Naram-Sin Rock Relief, Sulaimaniya, Iraq

Naram-Sin Rock Relief, Sulaimaniya, Iraq


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Taposiris Magna Stele: Another Rosetta Stone

Stela found at Taposiris Magna, inscribed in Hierglyphic and Demotic side by side.

The SCA Archaeological Mission in collaboration with the Catholic University of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) working at the Taposiris Magna site succeeded in discovering a limestone stele inscribed with Hieroglyphic and Demotic inscriptions.

The Minister of Antiquities, Dr. Eldamaty stated that the discovered stele contains 20 Hieroglyphic lines with royal cartouches of king “Ptolomy V” whom the stele was inscribed during the seventh year of his reign. Cartouches of Ptolomy’s wife and sister, Queen “Cleopatra I”, his father, King “Ptolomy IV” and his wife “Arsinoe III” also appear.

The Demotic inscriptions that lie at the bottom of the stele consist of five lines of a text that seem to be a translation and a copy of the previous Hieroglyphic lines. Eldamaty added that the stele is a 105 cm. length, 65 cm. width and 18 cm. thick.


Rama in the rock carvings of Iraq.

(1) Ram, son of the firstborn of Jerahmeel (Chronicles 2:27)

(2) A’ram’ - Son of Hezron and an ancestor of Jesus » Called ARAM (Matthew 1:3,4 Luke 3:33)

(3) 33 the son of Amminadab, the son of Ram, Luke 3:33

(4) RAMATH - A city of the tribe of Simeon (Joshua 19:8)

(5) RAMATH-LEHI - The place where Samson killed one-thousand Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey (Judges 15:17)

(6) RAMATH-MIZPEH - A town in the territory of the tribe of Gad (Joshua 13:26)

(7) RAMESES - The district in Egypt which was inhabited by the Israelites (Genesis 47:11 Exodus 1:1112:37 Numbers 33:3,5)

(8) (Called also Raamses.) RAMESES - The district in Egypt which was inhabited by the I » City of, built by the Israelites as a treasure city for one of the Pharaohs (Exodus 1:11)

(9)RAMIAH - An Israelite at the time of Ezra - Had taken a non-Israelite wife (Ezra 10:25)

(10)DAVID » King of Israel » Saul attempts to kill him he escapes to Ramah, and lives at Naioth, where Saul pursues him (1 Samuel 19:9-24)

(11) NAIOTH » A place in Ramah (1 Samuel 19:18,19,2220:1)

(12) RAMOTH-GILEAD » Also called RAMAH (1 Kings 8:2 2 Chronicles 22:6

(13)SAMUEL » A judge (leader) of Israel, his judgment seat at Beth-el, Gilgal, Mizpeh, and Ramah (2 Samuel 7:15-17)

(14) ISRAEL » (Usually, in lists, the names of Levi and Joseph, » Journey from Rameses to Succoth (Exodus 12:37-39)

(15) SUCCOTH » The first camping place of the Israelites after leaving the city of Rameses (Exodus 12:3713:20 Numbers 33:5,6)

(16) JEHOSHAPHAT » King of Judah » Joins Ahab in an invasion of Ramoth-gilead (1 Kings 22 2 Chronicles 18)


The noun RAMAH appears in the following contexts:

1. A city of the territory of the tribe of Asher (Joshua 19:29)

2. A city of the territory of the tribe of Naphthali (Joshua 19:36)

3. Called RAMA (Matthew 2:18)

4. Also called RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM » A city near Mount Ephraim (Jude 1:4,5 1 Samuel 1:1)

5. Also called RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM » Home of Elkanah (1 Samuel 1:1,192:11)

6. Also called RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM » Home of Samuel (1 Samuel 1:19,207:178:415:3416:13)

7. Also called RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM » David flees to (1 Samuel 19:18)

8. Also called RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM » Samuel dies and was buried in (1 Samuel 25:128:3)

9. Called RAMA » A city allotted to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18:25 Judges 19:13)

10. Called RAMA » Attempted fortification of, by King Baasha destruction of, by Asa (1 Kings 15:17-22 2 Chronicles 16:1-6)

11. Called RAMA » People of, return from the Babylonian captivity (Ezra 2:26 Nehemiah 7:3011:33)

12. Called RAMA » Jeremiah imprisoned in (Jeremiah 40:1)

13. Called RAMA » Prophecies concerning (Isaiah 10:29 Jeremiah 31:15 Hosea 5:8 Matthew 2:18)

14. RAMAH » See RAMOTH-GILEAD

Ramoth - Gilead finds mention in the following:-

(1) Besieged by Israel and Judah Ahab killed there (1 Kings 22:29-36 2 Chronicles 18)

(2) In the possession of the Syrians (2 Kings 22:3)
One of Solomon's commissaries there (2 Kings 4:13)

(3) Recovered by Joram Joram wounded there (2 Kings 8:28,299:14,15 2 Chronicles 22:5,6)

(4) Also called RAMAH (2 Kings 8:2 2 Chronicles 22:6)

(5)Elisha anoints Jehu to be king there (2 Kings 9:1-6)

(6) A city of the territory of the tribe of Gad, and one of the cities of refuge (Deuteronomy 4:43 Joshua 20:8 1 Chronicles 6:80)

“A voice is heard in Ramah,
weeping and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her children
and refusing to be comforted,
because they are no more.”[a]

17 comments:

if you don't mind there was a blog entry where you said "the concept of Lakshmi" was formed during the Hiranya time. What you actually mean by that?

I have written on the concept of Lakshmi in some of my Tamil blogs. I have not yet written about it in this English blog except in the following link where I have dealt with the divine aspect of Lakshmi as the "Will" of God or consort of Vishnu: http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.com/2011/04/thoughts-on-sri-rama-navami-open-letter.html

It is in the latter part of this article you will find the concept of Lakshmi or how it was formed.

//
We refer to the injunctions, which speak
about 'will' as in 'It willed that It may become many'
and 'Thought' as in 'It thought – May I become
manyfold and be born' (chandogya) are of the nature of Sri
without whose existence / insistence, the Supreme does
not contemplate to do anything.

The Will or the Thought are part of Him which for
simpler understanding are said to be seated in His
manas. Ramanuja acknowledges this in his dhyaana sloka
to Sri Bhashyam to Vedanta sutras thus :- " May my
understanding assume the form of loving devotion to
the Highest Brahman who is the Home of Lakshmi." The
implication that He will not do anything without being
told by Lakshmi is further authenticated by
Purvacharyas.

For better understanding, you have to read the whole article in that link or the middle part of that article.

Now for the idea that this concept was developed during Hiranya time read my Tamil article.

Read the Tamil blog http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.com/2012/10/111.html

In continuation of this you may read this blog too

The following article also must be read to understand the location of Hiranyapura and formation or Manava etc.

http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.com/2012/10/112-1.html
This article have details on Toba and Toba lake which was mentioned by Narada in MB.

Earlier you asked about Muruga.
In the comment section of this blog I have written some:
http://jayasree-saranathan.blogspot.com/2010/08/paripadal-1-thirumaal.html?showComment=1344360117837#c4235024910705559368

The comment section of this article has some on Lakshmi and Lakshmi in Thirupathi Venkateswara's chest.

In this link http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.com/2012/10/112-1.html
I have written about the formation of animals as told in MB (Mahabharata)
There it is written that the first elephants appeared in the South. It was Supratika and Airavadha is the later born of that variety.

The recently published study in China of the presence of people in Daoxion, it has been recorded that a rare species of elephant-like animal also has been found among the remains. It is called Stegodon orientalis. This is an important input in tracing the genesis of elephants, particularly Airavadha in the Southen part of the hemisphere.

Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2015/10/modern-humans-out-of-africa-sooner-than.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+TheArchaeologyNewsNetwork+%28The+Archaeology+News+Network%29#.ViD9bH6rTIU

As per MB (Narada's narration) the first elephants formed in the South only. But until now scholars have thought that the first elephants formed in Africa. In this connection I am reproducing my comment from my Tamil blog where I have written about elephants in Sundaland or china. The Chinese discovery published 2 days ago of an elephant like creature concurs with MB version.

From
http://thamizhan-thiravidana.blogspot.com/2011/01/34.html
//
The so-far deciphered history of Woolly Mammoth is that there was an earlier African version from which European and Chinese version evolved. The European version further moved north with solar radiation becoming suitable for the habitat.

In article 112 of the current series, there comes details of the animals that evolved in the south of the equator deduced from Mathali- Narada dialogue in Mahabharata (5-99). There Iravadam elephants are mentioned. There it is also told that Iravadham was the former evolved variety and then evolved other 3 varieties. This goes well with scientific finding that the first elephants evolved in the South - though it says in Africa as per our currently available info
- the Mahabharata info on south seas (of which most places are gone now)must be Indonesia or Sundaland.

From there the Iravadham had moved to North via China (which the wiki article has identified) and Burma. Iravadham elephant and Iravathy river are there in Burma, Burma's earlier name was Indra dweepa - Iravadham was Indra's elephant. The movement to further North had happened through this route upto Siberia when solar radiation was available at that time. (Read my English article quoted above)

Another route for the elephants is from Africa to Europe to Northern most regions. In that region Indra Shira mountain is there according to Ramayana. As Indra is always identified with the best quality elephant, I infer that the woolly mammoth fits in that description.

Indra stands for growth of people / population. If he is always identified with elephant, then it means man and elephant had co-existed whenever population had increased and lived in organised societies. I say organised societies, because elephant is an important ashta mangala symbol of kings.
//

Sincere thanks for these great insights and information.

Sorry to bring this up again.
"
For example, the rise of human civilisation in the past one lakh years started in the southern seas in the Indian ocean – a fact which most of genetic researchers agree with. It had gone to the Northern hemisphere about 60,000 years ago after the Toba-effect subsided. Then when the North was covered with ice, a shift happened from North to South – not through India but through China to Sundaland (present day Indonesia). From Mahabharata narration (Anusasana parva – chapter 93) it is known that a migration following the sun's movement happened from north to south. This is cleverly explained in this chapter using the etymological meanings of names of the seven rishis and others.
"
The above part is a bit not clear to me.
From all the articles you had given, Sundaland and areas around it was brimming with activity. When Mt.Toba exploded, a set of people migrated. The Devas were those who migrated to Siberia/Altai. This happened around 40,000BP.

Now when the Ice age set in , these people moved and settled as Incas, Peublos etc.. and there are no mention about them ater that

What's not clear to me is the quote I have provided above. After the group of people moved to North and settled in Siberia, they never returned back to China/Sundaland. But in your quote above, you say that such a migration had happened.

Can you please throw some light pls.

To quote where I understood the above information
"
The genetic studies show an early group moving through India and to the Nothern regions. This had happened 40,000 years ago and lasted until the Ice age set in. This fits with the description of Polar Devas. Their prevalence ended before 10,000 years ago which I find corresponding with the extinct of Woolly Mammoth, the elephants found in extreme North. Indra (leader of Devas) was known for his elephant, named Iravatha.

At that time and until that time, India was sparsely populated. Graham Hancock's maps on the vegetation of India give us the reason.
"
So from the above I understood that about 40,000 years ago, the Devas had moved from South to North and after that they were talkeda about til Ice Age. They possibly settled as Peublos, Inclas etc..

However in the first quote there is a reference of these Devas moving back to South.

First of all who are Devas?
The description of who they are varies (I have written that) and we dont know who exactly were the people who moved / migrated.

The evidence we have on hand are (from science) (1) Australian genes in Altai fossil. (2) an extinct gene of Denisovan found only in Asia (east Asia) and in Altai and its inter mingling in the ancestry of present day Malenesians / Australasians.

The link between Australia and Altai known from this + the MB narration + Indra / Deva references to South ( Burma / Iravadham etc) etc make it known that this sector was a regular migration route.

If you see the maps I have drawn on the basis of the many inputs I have dealt with, you can see that the Himalayas had acted as a barrier to direct migration from the south to the north or vice versa. Migrations had happened either on the east or west of Himayalas. The above written migration is on the east of Himalayas which is very possible and could have resulted in further movement across the Pacific to the Americas.

Puranically, Indra of North married Sachi of Southern parts. Skanda period comes in that. Skanda married daughter of Indra. When this kind of marriage connection comes, hordes of people would have moved along with the princess who married Indra or Skanda. Another input is Matali ( a traditional name for charioteers in Indra land) married his daughter to a being of the far South. The movement of these people could have happened via the western corridor of the Himalayas. In one of the Tamil articles I had written about Muchukunda guarding Indra land when Indra went on war with Asuras and in return getting Nalangadi Bhootham to be installed in Pumpukaar. Pumpukaar was the southern most outpost for the people who support Indra's clan. It is closer to equator and note that it is closer to Sundaland which is a better candidate to house Asuras (people of the South)

On your other question on Hopi, Peublos and Inkas, I am yet to put them all in a coherent framework. What I found in them is that they share a lot with Vedic customs and culture and Indian way of life. For example I recently happened to see the 'Kaasu maalai" type of ornament of Mapuche tribe of Chile. The Ammi-k-kal of Anishinabi is similar to what we use in Tamilnadu. (You can find them exhibited in Smithsonian Museum).Their concept of the world as 2 people - summer people and winter people concur with Devas and Asuras. There is so much to explore and deduce from these people. But early indicators are such that they bear resemblance to Vedic / and South Indian / Tamil people. If you see the photos of Inkas and Titicaca people without their traditional dresses you will at first identify them as Malayalis or NE people.

The elitist devas whom (I deduce) Yudhsihtra called as people of Uttar Kuru who happened to be biological fathers of the Pandavas could have completely lost their identity and moved to the east of Siberia (MB times and later) and merged with European population. This population of Uttar kuru corresponds to Rama and MB period. That is after 5000 to 7000 yrs BP. This is much later than 10,000 yrs when Indras as such were last heard of.

The relief does not belong to Sri Rama. Please read my article about this rock-relief on the ancient history encyclopedia http://etc.ancient.eu/2015/04/14/akkadian-rock-relief-belula-pass/ . And, yes, the pictures of the relief are mine and can be found on my Flickr's account. Thank you for highlighting the subject!
Osama S. M. Amin

And I forgot to tell that the zoomed-in image of a the Hindu deity is not correct. Someone carved his name on the cliff, near the relief, which I consider vandalism. It reads "Dilovan" (دلوفان) in Kurdish language Diluvan is a male name which mean merciful!

Read your article in ancient.eu. You have made the observations that I am pinpointing in the blog post - the absence of beard and the dress. These are markedly missing in Naram-sin or in any akkadian or assyrian king who were known to have used the bow. The inscriptions may have been added later, but isn't the word Dilovan (merciful) unsuitable to any king of akkad or assyrian period? Were they ever known to have pardoned or spared their enemies? But Rama was particularly known for forgiving anyone who surrendered him. There is even a research article on Rama's connection to Mesopotamia published in academia.edu -https://www.academia.edu/9206525/Indian_Epic_Ramayana_and_Elamite_connection_from_Ancient_Mesopotamia, though I don't concur with that article due to numerous discrepancies in that article. But the underlying idea is that traces of Rama had been there in Mesopotamia.

