide together the best course of action to take.
    6. Check your compasses at intervals with those of the navigator, noting any deviation.
    7. Require your navigator to give position reports at intervals.
    8. You are ultimately responsible for getting the airplane to its destination. Therefore, it is your duty to know your position at all times.
    9. Encourage your navigator to use as many navigation methods as possible as a means of double-checking.

    Post-flight Critique

    After every flight get together with the navigator and discuss the flight and compare notes. Go over the navigator's log. If there have been serious navigational errors, discuss them with the navigator and determine their cause. If the navigator has been at fault, caution him that it is his job to see that the same mistake does not occur again. If the error has been caused by faulty instruments, see that they are corrected before another navigation mission is attempted. If your flying has contributed to inaccuracy in navigation, try to fly a better course next time.

    Miscellaneous Duties

    The navigator's primary duty is navigating your airplane with a high degree of accuracy. But as a member of the team, he must also have a general knowledge of the entire operation of the airplane.

    He has a .50-cal. machine gun at his station, and he must be able to use it skillfully and to service it in emergencies.

    He must be familiar with the oxygen system, know how to operate the turrets, radio equipment, and fuel transfer system.

    He must know the location of all fuses and spare fuses, lights and spare lights, affecting navigation.

    He must be familiar with emergency procedures, such as the manual operation of landing gear, bomb bay doors, and flaps, and the proper procedures for crash landings, ditching, bailout, etc.

    A ccurate and effective bombing is the ultimate purpose of your entire airplane and crew. Every other function is preparatory to hitting and destroying the target.

    That's your bombardier's job. The success or failure of the mission depends upon what he accomplishes in that short interval of the bombing run.

    When the bombardier takes over the airplane for the run on the target, he is in absolute command. He will tell you what he wants done, and until he tells you "Bombs away," his word is law.

    A great deal, therefore, depends on the understanding between bombardier and pilot. You expect your bombardier to know his job when he takes over. He expects you to understand the problems involved in his job, and to give him full cooperation. Teamwork between pilot and bombardier is essential.

    Under any given set of conditions -- groundspeed, altitude, direction, etc. -- there is only one point in space where a bomb may be released from the airplane to hit a predetermined object on the ground.

    • He must know and understand his bombsight, what it does, and how it does it.
    • He must thoroughly understand the operation and upkeep of his bombing instruments and equipment.
    • He must know that his racks, switches, controls, releases, doors, linkage, etc., are in first class operating condition.
    • He must understand the automatic pilot as it pertains to bombing.
    • He must know how to set it up, make any adjustments and minor repairs while in flight.
    • He must know how to operate all gun positions in the airplane.
    • He must know how to load and clear simple stoppages and jams of machine guns while in flight.
    • He must be able to load and fuse his own bombs.
    • He must understand the destructive power of bombs and must know the vulnerable spots on various types of targets.
    • He must understand the bombing problem, bombing probabilities, bombing errors, etc.
    • He must be thoroughly versed in target identification and in aircraft identification.

    The bombardier should be familiar with the duties of all members of the crew and should be able to assist the navigator in case the navigator becomes incapacitated.

    For the bombardier to be able to do his job, the pilot of the aircraft must place the aircraft in the proper position to arrive at a point on a circle about the target from which the bombs can be released to hit the target.

    1. ALTITUDE: Controlled by the pilot. Determines the length of time the bomb is sustained in flight and affected by atmospheric conditions, thus affecting the range (forward travel of the bomb) and deflection (distance the bomb drifts in a crosswind with respect to airplane's ground track).
    2. TRUE AIRSPEED: Controlled by the pilot. The measure of the speed of the airplane through the air. It is this speed which is imparted to the bomb and which gives the bomb its initial forward velocity and, therefore, affects the trail of the bomb, or the distance the bomb lags behind the airplane at the instant of impact.
    3. BOMB BALLISTICS: Size, shape and density of the bomb, which determines its air resistance. Bombardier uses bomb ballistics tables to account for type of bomb.
    4. TRAIL: Horizontal distance the bomb is behind the airplane at the instant of impact. This value, obtained from bombing tables, is set in the sight by the bombardier. Trail is affected by altitude, airspeed, bomb ballistics and air density, the first three factors being controlled by the pilot.
    5. ACTUAL TIME OF FALL: Length of time the bomb is sustained in air from instant of release to instant of impact. Affected by altitude, type of bomb and air density. Pilot controls altitude to obtain a definite actual time of fall.
    6. GROUNDSPEED: The speed of the airplane in relation to the earth's surface. Groundspeed affects the range of the bomb and varies with the airspeed, controlled by the pilot. Bombardier enters groundspeed in the bombsight through synchronization on the target. During this process the pilot must maintain the correct altitude and constant airspeed.
    7. DRIFT: Determined by the direction and velocity of the wind, which determines the distance the bomb will travel downwind from the airplane from the instant the bomb is released to its instant of impact. Drift is set on the bombsight by the bombardier during the process of synchronization and setting up course.

