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New York I
(Gon: cpl. 45; a. 1 1ong 12-pdr., 2 9-pdrs., 8 swivels)
The first New York was a gondola built by Gen. Benedict Arnold's American troops on Lake Champlain at Skenesborough, N.Y. in the summer of 1776.
Originally commanded by a Capt. Lee, the new gondola was turned over to a Capt. Reed when Lee, probably due to illness, was unable to sail with General Arnold's little fleet as it got under way from Crown Point 24 August. New York accompanied the flotilla up the lake, stopped at Willsborough
1 September to repair damage suffered during a severe storm and was at Isle la Motte on the 18th. On the 23rd the American ships retired into a defensive positiol between Valcour Island and the New York shore to await the British. Capt. Thomas Pringle, R.N., got his ships under way 4 October. A week later on the morning of the 11th the two forces met in the Battle of Valcour Island which resuited in a tactical American defeat but was a great strategic victory for the patriots' cause. Battered during the action off Valcour Island, Arnold's ships slipped through the hands of the British fleet and retired south up the Lake toward Crown Point. About noon on the 13th, the British fleet pulled within range of the Americans and opened fire. Arnold's flotilla fought defiantlyforovertwo hours before their shattered condition forced him to run his ships ashore in a little creek about 10 miles from Crown Point and burn them. With his men, he then retired through the woods to Crown Point.
But the little fleet had served the American cause well. Its presence on the lake had delayed the British drive from Canada to cut the American colonies in two, while the redcoats were building their own fleet. After the Battle of Valcour Island, winter was too close to permit them to begin the campaign. Thus New York and her phmky little sister ships had bought the Americans a year to prepare for the onslaught —a year which made possible their stirring victory at Saratoga.
The 25 best books about New York City history
Whether you were born in New York, moved here decades ago, or just arrived, you might be curious to know something about what was here before you. Kenneth Jackson, editor of The Encyclopedia of New York City, says that over ten thousand books have been written about the city, including about a hundred a year from 1990 on, so sorting the wheat from the chaff is a daunting task indeed.
To get a sense of what's essential reading for the New York history neophyte, we asked 11 historians and authors to tell us their favorite books of New York history, along with an explanation of why each title made the cut.
We expected that there would be lots of duplicates, but we were wrong. What emerged was a list of 25 distinctive books. Some are general reference sources, some architectural histories. Some were published recently, and others are decades old. Then there are some picks that are best described as “quirky." Most of the choices are nonfiction, but two novels showed up as well.
Here’s the list in full, in no particular order:
In 1664, the city was named after the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James's older brother, King Charles II, had chosen the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently taken from the Dutch. 
Early history Edit
The oldest part of the city, the island of Manhattan, still has its original Lenape name. Although Native people such as the Lenape and Canaries had lived there for many thousands of years, New York City was first explored by Europeans in the 1500s. Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano found the entrance to New York Harbor in the year 1524 he gived to this site the name of New Angoulême in the honor of Francois 1st. In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered New York Harbor while looking for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company.  Hudson's first mate said it was "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river was "a mile broad" and "full of fish". 
Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues) was one of the first people associated with Europe to live there. He was a merchant from Santo Domingo. He was born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, and he came to Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14. He trapped for pelts and traded with the local people as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.  
Dutch control Edit
New York City was settled by Europeans from The Netherlands in 1624. The Dutch called the whole area of New York Netherland (New Netherland) and they named a fort and town on the south end of Brooklyn.
In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting for the Dutch West India Company, bought the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band.  He paid "the value of 60 guilders"  (about $900 in 2018).  A false story says that Manhattan was bought for $24 worth of glass beads.   1626 was also the year the Dutch began to bring black slaves there. 
After the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly.  In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant started his job as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During this time, the number of people of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000.  