For your perusal the Persian connection to India (Bharat of those times) had been written by me here : http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.in/2014/04/from-renuka-to-medusa-were-persians.html

Even the Assurs were off-shoots of a clan that left India - the link can be traced only form Ramayana. Read my article here - http://jayasreesaranathan.blogspot.in/2014/04/maruttas-as-progenitors-of-mundas-and.html

The rock carving may have been some one other than Rama, but it does show the influence of Rama on the warrior under scrutiny. The presence of so many Rama- sounding names of places and individuals in that part of the globe must be analysed and convincingly explained.

One can see influence of Rama throughout the east of India (South east Asia). It raises a logical question how it failed to spread in the west of India (west Asia)? Given the extent of vandalism and brutality witnessed in the said period of the rock carving in that part of Mesopotamia, it raises a doubt whether the traces of Rama cult was wiped out in that part. The warrior in the carving may have been someone who was influenced by Rama, the merciful, who was ready to pardon even the abductor of his wife had he returned his wife and sought pardon.

Happy Diwali to you n ur family. Keep flooding ur nonrandomthoughts.

Dear Ms Sheela and Mr Surya Siva,

Thanks for your greetings and my wishes to you and all the other readers for a happy Deepavali.

Yes Ms Sheela, I want write down my non-random thoughts. Somehow it is getting delayed.

Lots of things happened these days kindling some reactions in my mind. The beef controversy was the worst thing of all that hurt me deeply and made me feel sick that I am surrounded by a society that has no regard for life - rather any life - be it the life of a cow or any other animal. Being at the top of the evolutionary ladder man has a greater responsibility towards all living and non- living things around him. We are not cave people who were killing other living things for survival or for food. We have come a long way as thinking beings and it is utterly barbaric to consider other living things as food for us.

Most disgusting is the comment by Kamal Hasan that he would rather not bother about life of animals when it comes to feeding humans. He even declared that he does not eat any animal that is bigger in size. In an irony of sorts such a person was requested by Dalai Lama to propagate Ahimsa through his movies and Kamal agreed to it! Its sends my head veering that barely a couple of days after he mouthed his noxious support for beef and non vegetarianism, Kamal is expressing his faith in Ahimsa to Dalai Lama. What is happening to Kamal? Or is there anything happening to Kamal?

Well, the bottom line is that I very much wish to surge from my slumber to do something through my blog to discourage beef eating and even non-vegetarianism. I have a plan to write the karmic effects of eating beef or meat. But before I could do that, I think I can just start posting articles that discourage meat and beef eating. Readers are welcome to send such articles and I will post them.

The other thought that is disturbing my mind at the moment is the BJP debacle in Bihar that comes with the start of the 10 year long Moon dasa of India. Are we heading for a troubled period of sickular forces getting polarized and strengthened? Isn't my old article on Advani vs Modi more relevant now than ever before that the current trends are hurting Sanatan Dharma as seen in callous support for beef eating? The unjustifiable accusation on tolerance of Hindus is another matter that must be challenged. I think we bloggers and readers must become active once again on these issues. Let me see what I can do. If not detailed articles, let me post short ones or news items to highlight them.

day govt changed script is moving very aggressively. its a move to make a 2004 in 2019! somehow i have not so good opinion on Dalai Lama.

Respect to cow n worship is treated as joke n superstition. if so long our desicows hv survived by hindus of Guj/Raj/ UP & central India tagged as cow belt. now yadava leaders themselves taking beef eating cool is very insulting.

one of my neighbour Leather businessman a Hindu informs its calf & cow leather is best. though a religious guy he has no remorse as its already dead skin which they use.
such is mentality hindus have tuned themselves. Pity cattles who have lost the right of pasture lands n bull calves heading early death due to artificial insemination in dairy farms.

Hindus should stop using leather material in anyform to do our bit for cow protection.

Vegetarians are the REAL MINORITIES IN TODAY'S world who needs to be most tolerant.
Still let us not feel shy n try to advocate this wonderful concept which
really awakens our mind n conscience.

Yes Ms Sheela, we must not hesitate to promote the idea of vegetarianism. Change of mind can not happen overnight. We have to keep bringing to the notice of people the rationale of it. Aryan invasion theory was not removed from people's mind in a day or a year but by persistent exposure of its hollowness over a period. Like that, the need to give up support for beef and meat a must be written scientifically and intellectually to usher in a change of mindset. Another issue that needs such exposure is the the Muslim misconception of their origins and the support to people like Tipu.


Borsippa, Mesopotamia, July 2013! Part I

Borsippa was an important ancient city of Sumer, built on both sides of a lake about 17.7 km (11.0 mi) southwest of Babylon on the east bank of the Euphrates. The site of Borsippa is in Babylon Province, Iraq and now called Birs Nimrud, the Arabs identifying the site with Nimrod. The ziggurat, the “Tongue Tower,” today one of the most vividly identifiable surviving ziggurats, is identified in the later Talmudic and Arabic culture with the Tower of Babel, although the Sumero-Akkadian builders of the Ziggurat in reality erected it as a religious edifice in honour of the local god Nabu, called the “son” of Babylon’s Marduk, as would be appropriate for Babylon’s lesser sister-city.

بورسيبا (بالسومرية تسمى باد-سي-ا-اب-با وباكدية تسمى برسيب أو تل برسيب) وتسمى حاليا ببرس نمرود، هي مدينة سومرية مهمة قديمة، تم بنائها على جانبي بحيرة تبعد حوالي 17 كلم جنوب مدينة بابل، موقع بورسيبا هو في محافظة بابل (محافظة) في العراق، وكانت تحتوي مدينة بورسيبا على زقورة وهي موجودة لحد اليوم وحسب التلمود يعتقد بأن هذه الزقورة هي برج بابل الموجود في التوراة. ويعتقد بأن هذه الزقورة كانت من اجل عبادة الالهة نبو اله التجارة عند البابليون الذي ابن الاله مردوخ. حسب التأريخ يعتقد بأن مدينة بورسيبا يعود انشائها إلى عصر سلالة أور الثالثة وفي العصر البابلي كانت مركز القوة لبابل وفي القرن التاسع قبل الميلاد كانت بورسيبا بدأ الكلدان يستقرون فيها. لكن تم تدميرها هي ومعبدها خلال عهد الملك الاخميني احشويروش. كشفت الحفريات في عام 1854 بقيادة عالم الاثار هينري كريسويك راولنسون واكتشف راولنسون عن معبد لعبادة الاله نبو يعود بنائه إلى عصر الملك الكلداني نبوخذ نصر الثاني، والذي اكتشف بين عامي 1879 و 1881 بقيادة عالم الاثار هرمزد رسام مع فرقة بحث بريطانية.


Biographical Representations of Peripheral Space

  • 13 The interview was conducted and evaluated following the approach of “narration analysis of biograph (. )

14 How is an individual life affected by centre-periphery relations, which subject one’s place of residence to multiple forms of dependency, and how do individuals shape these relations? I will now discuss the situation of a young woman living in Qaradagh-C, whom I will call Hêvî. Having met her for the first time in 1993, I did a life-story interview with her in September 2009.13 Hêvî was born in 1973 as the first daughter of a Qaradagh-based family of religious sheikhs of the Merdoxî lineage. She has two brothers and a sister. Her mother is a housewife. During the interview, Hêvî stressed the cultural role of her forefathers in the 19th century when Qaradagh-C consisted of 10,000 houses, listing sheikhs who had permission to teach and claiming that one of the first judges in Sulaimaniya was her grandfather.