    The above conditions indicate that the pilot plays an important part in determining the proper point of release of the bomb. Moreover, throughout the course of the run, as explained below, there are certain preliminaries and techniques which the pilot must understand to insure accuracy and minimum loss of time.

    Prior to takeoff the pilot must ascertain that the airplane's flight instruments have been checked and found accurate. These are the altimeter, airspeed indicator, free air temperature gauge and all gyro instruments. These instruments must be used to determine accurately the airplane's attitude.

    The Pilot's Preliminaries

    The autopilot and PDI should be checked for proper operation. It is very important that PDI and autopilot function perfectly in the air otherwise it will be impossible for the bombardier to set up an accurate course on the bombing run. The pilot should thoroughly familiarize himself with the function of both the C-1 autopilot and PDI.

    1. Speed, altitude and power settings at which run is to be made.
    2. Airplane trimmed at this speed to fly hands off with bomb bay doors opened.

    The same condition will exist during the actual run, except that changes in load will occur before reaching the target area because of gas consumption. The pilot will continue making adjustments to correct for this by disengaging the autopilot elevator control and re-trimming the airplane, then re-engaging and adjusting the autopilot trim of the elevator.

    Setting Up the Autopilot

    One of the most important items in setting up the autopilot for bomb approach is to adjust the turn compensation knobs so that a turn made by the bombardier will be coordinated and at constant altitude. Failure to make this adjustment will involve difficulty and delay for the bombardier in establishing an accurate course during the run with the possibility that the bombardier may not be able to establish a proper course in time, the result being considerably large deflection errors in point of impact.

    Uncoordinated turns by the autopilot on the run cause erratic lateral motion of the cross hair of the bombsight when sighting on target. The bombardier in setting up course must eliminate any lateral motion of the fore-and-aft hair in relation to the target before he has the proper course set up. Therefore, any erratic motion of the cross hair requires an additional correction by the bombardier. which would not be necessary if autopilot was adjusted to make coordinated turns.

    USE OF THE PDI: The same is true if PDI is used on the bomb run. Again, coordinated smooth turns by the pilot become an essential part of the bomb run. In addition to added course corrections necessitated by uncoordinated turns, skidding and slipping introduce small changes in airspeed affecting synchronization of the bombsight on the target. To help the pilot flying the run on PDI, the airplane should be trimmed to fly practically hands off.

    Assume that you are approaching the target area with autopilot properly adjusted. Before reaching the initial point (beginning of bomb run) there is evasive action to be considered. Many different types of evasive tactics are employed, but from experience it has been recommended that the method of evasive action be left up to the bombardier, since the entire anti- aircraft pattern is fully visible to the bombardier in the nose.

    EVASIVE ACTION: Changes in altitude necessary for evasive action can be coordinated with the bombardier's changes in direction at specific intervals. This procedure is helpful to the bombardier since he must select the initial point at which he will direct the airplane onto the briefed heading for the beginning of the bomb run.

    Should the pilot be flying the evasive action on PDI (at the direction of the bombardier) he must know the exact position of the initial point for beginning the run, so that he can fly the airplane to that point and be on the briefed heading. Otherwise, there is a possibility of beginning to run too soon, which increases the airplane's vulnerability, or beginning the run too late, which will affect the accuracy of the bombing. For best results the approach should be planned so the airplane arrives at the initial point on the briefed heading, and at the assigned bombing altitude and airspeed.