Island New Amsterdam (New Amsterdam),  after the capital city of the Netherlands, which was to become present-day New York. The English took over the colony in 1664 during the second Anglo-Dutch War. They changed the name to New York, to honor the Duke of York, who later became King James II of England and James VII of Scotland. The Dutch surrendered Nieuw Amsterdam without fighting.
English control Edit
By the time the English took New York, there were many other Dutch towns in what would become New York City, including Breukelen (Brooklyn), Vlissingen (Flushing), and Nieuw Haarlem (Harlem). There were already some English towns in the area also, such as Gravesend in Brooklyn and Newtown in Queens. Dutch, English and other people had been living together in New York for a long time.
New York became more important as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s.  It also became a center of slavery as the British increased the slave trade and built a slave market in the city.  42% of households owned slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. 
The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to create the freedom of the press in North America.  In 1754, Columbia University was created under charter by King George II it was called King's College, and it was in Lower Manhattan. 
American Revolution Edit
New York quickly grew to become a large and important port city. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty. It organized in the city, and they skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there.  The important Battle of Long Island of the American Revolution was fought in Brooklyn in 1776 it was the biggest battle of the war.  The Americans lost the battle. The British used the area as its headquarters for the war in North America.
New York was the capital of the United States under the Articles of Confederation from 1785 to 1788. When the US Constitution was made, it stayed as the capital from 1789 until 1790.  In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each met for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was written, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.  By 1790, New York grew bigger than Philadelphia, so it become the biggest city in the United States. By the end of 1790, because of the Residence Act, Philadelphia became the new capital.  
Nineteenth century Edit
During the nineteenth century, New York City's population grew from
3.43 million.  The number of black people in New York City reached more than 16,000 in 1840.  Even though slavery and the slave trade were abolished in New York, the slave trade continued illegally for many years. 
The Great Irish Famine brought a many Irish immigrants more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, more than a quarter of the city's population.  There was also many people from German provinces, and Germans made up another 25% of New York's population by 1860. 
During the American Civil War, many white people in the city supported the Confederate States of America, and July 1863 they killed many black New Yorkers in a riot. 
Modern history Edit
In 1898, the cities of New York and Brooklyn came together with the Bronx, Staten Island, and the western towns in Queens County to make Greater New York. This is the total area of the City of New York today. Around this time, many new immigrants came into New York City. They came in at Ellis Island, an island in New York's harbor near the Statue of Liberty. Many of them then moved to the Lower East Side neighborhood in Manhattan, which had over a million people living in just a few square miles.
Early in the twentieth century, with better transportation, more people moved to outer parts of the greater city, and many commuted to Manhattan. Many skyscrapers and other big buildings were put up to provide places to work.
In the 1970s, many jobs were lost due to industrial restructuring. This caused New York City to have economic problems and high crime rates.  Though the financial industry grew, which greatly helped the city's economy in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.  By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop a lot due to different police strategies, better economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both Americans and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, started in the city's economy.  New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 census and then again in the 2010 census.
New York had most of the economic damage and biggest loss of human life from the September 11, 2001 attacks.  Two of the four planes taken over that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 police officers. The North Tower became the tallest building ever to be destroyed anywhere. 
Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. 
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City area was at the edge of a big ice sheet over 2,000 feet (610 m) deep.  Erosion and the ice moving lead to the creation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. It also left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. 
New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston.  The city includes all of Manhattan Island and Staten Island, and the western end of Long Island. There are also many smaller islands.
Water divides several parts of the city. The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary.  The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. Part of the Hudson River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx on one side, and the State of New Jersey on the other side. The East River forms the border between Manhattan on one side, and Brooklyn and Queens on the other side. The Harlem River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx (except for a small part of Manhattan that is on the mainland). Part of Long Island Sound separates the Bronx and Queens. Newtown Creek is part of the border between Brooklyn and Queens. Some parts of the city are very separate from the others because of water, such as Rockaway in Queens and City Island in the Bronx. A small piece of land in Manhattan is international territory and belongs to the United Nations Headquarters. The country of Somalia is the only country whose national flag copied the colors of the UN.  The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city. 