15 This elevated social status through origin had no bearing on her family’s economic situation. Hêvî’s father worked as a civil servant for the agriculture department. In 1988, the family managed to escape to Sulaimaniya, where Hêvî finished school and completed her professional education. After 1991, the family returned to Qaradagh and built a new house on the site of their old home. Hêvî emphasized that it did not correspond to the one that was destroyed, which was made of bricks, cement, iron and glass, but was smaller and had one storey only. The walls were plastered with loam and the roof was made of wood and a mixture of loam and straw. In short, it was “just like the houses in the villages”. In 1993, Hêvî began to teach the children of the returnees, along with Rengîn, a woman of similar age and education. Around this time, she became a member of the PUK Women’s Union. Concurrently, the German NGO Medico International took up its work in the area and opened an office in Qaradagh-C:

We saw that all of the employees were men, the workers, the guards and so on. As we visited the Women’s Union, we said: “Why are there no women?” Then they gave Rengîn and me a job. When their programme ended, our work ended too.

16 In 1995, Hêvî worked in Sulaimaniya in the department that organized public food distributions:

Three or four times a week, I went to Sulaimaniya in the morning and returned in the afternoon. It was exhausting and the wages did not even cover the daily transport. Back and forth, but I just sat there with nothing to do. Not only me. Nobody had anything to do because at that time there was nothing to distribute.

17 In 1996, Hêvî got a posting back to Qaradagh and worked in the office of the sub-district administration. The sub-district director, however, resided and worked in the city. She continued to be active in the Women’s Union and was involved in awareness campaigns on forced marriage, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation. She remarked as regards the latter:

The circumcision of girls does not exist in Qaradagh-Centre. In the villages, I don’t know. Maybe they do it secretly. But we stood up at meetings with them and said this should not happen.

18 Hêvî managed to transform her political commitment into a job when she began working in the Women’s Union library. In 1999, she married a man of similar age and education from Qaradagh-C who worked for the security police and who wasn’t a relative, she said. Her husband later became head of the security police in Qaradagh-C. In 2009, Hêvî gave birth to male twins in a hospital in Sulaimaniya.

19 In the first years of married life, the couple lived in a house rented from someone residing in Sulaimaniya. Then, the young family succeeded in obtaining one of the ten houses Medico International had built for its personnel and handed over to the government when it left the area. As dual earners, the couple achieved a certain prosperity, visible, for example, in the large, well-equipped kitchen with a hot and cold water dispenser. However, they rent it from the municipality. Most other people in Qaradagh-C live in their own houses, but:

  • 14 Hêvî mentions a high-ranking PUK and government official. In order to protect her, I do not state h (. )
  • 15 Change (Goran) was established as an election platform in 2009 by the private media company Wusha C (. )

20 In September 2009, Hêvî took advantage of maternity leave. It was unclear at the time whether she would continue working in the library. What was clear, however, was the ending of her commitment to the Women’s Union. Like many other people in both Qaradagh and Sulaimaniya, she made no secret of voting for the new Sulaimaniya-based oppositional platform Change in the July 2009 elections.15 In response, the security police in Sulaimaniya transferred her PUK-loyal husband he was first sent to a distant checkpoint and later to another. Punishing the brother or husband of a so-called disloyal woman and bringing political strife into people’s living rooms and bedrooms is a new method adopted by the PUK to discourage others from joining the opposition. Either way, the case demonstrates yet again the dependency of the inhabitants of Qaradagh-C on the course of events in Sulaimaniya.

21 Many of Hêvî’s contemporaries, including her friend Rengîn, moved to Sulaimaniya in the last few years. Did she never feel the desire to live in the city?

Yes [she said]. After the uprising there was no electricity, no water, and then there were the mosquitoes. My brother, my sister, and I wanted to go back to Sulaimaniya, but my father worked here. So we couldn’t live in Sulaimaniya.

Later, I got used to life in Qaradagh. Now, I like it. I don’t believe there is any other place that is so calm and quiet.

23 At first, it was taken for granted that an unmarried daughter must remain under her father’s control. Later, Hêvî and her husband’s respective jobs were the reason for staying. Political activity may have added more meaning to Hêvî’s life. Interestingly, she describes Qaradagh-C as “calm and quiet”, presenting it as an advantage to live outside the city, which in turn can be understood as drawing a distinction between villagers and city dwellers. Several other such hints at distinction emerged in the course of the interview. Hêvî stressed “the lack of strong social relations”, for instance, and compared the “warm” mourning ceremonies in Qaradagh-C with those in Sulaimaniya, which were “colder”. However, she did highlight the privileged access to infrastructure as a positive aspect of the city. As already mentioned, she distinguished between villagers and Qaradagh-C with regard to housing and female genital mutilation. She likewise compared the district to other non-city environments when she claimed that people in Qaradagh “do not make trouble” like “hot-tempered men” in other areas, or that forced marriage was not prevalent here because “the people of Qaradagh live near Sulaimaniya and are more aware.” The most striking statement of distinction between the village and the city emerged when I asked her what the term “village-like” meant to her, a term, as already mentioned, which is frequently applied pejoratively by the Sulaimaniya middle class. Hêvî’s response was:

That’s a very ugly word. And where do the people in the city who use it come from? They all moved from the village to the city. Even today, people from the city are grateful to have the village. They say our cooking fat is village-like. Our yoghurt water is village-like and good. If nobody lived in the village where would they get it from?

24 It is “our” cooking fat and “our” yoghurt: Hêvî was never involved in agricultural production but the widespread negative connotation of this particular term drove her to identify with the villagers of Qaradagh and the non-city environment she lives in. However, her material living conditions and narrations indicate that she neither lives in a “rural” nor in an “urban” space. Rather, her experience can be described as of “rural-urban hybridity”.


4,000-yr-old “Lost” City Discovered – Gateway to Mesopotamia’s First Great Empire

A team of French archaeologists has discovered the remnants of an ancient lost city at Kunara, close to the Zagros mountains, in present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.

At the time the city would have stood on a strategically-important position, “at the gates” of the Akkadian Empire, which is ancient Mesopotamia’s first grandiose empire, archaeologists said.

According to the French team, the recently found city likely belonged to the mountainous pre-Iranian people known as the Lullubi. Dated to the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC, the so far unnamed city may have even served as the capital of the Lullubi.

Territory of the Lullubi in the Mesopotamia area. Photo by Jolle CC BY-SA 4.0

In ancient Mesopotamian scriptures, these mysterious people from the mountains are referred to as barbarians. A limestone artifact depicting one of the Akkadian rulers, Naram-Sin, displayed at the Louvre Museum, shows how he cherishes his victory over the Lullubi. Only a few other mentions in literature exist about these people, perhaps until now. According findings, published in the journal of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) on March 19, 2019, six excavation campaigns were carried out on the site of Kunara, between 2012 and 2018.

King Anubanini of Lullubi, holding an axe and a bow, trampling a foe. Anubanini rock relief, circa 2300-2000 BC. Sar-I Pul, Iran. Photo by Koorosh Nozad Tehrani CC BY-SA 2.0

Stone foundations of considerable size found both in the upper and lower excavation layers have been dated to circa 2,200 BC. Among the findings are also a number of clay tablets, containing small cuneiform signs each clay retaining a rectangular form and extending about four inches on the sides. This suggests the Lullubi, just like other advanced civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, were well versed with literacy needed for trading.

CNRS cuneiform specialist Philippe Clancier said in a statement that the scribes who created the tablets “had a firm grasp of Akkadian and Sumerian writing, as well as that of their Mesopotamian neighbors.” Some of the tablets were found to provide information about large repositories which would have supported the city’s extensive agricultural activities. An irrigation system was also in place to aid the growth of crops.