    At this point the bombardier and pilot as a team should exert an extra effort to solve the problem at hand. It is now the bombardier's responsibility to take over the direction of flight, and give directions to the pilot for the operations to follow. The pilot must be able to follow the bombardier's directions with accuracy and minimum loss of time, since the longest possible bomb run seldom exceeds 3 minutes. Wavering and indecision at this moment are disastrous to the success of any mission, and during the crucial portion of the run, flak and fighter opposition must be ignored if bombs are to hit the target. The pilot and bombardier should keep each other informed of anything which may affect the successful completion of the run.

    HOLDING A LEVEL: Either before or during the run, the bombardier will ask the pilot for a level. This means that the pilot must accurately level his airplane with his instruments (ignoring the PDI). There should be no acceleration of the airplane in any direction, such as an increase or decrease in airspeed, skidding or slipping, gaining or losing altitude.

    For the level the pilot should keep a close check on his instruments, not by feel or watching the horizon. Any acceleration of the airplane during this moment will affect the bubbles (through centrifugal force) on the bombsight gyro, and the bombardier will not be able to establish an accurate level.

    For example, assume that an acceleration occurred during the moment the bombardier was accomplishing a level on the gyro. A small increase in airspeed or a small skid, hardly perceptible, is sufficient to shift the gyro bubble liquid 1 degree or more. An erroneous tilt of 1 degree on the gyro will cause an error of approximately 440 feet in the point of impact of a bomb dropped from 20,000 feet, the direction of error depending on direction of tilt of gyro caused by the erroneous bubble reading,

    HOLDING ALTITUDE AND AIRSPEED: As the bombardier proceeds to set up his course (synchronize) , it is absolutely essential that the pilot maintain the selected altitude and air- speed within the closest possible limits. For every additional 100 feet above the assumed 20,000-foot bombing altitude, the bombing error will increase approximately 30 feet, the direction of error being over. For erroneous airspeed, which creates difficulty in synchronization on the target, the bombing error will be approximately 170 feet for a 10 mph change in airspeed. Assuming the airspeed was 10 mph in excess, from 20,000 feet, the bomb impact would be short 170 feet.

    The pilot's responsibility to provide a level and to maintain a selected altitude and airspeed within the closest limits cannot be over-emphasized.

    If the pilot is using PDI (at the direction of the bombardier) instead of autopilot, he must be thoroughly familiar with the corrections demanded by the bombardier. Too large a correction or too small a correction, too soon or too late, is as bad as no correction at all. Only through prodigious practice flying with the PDI can the pilot become proficient to a point where he can actually perform a coordinated turn, the amount and speed necessary to balance the bombardier's signal from the bombsight.

    Erratic airspeeds, varying altitudes, and poorly coordinated turns make the job of establishing course and synchronizing doubly difficult for both pilot and bombardier, because of the necessary added corrections required. The resulting bomb impact will be far from satisfactory.

    After releasing the bombs, the pilot or bombardier may continue evasive action -- usually the pilot, so that the bombardier may man his guns.

    The pilot using the turn control may continue to fly the airplane on autopilot, or fly it manually, with the autopilot in a position to he engaged by merely flipping the lock switches. This would provide potential control of the airplane in case of emergency.

    REDUCING CIRCULAR ERROR: One of the greatest assets towards reducing the circular error of a bombing squadron lies in the pilot's ability to adjust the autopilot properly, fly the PDI, and maintain the designated altitude and airspeeds during the bombing run. Reducing the circular error of a bombing squadron reduces the total number of aircraft required to destroy a particular target. For this reason both pilot and bombardier should work together until they have developed a complete understanding and confidence in each other.

    T here is a lot of radio equipment in today's B-17's. There is one man in particular who is supposed to know all there is to know about this equipment. Sometimes he does, but often he doesn't. And when the radio operator's deficiencies do not become apparent until the crew is in the combat zone, it is then too late. Too often the lives of pilots and crew are lost because the radio operator has accepted his responsibility indifferently.

    Radio is a subject that cannot be learned in a day. It cannot be mastered in 6 weeks, but sufficient knowledge can be imparted to the radio man during his period of training in the United States if he is willing to study. It is imperative that you check your radio operator's ability to handle his job before taking him overseas as part of your crew. To do this you may have to check the various departments to find any weakness in the radio operator's training and proficiency and to aid the instructors in overcoming such weaknesses.