The city's total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km 2 ), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km 2 ) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km 2 ) of this is water.   The tallest place in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island. It is at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, and it is the tallest place on the Eastern Seaboard that is south of Maine.  The summit of the ridge is mostly woodland as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt. 
The hallmark of New York city is its many skyscrapers, especially in Manhattan. In New York City there are about 5600 skyscrapers. 48 of them are over 200 metres tall, which is the highest number of skyscrapers in one area in the world.
New York City has five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island.
Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough. It has Central Park and most of the city's skyscrapers. It is sometimes locally known as The City. 
Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western end of Long Island, has the most people living in it than any other borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, unique neighborhoods, and unique architecture.
Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the biggest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States.  It is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.  
The Bronx Edit
The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough. It is the only New York City borough with most of the land being on the mainland United States. The Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and the biggest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City, are in the Bronx.  The Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo,  is also in the Bronx. It is 265 acres (1.07 km 2 ) big and has more than 6,000 animals.  Rap and hip hop culture were created in the Bronx.  Pelham Bay Park is the biggest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha). 
Staten Island Edit
Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. It is connected to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which has clear views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt is about 2,500 acres (10 km 2 ) big, including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last untouched forests in the city. 
Under the Köppen climate classification, New York City experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) that borders a humid continental climate (Dfa).   The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.1 °F (0.1 °C). However, temperatures in winter could for a few days be as low as 10 °F (−12 °C) and as high as 60 °F (16 °C).  Summers are typically hot and humid with a July average of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C). New York City gets some snow in winter.
|Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals, [a] extremes 1869–present [b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||72 |
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||59.6 |
|Average high °F (°C)||38.3 |
|Average low °F (°C)||26.9 |
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||9.2 |
|Record low °F (°C)||−6 |
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.65 |
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||7.0 |
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.4||9.2||10.9||11.5||11.1||11.2||10.4||9.5||8.7||8.9||9.6||10.6||122.0|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||4.0||2.8||1.8||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.3||11.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61.5||60.2||58.5||55.3||62.7||65.2||64.2||66.0||67.8||65.6||64.6||64.1||63.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.7||163.1||212.5||225.6||256.6||257.3||268.2||268.2||219.3||211.2||151.0||139.0||2,534.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||55||57||57||57||57||59||63||59||61||51||48||57|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)   |
See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
New York City currently has over 9 million people. Over 20 million people live in the New York metropolitan area including the city. The majority of the people in New York City belong to ethnic groups that are minorities in the US. New York City has had large numbers of immigrants for centuries. In the early 19th Century, they came from Ireland and Germany. Later in the 19th century, they came from Italy, Russia and Eastern Europe. Today, many are from Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Colombia. Other ethnic groups living in New York City are Gypsies, Albanians, Indians, Mexicans, Filipinos, Eastern Europeans, Jamaicans, Trinidadians, Caribbeans and Chinese.
|Top publicly traded companies|
in New York City
(ranked by 2015 revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
|5||American International Group||49|
|7||New York Life||61|
|10||TIAA (Teachers Ins. & Annuity)||82|
|Every firm's revenue exceeded $30 billion|
|Financial services firms in green|
|Full table at Economy of New York City|
|Source: Fortune 500 |
New York City is a global hub of business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a big part of the economy. It received a record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs.  New York City's unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018. 
Many Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in New York City,  as are many multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.  New York City has been ranked first among cities around the world in getting capital, business, and tourists.   New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry can be seen with "Madison Avenue".  The city's fashion industry has about 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages. 
Chocolate is New York City's biggest specialty-food export, with up to $234 million worth of exports each year.  Entrepreneurs were creating a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn as of 2014 [update] ,  while Godiva, one of the world's biggest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan. 