More than that, the tablets used a so far unregistered unit of measurement, different from the Mesopotamian gur. The Lullubi rather used a unit of their own to detail trading, a strong indication they functioned independently. The mighty Akkadians overshadowed the Lullubi, however. But as the leading archaeologist on the team, Aline Tenu, said in a statement, “the city of Kunara provides new elements regarding a hitherto unknown people that has remained at the periphery of Mesopotamian studies.”

Akkadian Empire soldiers on the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, circa 2250 BC. Photo by Rama CC BY-SA 2.0 fr

The excavations of the Kunara site are widening the perspectives. The occupants of the lost city likely maintained strong economic relationships with regions remote to them — to the north toward Anatolia and beyond to the Caucasus region, and to the east where the ancient Iranians extended.

A variety of artifacts such as stone tools carved from obsidian, carnelian, and basalt suggest the possibility the city indeed connected to those far-flung territories.

“The city must have even been fairly prosperous, as rare stones such as obsidian were used to produce entirely commonplace tools,” said Tenu.

Caucasus. Photo by Bourrichon CC BY-SA 4.0

That the city belonged to an advanced society is evidenced by bones belonging to different animals including lions and bears. Animals of this type were especially prized at the time, and their remnants found around Kunara may be proof of lavish offerings and royal hunting practices. The remains of goats, sheep, and other livestock additionally implicate a developed farming system.

Further analysis of the artifacts collected in the field will hopefully offer more insight about this intriguing and seemingly wealthy city, as well as the political relations it had with the vast empire it neighbored.

More excavations are set to continue in the area, which until relatively recently has remained closed to scientific research due to the persistent tensions and conflicts in the Middle East.


Culture

In art there was a great emphasis on the kings of the dynasty, alongside much that continued earlier Sumerian art. Little architecture remains. In large works and small ones such as seals, the degree of realism was considerably increased, [61] but the seals show a « grim world of cruel conflict, of danger and uncertainty, a world in which man is subjected without appeal to the incomprehensible acts of distant and fearful divinities who he must serve but cannot love. This sombre mood … remained characteristic of Mesopotamian art… » [62]

Language

During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. [4] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. [4] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund. [4] Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere around 2000 BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate), [5] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary, and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD. [63]

Poet–priestess Enheduanna

Sumerian literature continued in rich development during the Akkadian period. Enheduanna, the « wife (Sumerian dam = high priestess) of Nanna [the Sumerian moon god] and daughter of Sargon » [64] of the temple of Sin at Ur, who lived c. 2285–2250 BC, is the first poet in history whose name is known. Her known works include hymns to the goddess Inanna, the Exaltation of Inanna and In-nin sa-gur-ra. A third work, the Temple Hymns, a collection of specific hymns, addresses the sacred temples and their occupants, the deity to whom they were consecrated. The works of this poet are significant, because although they start out using the third person, they shift to the first person voice of the poet herself, and they mark a significant development in the use of cuneiform. As poet, princess, and priestess, she was a personality who, according to William W Hallo, « set standards in all three of her roles for many succeeding centuries » [65]

In the Exultation of Inanna,

Enheduanna depicts Inanna as disciplining mankind as a goddess of battle. She thereby unites the warlike Akkadian Ishtar&rsquos qualities to those of the gentler Sumerian goddess of love and fecundity. She likens Inanna to a great storm bird who swoops down on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised bats. Then, in probably the most interesting part of the hymn, Enheduanna herself steps forward in the first person to recite her own past glories, establishing her credibility, and explaining her present plight. She has been banished as high priestess from the temple in the city of Ur and from Uruk and exiled to the steppe. She begs the moon god Nanna to intercede for her because the city of Uruk, under the ruler Lugalanne, has rebelled against Sargon. The rebel, Lugalanne, has even destroyed the temple Eanna, one of the greatest temples in the ancient world, and then made advances on his sister-in-law. [66]

Curse of Akkad

Later material described how the fall of Akkad was due to Nara-Sin&rsquos attack upon the city of Nipper. When prompted by a pair of inauspicious oracles, the king sacked the E-kur temple, supposedly protected by the god Enlil, head of the pantheon. As a result of this, eight chief deities of the Anunnaki pantheon were supposed to have come together and withdrawn their support from Akkad. [67]

The kings of Akkad were legendary among later Mesopotamian civilizations, with Sargon understood as the prototype of a strong and wise leader, and his grandson Naram-Sin considered the wicked and impious leader (Unheilsherrscher in the analysis of Hans Gustav Güterbock) who brought ruin upon his kingdom. [69] [70]


Amna Suraka

I have written a previous review (about 2 years ago), and have had a chance to revisit. Last time we were asked to leave because of a power outage. I have written about the prison building already. This review is a focus on the displays that deal with forced exodus (aplenty in Iraq), the Anfal atrocities, and the modern ISIS conflict. Finally it creates a space to commemorate the victims of landmines as well as giving thanks to the people who gave limb and life to defuse mines.

All rooms and displays will leave a huge impression. Real thought-provoking things to be seen everywhere. Be it the traumatic processing of the Anfal 'campaigns', acknowledging the partaking of their own local people scattered over 16 Mercenary battalions (a piece of information I did not know), the sheer extent of their murders, the cruelty. The minesweeping displays are standing like mute accusers to the western nations who supplied their mines to be found in Iraqi soil, maiming and killing civilians.


ഉള്ളടക്കം

The Bible refers to Akkad in Genesis 10:10 [10] , which states that the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom was in the land of Akkad. Nimrod's historical identity is unknown, but some have compared him with the legendary Gilgamesh, founder of Uruk. [11] [12] Today, scholars have documented some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many later texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia also deal with the Akkadian Empire. [12]

Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts. [13] [14] Precise dating of archaeological sites is hindered by the fact that there are no clear distinctions between artifact assemblages thought to stem from the preceding Early Dynastic period, and those thought to be Akkadian. Likewise, material that is thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period. [15]

Many of the more recent insights on the Akkadian Empire have come from excavations in the Upper Khabur area in modern northeastern Syria which was to become a part of Assyria after the fall of Akkad. For example, excavations at Tell Mozan (ancient Urkesh) brought to light a sealing of Tar'am-Agade, a previously unknown daughter of Naram-Sin, who was possibly married to an unidentified local endan (ruler). [16] The excavators at nearby Tell Leilan (ancient Shekhna/Shubat-Enlil) have used the results from their investigations to argue that the Akkadian Empire came to an end due to a sudden drought, the so-called 4.2 kiloyear event. [17] The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, and on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated. [18]

Excavation at the modern site of Tell Brak has suggested that the Akkadians rebuilt a city ("Brak" or "Nagar") on this site, for use as an administrative center. The city included two large buildings including a complex with temple, offices, courtyard, and large ovens. [19] [20]

The Akkadian Period is generally dated to either: c. (according to the middle chronology timeline of the Ancient Near East), or c. (according to the short chronology timeline of the Ancient Near East.) It was preceded by the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia (ED) and succeeded by the Ur III Period, although both transitions are blurry. For example: it is likely that the rise of Sargon of Akkad coincided with the late ED Period and that the final Akkadian kings ruled simultaneously with the Gutian kings alongside rulers at the city-states of both: Uruk and Lagash. The Akkadian Period is contemporary with: EB IV (in Israel), EB IVA and EJ IV (in Syria), and EB IIIB (in Turkey.) [12] [21]

Timeline of rulers തിരുത്തുക

The relative order of Akkadian kings is clear. The absolute dates of their reigns are approximate (as with all dates prior to the late Bronze Age collapse c. 1200 BC). [22]

Ruler Middle Chronology
All dates BC
Short Chronology
All dates BC
Sargon 2334–2279
Rimush 2278–2270
Manishtushu 2269–2255
Naram-Sin 2254–2218
Shar-Kali-Sharri 2217–2193
Interregnum 2192–2190
Dudu 2189–2169
Shu-turul 2168–2154