    1. Render position reports every 30 minutes.
    2. Assist the navigator in taking fixes.
    3. Keep the liaison and command sets properly tuned and in good operating order.
    4. Understand from an operational point of view:
      1. Instrument landing
      2. IFF
      3. VHF

      In addition to being a radio operator, the radio man is also a gunner. During periods of combat he will be required to leave his watch at the radio and take up his guns. He is often required to learn photography. Some of the best pictures taken in the Southwest Pacific were taken by radio operators. The radio operator who cannot perform his job properly may be the weakest member of your crew -- and the crew is no stronger than its weakest member.

      S ize up the man who is to be your engineer. This man is supposed to know more about the airplane you are to fly than any other member of the crew.

      He has been trained in the Air Forces' highly specialized technical schools. Probably he has served some time as a crew chief. Nevertheless, there may be some inevitable blank spots in his training which you, as a pilot and airplane commander, may be able to fill in.

      Think back on your own training. In many courses of instruction, you had a lot of things thrown at you from right and left. You had to concentrate on how to fly and where your equipment was concerned you learned to rely more and more on the enlisted personnel, particularly the crew chief and the engineer, to advise you about things that were not taught to you because of lack of time and the arrangement of the training program.

      Both pilot and engineer have a responsibility to work closely together to supplement and fill in the blank spots in each other's education. To be a qualified combat engineer a man must know his airplane, his engines, and his armament equipment thoroughly. This is a big responsibility: the lives of the entire crew, the safety of the equipment, the success of the mission depend upon it squarely.

      He must work closely with the copilot, checking engine operation, fuel consumption, and the operation of all equipment. He must be able to work with the bombardier, and know how to cock, lock, and load the bomb racks. It is up to you, the airplane commander, to see that he is familiar with these duties, and, if he is hazy concerning them, to have the bombardier give him special help and instruction.

      He must be thoroughly familiar with the armament equipment, and know how to strip, clean, and re-assemble the guns.

      He should have a general knowledge of radio equipment, and be able to assist in tuning transmitters and receivers.

      Your engineer should be your chief source of information concerning the airplane. He should know more about the equipment than any other crew member -- yourself included.

      You, in turn, are his source of information concerning flying. Bear this in mind in all your discussions with the engineer. The more complete you can make his knowledge of the reasons behind every function of the equipment, the more valuable he will be as a member of the crew. Who knows? Someday that little bit of extra knowledge in the engineer's mind may save the day in some emergency.

      Generally, in emergencies, the engineer will be the man to whom you turn first. Build up his pride, his confidence, his knowledge. Know him personally check on the extent of his knowledge. Make him a man upon whom you can rely.

      T he B-17 is a most effective gun platform, but its effectiveness can be either applied or defeated by the way the gunners in your crew perform their duties in action.

      Your gunners belong to one of two distinct categories: turret gunners and flexible gunners.

      The power turret gunners require many mental and physical qualities similar to what we know as inherent flying ability, since the operation of the power turret and gunsight are much like that of airplane flight operation.

      While the flexible gunners do not require the same delicate touch as the turret gunner, they must have a fine sense of timing and he familiar with the rudiments of exterior ballistics.

      All gunners should be familiar with the coverage area of all gun positions, and be prepared to bring the proper gun to bear as the conditions may warrant.

      They should be experts in aircraft identification. Where the Sperry turret is used, failure to set the target dimension dial properly on the K-type sight will result in miscalculation of range.

      They must be thoroughly familiar with the Browning aircraft machine gun. They should know how to maintain the guns, how to clear jams and stoppages, and how to harmonize the sights with the guns. While participating in training flights, the gunners should be operating their turrets constantly, tracking with the flexible guns even when actual firing is not practical. Other airplanes flying in the vicinity offer excellent tracking targets, as do automobiles, houses, and other ground objects during low altitude flights.

      The importance of teamwork cannot he overemphasized. One poorly trained gunner, or one man not on the alert, can be the weak link as a result of which the entire crew may be lost.

      Keep the interest of your gunners alive at all times. Any form of competition among the gunners themselves should stimulate interest to a high degree.

      Finally, each gunner should fire the guns at each station to familiarize himself with the other man's position and to insure knowledge of operation in the event of an emergency.

      Watch the video: Gunship Sequel: WW2 - HUGE B17 Fortress Formation Highlights. New Update


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