Wall Street Edit
New York City's most biggest economic part is the U.S. financial industry, also known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, which has 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to be the biggest part of the city's financial sector and an important economic part. In 2012, Walls Street made 5.0 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent ($3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of $360,700. 
In Lower Manhattan, there is the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's biggest and second biggest stock exchanges, respectively.   Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled about $40 billion in 2012,  while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 every year.  In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry made 19% of New York State's tax revenue. 
Many of the world's biggest media conglomerates are also in the city. Manhattan had more than 500 million square feet (46.5 million m 2 ) of office space in 2018,  making it the biggest office market in the United States.  Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m 2 ) in 2018,  is the biggest central business area in the world. 
Media and entertainment Edit
New York is an important place for the American entertainment industry, with many movies, television series, books, and other media being set there.  As of 2012 [update] , New York City was the second biggest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, making about 200 feature films every year, making about 130,000 jobs. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, providing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy as of 2015.  By amount, New York is the world leader in independent film production—one-third of all American independent films are created there.   The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. 
New York City is also an important place for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries, and it is the biggest media market in North America.  Some of the city's media conglomerates and companies include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York.  Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 magazines have an office in the city,  and the publishing industry has about 25,000 jobs.  Two of the three national daily newspapers with the biggest circulations in the United States are published in New York: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Big tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News, which was created in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson,  and The New York Post, created in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton.  The city also has a many ethnic presses, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.  El Diario La Prensa is New York's biggest Spanish-language daily newspaper, and it is the oldest in the United States.  The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a big African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the biggest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would end publication of its print version, and it will only publish online. 
New York is also an important place for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, created in 1971. 
The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the biggest public school system in the United States. It serves about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 different primary and secondary schools. 
The New York City Charter School Center helps the creation of new charter schools.  There are about 900 additional private secular and religious schools in the city. 
More than 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's more than 120 colleges and universities, which is the most of any city in the United States and more than other major global cities such as London,  and Tokyo.  More than half a million are just in the City University of New York (CUNY) system as of 2020 [update] , including both degree and professional programs.  New York City's colleges and universities had also higher average scores than those two cities in 2019, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities.  New York City has many famous private universities such as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University many of these universities are ranked as some of the best universities in the world.  
The mayor of New York is Bill de Blasio, a Democrat. The city also has a City Council that makes some local laws. Most laws in New York City are set by the state government in Albany.
Subway transportation is provided by the New York City Subway system, one of the biggest in the world.  Pennsylvania Station, the busiest train station in the United States, is here. 
John F. Kennedy International Airport, which is in the Queens borough of New York, is one of the busiest airports in the United States.
11 urban gondolas changing the way people move
In North America, gondolas are usually used on a ski vacation to access amazing terrain in ritzy towns like Aspen or Whistler. Increasingly, however, urban areas in the United States are considering proposals for gondolas and cable cars to efficiently move people from place to place.
In New York City, the East River Skyway would connect Williamsburg in Brooklyn to Lower Manhattan. Elsewhere, the Chicago Skyline project wants to use cable cars to transport tourists along the city’s riverfront, while in Austin the Wire proposal would create an aerial system akin to a "moving sidewalk" that would be much less expensive than a comparable light rail system.
Elsewhere in the world, trams, gondolas, and funiculars are common, supplementing other mass transportation systems in an effort to reduce pollution, traffic, and crowding. Compared to subways, highways, or rail lines—which often require displacing huge numbers of people in urban areas or extensive (and expensive) below-ground building—gondolas are a relatively cheap option.
City planners only need to find locations to build the cable car towers and the requisite airspace. Gondolas don’t move as many people as other types of mass transit, but as a supplement to existing systems they can be quite effective.
In New York, the proposed East River Skyway would transport commuters between Brooklyn and the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Courtesy of East River Skyway
Many existing urban gondolas were built to move tourists from cities to attractions the jaw-dropping views are just a bonus. Other gondolas transport people across rivers or mountains, a more efficient and less expensive way to mediate challenging topography.