Pre-Sargonic Akkad തിരുത്തുക

The Akkadian Empire takes its name from the region and the city of Akkad, both of which were localized in the general confluence area of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Although the city of Akkad has not yet been identified on the ground, it is known from various textual sources. Among these is at least one text predating the reign of Sargon. Together with the fact that the name Akkad is of non-Akkadian origin, this suggests that the city of Akkad may have already been occupied in pre-Sargonic times. [13] [23]

Sargon of Akkad തിരുത്തുക

Sargon of Akkad (Sharru-kin = "legitimate king", possibly a title he took on gaining power) defeated and captured Lugal-zage-si in the Battle of Uruk and conquered his empire. The earliest records in the Akkadian language date to the time of Sargon. Sargon was claimed to be the son of La'ibum or Itti-Bel, a humble gardener, and possibly a hierodule, or priestess to Ishtar or Inanna. One legend related to Sargon in Assyrian times says that

My mother was a changeling, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azurpiranu (the wilderness herb fields), which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My changeling mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose not over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was gardener Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and (fifty?) . years I exercised kingship. [24]

Later claims made on behalf of Sargon were that his mother was an "entu" priestess (high priestess). The claims might have been made to ensure a descendancy of nobility, considering only a highly placed family can be made such a position. [25]

Originally a cupbearer (Rabshakeh) to a king of Kish with a Semitic name, Ur-Zababa, Sargon thus became a gardener, responsible for the task of clearing out irrigation canals. This gave him access to a disciplined corps of workers, who also may have served as his first soldiers. Displacing Ur-Zababa, Sargon was crowned king, and he entered upon a career of foreign conquest. [26] Four times he invaded Syria and Canaan, and he spent three years thoroughly subduing the countries of "the west" to unite them with Mesopotamia "into a single empire".

However, Sargon took this process further, conquering many of the surrounding regions to create an empire that reached westward as far as the Mediterranean Sea and perhaps Cyprus (Kaptara) northward as far as the mountains (a later Hittite text asserts he fought the Hattian king Nurdaggal of Burushanda, well into Anatolia) eastward over Elam and as far south as Magan (Oman) — a region over which he reigned for purportedly 56 years, though only four "year-names" survive. He consolidated his dominion over his territories by replacing the earlier opposing rulers with noble citizens of Akkad, his native city where loyalty would thus be ensured. [27]

Trade extended from the silver mines of Anatolia to the lapis lazuli mines in modern Afghanistan, the cedars of Lebanon and the copper of Magan. This consolidation of the city-states of Sumer and Akkad reflected the growing economic and political power of Mesopotamia. The empire's breadbasket was the rain-fed agricultural system of Assyria and a chain of fortresses was built to control the imperial wheat production.

Images of Sargon were erected on the shores of the Mediterranean, in token of his victories, and cities and palaces were built at home with the spoils of the conquered lands. Elam and the northern part of Mesopotamia (Assyria/Subartu) were also subjugated, and rebellions in Sumer were put down. Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of the campaigns against Canaan and against Sarlak, king of Gutium. He also boasted of having subjugated the "four quarters" — the lands surrounding Akkad to the north (Assyria), the south (Sumer), the east (Elam), and the west (Martu). Some of the earliest historiographic texts (ABC 19, 20) suggest he rebuilt the city of Babylon (Bab-ilu) in its new location near Akkad. [28]

Sargon, throughout his long life, showed special deference to the Sumerian deities, particularly Inanna (Ishtar), his patroness, and Zababa, the warrior god of Kish. He called himself "The anointed priest of Anu" and "the great ensi of Enlil" and his daughter, Enheduanna, was installed as priestess to Nanna at the temple in Ur.

Troubles multiplied toward the end of his reign. A later Babylonian text states:

In his old age, all the lands revolted against him, and they besieged him in Akkad (the city) [but] he went forth to battle and defeated them, he knocked them over and destroyed their vast army.

It refers to his campaign in "Elam", where he defeated a coalition army led by the King of Awan and forced the vanquished to become his vassals. [29]

Also shortly after, another revolt took place:

the Subartu (mountainous tribes of Assyria) the upper country—in their turn attacked, but they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled their habitations, and he smote them grievously.

Rimush and Manishtushu തിരുത്തുക

Sargon had crushed opposition even at old age. These difficulties broke out again in the reign of his sons, where revolts broke out during the nine-year reign of Rimush (2278–2270 BC), who fought hard to retain the empire, and was successful until he was assassinated by some of his own courtiers. Rimush's elder brother, Manishtushu (2269–2255 BC) succeeded him. The latter seems to have fought a sea battle against 32 kings who had gathered against him and took control over their pre-Arab country, consisting of modern-day United Arab Emirates and Oman. Despite the success, like his brother he seems to have been assassinated in a palace conspiracy. [30]

Naram-Sin തിരുത്തുക

Manishtushu's son and successor, Naram-Sin (2254–2218 BC), due to vast military conquests, assumed the imperial title "King Naram-Sin, king of the four quarters" (Lugal Naram-Sîn, Šar kibrat 'arbaim), the four quarters as a reference to the entire world. He was also for the first time in Sumerian culture, addressed as "the god (Sumerian = DINGIR, Akkadian = ilu) of Agade" (Akkad), in opposition to the previous religious belief that kings were only representatives of the people towards the gods. [32] [33] He also faced revolts at the start of his reign, [34] but quickly crushed them.

Naram-Sin also recorded the Akkadian conquest of Ebla as well as Armanum and its king. [35] Armanum location is debated it is sometimes identified with a Syrian kingdom mentioned in the tablets of Ebla as Armi, the location of Armi is also debated while historian Adelheid Otto identifies it with the Citadel of Bazi – Tall Banat complex on the Euphrates River between Ebla and Tell Brak, [36] [37] others like Wayne Horowitz identify it with Aleppo. [38] Further, if most scholars place Armanum in Syria, Michael C. Astour believes it to be located north of the Hamrin Mountains in northern Iraq. [39]

To better police Syria, he built a royal residence at Tell Brak, a crossroads at the heart of the Khabur River basin of the Jezirah. Naram-Sin campaigned against Magan which also revolted Naram-Sin "marched against Magan and personally caught Mandannu, its king", where he instated garrisons to protect the main roads. The chief threat seemed to be coming from the northern Zagros Mountains, the Lulubis and the Gutians. A campaign against the Lullubi led to the carving of the "Victory Stele of Naram-Suen", now in the Louvre. Hittite sources claim Naram-Sin of Akkad even ventured into Anatolia, battling the Hittite and Hurrian kings Pamba of Hatti, Zipani of Kanesh, and 15 others. This newfound Akkadian wealth may have been based upon benign climatic conditions, huge agricultural surpluses and the confiscation of the wealth of other peoples. [40]

The economy was highly planned. Grain was cleaned, and rations of grain and oil were distributed in standardized vessels made by the city's potters. Taxes were paid in produce and labour on public walls, including city walls, temples, irrigation canals and waterways, producing huge agricultural surpluses. [41]

In later Assyrian and Babylonian texts, the name Akkad, together with Sumer, appears as part of the royal title, as in the Sumerian LUGAL KI-EN-GI KI-URI or Akkadian Šar māt Šumeri u Akkadi, [42] translating to "king of Sumer and Akkad". [43] This title was assumed by the king who seized control of Nippur, [42] the intellectual and religious center of southern Mesopotamia.

During the Akkadian period, the Akkadian language became the lingua franca of the Middle East, and was officially used for administration, although the Sumerian language remained as a spoken and literary language. The spread of Akkadian stretched from Syria to Elam, and even the Elamite language was temporarily written in Mesopotamian cuneiform. Akkadian texts later found their way to far-off places, from Egypt (in the Amarna Period) and Anatolia, to Persia (Behistun).

Collapse തിരുത്തുക

The empire of Akkad fell, perhaps in the 22nd century BC, within 180 years of its founding, ushering in a "Dark Age" with no prominent imperial authority until Third Dynasty of Ur. The region's political structure may have reverted to the status quo ante of local governance by city-states. [44]

Shu-Durul appears to have restored some centralized authority, however, he was unable to prevent the empire eventually collapsing outright from the invasion of barbarian peoples from the Zagros Mountains known as the Gutians.

Little is known about the Gutian period, or how long it endured. Cuneiform sources suggest that the Gutians' administration showed little concern for maintaining agriculture, written records, or public safety they reputedly released all farm animals to roam about Mesopotamia freely and soon brought about famine and rocketing grain prices. The Sumerian king Ur-Nammu (2112–2095 BC) cleared the Gutians from Mesopotamia during his reign.

The Sumerian King List, describing the Akkadian Empire after the death of Shar-kali-shari, states:

Who was king? Who was not king? Irgigi the king Nanum, the king Imi the king Ilulu, the king—the four of them were kings but reigned only three years. Dudu reigned 21 years Shu-Turul, the son of Dudu, reigned 15 years. . Agade was defeated and its kingship carried off to Uruk. In Uruk, Ur-ningin reigned 7 years, Ur-gigir, son of Ur-ningin, reigned 6 years Kuda reigned 6 years Puzur-ili reigned 5 years, Ur-Utu reigned 6 years. Uruk was smitten with weapons and its kingship carried off by the Gutian hordes.

However, there are no known year-names or other archaeological evidence verifying any of these later kings of Akkad or Uruk, apart from a single artefact referencing king Dudu of Akkad. The named kings of Uruk may have been contemporaries of the last kings of Akkad, but in any event could not have been very prominent.

In the Gutian hordes, (first reigned) a nameless king (then) Imta reigned 3 years as king Shulme reigned 6 years Elulumesh reigned 6 years Inimbakesh reigned 5 years Igeshuash reigned 6 years Iarlagab reigned 15 years Ibate reigned 3 years . reigned 3 years Kurum reigned 1 year . reigned 3 years . reigned 2 years Iararum reigned 2 years Ibranum reigned 1 year Hablum reigned 2 years Puzur-Sin son of Hablum reigned 7 years Iarlaganda reigned 7 years . reigned 7 years . reigned 40 days. Total 21 kings reigned 91 years, 40 days.

The period between c. BC and 2004 BC is known as the Ur III period. Documents again began to be written in Sumerian, although Sumerian was becoming a purely literary or liturgical language, much as Latin later would be in Medieval Europe. [24]

One explanation for the end of the Akkadian empire is simply that the Akkadian dynasty could not maintain its political supremacy over other independently powerful city-states. [46] [44]

Drought തിരുത്തുക

One theory associates regional decline at the end of the Akkadian period (and of the First Intermediary Period following the Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt) was associated with rapidly increasing aridity, and failing rainfall in the region of the Ancient Near East, caused by a global centennial-scale drought. [47] [48] Harvey Weiss has shown that "archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 BC, a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change evidently caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and collapse of the Akkadian empire based in southern Mesopotamia. Synchronous collapse in adjacent regions suggests that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive". [17] Peter B. deMenocal, has shown "there was an influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the stream flow of the Tigris and Euphrates at this time, which led to the collapse of the Akkadian Empire". [49]

Excavation at Tell Leilan suggests that this site was abandoned soon after the city's massive walls were constructed, its temple rebuilt and its grain production reorganised. The debris, dust and sand that followed show no trace of human activity. Soil samples show fine wind-blown sand, no trace of earthworm activity, reduced rainfall and indications of a drier and windier climate. Evidence shows that skeleton-thin sheep and cattle died of drought, and up to 28,000 people abandoned the site, seeking wetter areas elsewhere. Tell Brak shrank in size by 75%. Trade collapsed. Nomadic herders such as the Amorites moved herds closer to reliable water suppliers, bringing them into conflict with Akkadian populations. This climate-induced collapse seems to have affected the whole of the Middle East, and to have coincided with the collapse of the Egyptian Old Kingdom. [17]

This collapse of rain-fed agriculture in the Upper Country meant the loss to southern Mesopotamia of the agrarian subsidies which had kept the Akkadian Empire solvent. Water levels within the Tigris and Euphrates fell 1.5 metres beneath the level of 2600 BC, and although they stabilised for a time during the following Ur III period, rivalries between pastoralists and farmers increased. Attempts were undertaken to prevent the former from herding their flocks in agricultural lands, such as the building of a 180 കി.മീ (590,551 അടി) wall known as the "Repeller of the Amorites" between the Tigris and Euphrates under the Ur III ruler Shu-Sin. Such attempts led to increased political instability meanwhile, severe depression occurred to re-establish demographic equilibrium with the less favourable climatic conditions. [50] [51] [52]

Richard Zettler has critiqued the drought theory, observing that the chronology of the Akkadian empire is very uncertain and that available evidence is not sufficient to show its economic dependence on the northern areas excavated by Weiss and others. He also criticizes Weiss for taking Akkadian writings literally to describe certain catastrophic events. [53]

According to Joan Oates, at Tell Brak the soil "signal" associated with the drought lies below the level of Naram-Sin's palace. However, evidence

may suggest a tightening of Akkadian control following the Brak 'event', for example the construction of the heavily fortified 'palace' itself and the apparent introduction of greater numbers of Akkadian as opposed to local officials, perhaps a reflection of unrest in the countryside of the type that often follows some natural catastrophe.

Furthermore, Brak remained occupied and functional after the fall of the Akkadians. [54]

The Akkadian government formed a "classical standard" with which all future Mesopotamian states compared themselves. Traditionally, the ensi was the highest functionary of the Sumerian city-states. In later traditions, one became an ensi by marrying the goddess Inanna, legitimising the rulership through divine consent.

Initially, the monarchical lugal (lu = man, gal =Great) was subordinate to the priestly ensi, and was appointed at times of troubles, but by later dynastic times, it was the lugal who had emerged as the preeminent role, having his own "é" (= house) or "palace", independent from the temple establishment. By the time of Mesalim, whichever dynasty controlled the city of Kish was recognised as šar kiššati (= king of Kish), and was considered preeminent in Sumer, possibly because this was where the two rivers approached, and whoever controlled Kish ultimately controlled the irrigation systems of the other cities downstream.

As Sargon extended his conquest from the "Lower Sea" (Persian Gulf), to the "Upper Sea" (Mediterranean), it was felt that he ruled "the totality of the lands under heaven", or "from sunrise to sunset", as contemporary texts put it. Under Sargon, the ensis generally retained their positions, but were seen more as provincial governors. The title šar kiššati became recognised as meaning "lord of the universe". Sargon is even recorded as having organised naval expeditions to Dilmun (Bahrain) and Magan, amongst the first organised military naval expeditions in history. Whether he also did in the case of the Mediterranean with the kingdom of Kaptara (possibly Cyprus), as claimed in later documents, is more questionable.

With Naram-Sin, Sargon's grandson, this went further than with Sargon, with the king not only being called "Lord of the Four Quarters (of the Earth)", but also elevated to the ranks of the dingir (= gods), with his own temple establishment. Previously a ruler could, like Gilgamesh, become divine after death but the Akkadian kings, from Naram-Sin onward, were considered gods on earth in their lifetimes. Their portraits showed them of larger size than mere mortals and at some distance from their retainers. [55]

One strategy adopted by both Sargon and Naram-Sin, to maintain control of the country, was to install their daughters, Enheduanna and Emmenanna respectively, as high priestess to Sin, the Akkadian version of the Sumerian moon deity, Nanna, at Ur, in the extreme south of Sumer to install sons as provincial ensi governors in strategic locations and to marry their daughters to rulers of peripheral parts of the Empire (Urkesh and Marhashe). A well documented case of the latter is that of Naram-Sin's daughter Tar'am-Agade at Urkesh. [56]

Records at the Brak administrative complex suggest that the Akkadians appointed locals as tax collectors. [57]

The population of Akkad, like nearly all pre-modern states, was entirely dependent upon the agricultural systems of the region, which seem to have had two principal centres: the irrigated farmlands of southern Iraq that traditionally had a yield of 30 grains returned for each grain sown and the rain-fed agriculture of northern Iraq, known as the "Upper Country."

Southern Iraq during Akkadian period seems to have been approaching its modern rainfall level of less than 20 മി.മീ (0.1 അടി) per year, with the result that agriculture was totally dependent upon irrigation. Before the Akkadian period the progressive salinisation of the soils, produced by poorly drained irrigation, had been reducing yields of wheat in the southern part of the country, leading to the conversion to more salt-tolerant barley growing. Urban populations there had peaked already by 2,600 BC, and demographic pressures were high, contributing to the rise of militarism apparent immediately before the Akkadian period (as seen in the Stele of the Vultures of Eannatum). Warfare between city states had led to a population decline, from which Akkad provided a temporary respite. [58] It was this high degree of agricultural productivity in the south that enabled the growth of the highest population densities in the world at this time, giving Akkad its military advantage.

The water table in this region was very high and replenished regularly—by winter storms in the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates from October to March and from snow-melt from March to July. Flood levels, that had been stable from about 3,000 to 2,600 BC, had started falling, and by the Akkadian period were a half-meter to a meter lower than recorded previously. Even so, the flat country and weather uncertainties made flooding much more unpredictable than in the case of the Nile serious deluges seem to have been a regular occurrence, requiring constant maintenance of irrigation ditches and drainage systems. Farmers were recruited into regiments for this work from August to October—a period of food shortage—under the control of city temple authorities, thus acting as a form of unemployment relief. Gwendolyn Leick has [59] suggested that this was Sargon's original employment for the king of Kish, giving him experience in effectively organising large groups of men a tablet reads, "Sargon, the king, to whom Enlil permitted no rival—5,400 warriors ate bread daily before him". [60]

Harvest was in the late spring and during the dry summer months. Nomadic Amorites from the northwest would pasture their flocks of sheep and goats to graze on the stubble and be watered from the river and irrigation canals. For this privilege, they would have to pay a tax in wool, meat, milk, and cheese to the temples, who would distribute these products to the bureaucracy and priesthood. In good years, all would go well, but in bad years, wild winter pastures would be in short supply, nomads would seek to pasture their flocks in the grain fields, and conflicts with farmers would result. It would appear that the subsidizing of southern populations by the import of wheat from the north of the Empire temporarily overcame this problem, [61] and it seems to have allowed economic recovery and a growing population within this region.

As a result, Sumer and Akkad had a surplus of agricultural products but was short of almost everything else, particularly metal ores, timber and building stone, all of which had to be imported. The spread of the Akkadian state as far as the "silver mountain" (possibly the Taurus Mountains), the "cedars" of Lebanon, and the copper deposits of Magan, was largely motivated by the goal of securing control over these imports. One tablet reads "Sargon, the king of Kish, triumphed in thirty-four battles (over the cities) up to the edge of the sea (and) destroyed their walls. He made the ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan (and) the ships from Dilmun tie up alongside the quay of Agade. Sargon the king prostrated himself before (the god) Dagan (and) made supplication to him (and) he (Dagan) gave him the upper land, namely Mari, Yarmuti, (and) Ebla, up to the Cedar Forest (and) up to the Silver Mountain".

Art തിരുത്തുക

In art, there was a great emphasis on the kings of the dynasty, alongside much that continued earlier Sumerian art. Little architecture remains. In large works and small ones such as seals, the degree of realism was considerably increased, [62] but the seals show a "grim world of cruel conflict, of danger and uncertainty, a world in which man is subjected without appeal to the incomprehensible acts of distant and fearful divinities who he must serve but cannot love. This sombre mood . remained characteristic of Mesopotamian art. " [63]

Language തിരുത്തുക

During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. [5] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. [5] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund. [5] Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere around 2000 BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate), [6] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary, and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD. [64]

Poet–priestess Enheduanna തിരുത്തുക

Sumerian literature continued in rich development during the Akkadian period. Enheduanna, the "wife (Sumerian dam = high priestess) of Nanna [the Sumerian moon god] and daughter of Sargon" [65] of the temple of Sin at Ur, who lived c. –2250 BC, is the first poet in history whose name is known. Her known works include hymns to the goddess Inanna, the Exaltation of Inanna and In-nin sa-gur-ra. A third work, the Temple Hymns, a collection of specific hymns, addresses the sacred temples and their occupants, the deity to whom they were consecrated. The works of this poet are significant, because although they start out using the third person, they shift to the first person voice of the poet herself, and they mark a significant development in the use of cuneiform. As poet, princess, and priestess, she was a person who, according to William W Hallo, "set standards in all three of her roles for many succeeding centuries" [66]

In the Exultation of Inanna,

Enheduanna depicts Inanna as disciplining mankind as a goddess of battle. She thereby unites the warlike Akkadian Ishtar's qualities to those of the gentler Sumerian goddess of love and fecundity. She likens Inanna to a great storm bird who swoops down on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised bats. Then, in probably the most interesting part of the hymn, Enheduanna herself steps forward in the first person to recite her own past glories, establishing her credibility, and explaining her present plight. She has been banished as high priestess from the temple in the city of Ur and from Uruk and exiled to the steppe. She begs the moon god Nanna to intercede for her because the city of Uruk, under the ruler Lugalanne, has rebelled against Sargon. The rebel, Lugalanne, has even destroyed the temple Eanna, one of the greatest temples in the ancient world, and then made advances on his sister-in-law. [67]

Curse of Akkad തിരുത്തുക

Later material described how the fall of Akkad was due to Nara-Sin's attack upon the city of Nipper. When prompted by a pair of inauspicious oracles, the king sacked the E-kur temple, supposedly protected by the god Enlil, head of the pantheon. As a result of this, eight chief deities of the Anunnaki pantheon were supposed to have come together and withdrawn their support from Akkad. [68]

The kings of Akkad were legendary among later Mesopotamian civilizations, with Sargon understood as the prototype of a strong and wise leader, and his grandson Naram-Sin considered the wicked and impious leader (Unheilsherrscher in the analysis of Hans Gustav Güterbock) who brought ruin upon his kingdom. [69] [70]

Tablets from the periods reads, "(From the earliest days) no-one had made a statue of lead, (but) Rimush king of Kish, had a statue of himself made of lead. It stood before Enlil and it recited his (Rimush's) virtues to the idu of the gods". The copper Bassetki Statue, cast with the lost wax method, testifies to the high level of skill that craftsmen achieved during the Akkadian period. [71]

The empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service. Clay seals that took the place of stamps bear the names of Sargon and his son. A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanite origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, or Amurru as the semi-nomadic people of Syria and Canaan were called in Akkadian. It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon. The earliest "year names", whereby each year of a king's reign was named after a significant event performed by that king, date from Sargon's reign. Lists of these "year names" henceforth became a calendrical system used in most independent Mesopotamian city-states. In Assyria, however, years came to be named for the annual presiding limmu official appointed by the king, rather than for an event.


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