But in cities like La Paz, Bolivia or Cali, Colombia, gondolas are also being used to address urban inequities and drastically cut commute times. By linking poorer areas with more prosperous neighborhoods, gondolas have the possibility to break down barriers of class and race.
According to recent articles in the Wall Street Journal and New York Times, aerial cable-propelled transit systems are being considered in Brooklyn, Washington, Chicago, San Diego, Seattle, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Buffalo, Baton Rouge, Austin, Tampa Bay and Miami. In light of the potential boom of gondola projects here in the United States, we explore 11 gondolas around the world that have changed how people move in urban spaces.
The Metrocable Gondola in Medellín, Colombia
The newest leg of a gondola system in Medellin, Colombia. Shutterstock
Often considered the world’s first integrated urban gondola system, the ever-growing Metrocable system in Medellín, Colombia is a multi-line system that connects the city center with outlying, less affluent areas on the hillsides.
The first line opened in 2004 with four different stations, while subsequent lines stretch across other parts of the city. In addition to reducing travel times across the city, the gondola system has been credited with reducing poverty and violent crime. According to Colombia’s National Statistics Department, the number of people living below the poverty line in Medellín fell to 14.3 percent in 2015, from 22 percent in 2010. There were 495 homicides in 2015, down from 1,649 in 2011, which was also down from the peak of 6,349 in 1991.
Mi Teleférico in La Paz, Bolivia
The Mi Teleférico cable car system in La Paz, Bolivia. Shutterstock
One of the longest and most developed cable car systems in the world, the Mi Teleférico first opened in 2014 to connect the rich valley city of La Paz with the neighboring, much poorer hill-top city of El Alto. At 10 km long, the gondolas have helped to reduce travel time, traffic, and pollution.
The Gondola Project reports that the Mi Teleférico has transported 50 million passengers in 2 years of operations and saved commuters 652 million minutes. The project was so successful that the city is now planning to build 7 more lines that will extend the system by 20 km. According to the New York Times, La Paz is the first city to use cable cars as the "backbone of a mass-transit system."
The Caracas Metrocable in Venezuela
The impressive system of gondolas in Caracas connects directly to the city’s other public transportation on a total of 5 stations opened in 2010. It was designed by Urban Think Tank to try to mediate transportation and safety issues in the San Agustin neighborhoods of Caracas. Instead of building new roads and displacing up to one-third of San Agustin’s residents, Urban Think Tank designed a gondola to connect the barrio to the city below and make the journey much safer.
Ngong Ping 360 in Hong Kong
The Ngong Ping 360 gondola in Hong Kong. Shutterstock
The Ngong Ping gondola connects the north-western coast of Lantau Island to key tourist destinations in the Ngong Ping area above. Built to make it easier for tourists to access popular sites like the Po Lin Monastery and the Tian Tan Buddha, it opened in 2006 and replaced a long bus ride up a mountain road.
MIOCable in Cali, Colombia
View of Mio Cable railway gondolas at the Siloe neighbourhood, on September 17, 2015, in Cali, Colombia. LUIS ROBAYO / Stringer via Getty Images
According to the Gondola Project, the MIOCable opened in September 2015 in Colombia’s third most populous city, Cali. It’s the third cable propelled transit built in a Colombian city, and the gondola connects 120,000 residents of Siloé, a hilly and disadvantaged community, to the more prosperous areas of Cali. The gondola reduced travel times from 35 minutes to 9 minutes.
The Singapore Gondola
The Singapore Gondola connects the resort island of Sentosa to the main island of Singapore. Shutterstock
Opened in 1974, the Singapore Gondola connects the resort island of Sentosa across the Keppel Harbour to the main island of Singapore. Like many urban gondolas, it was part of a masterplan of projects meant to boost tourism around the country.
The Yenimahalle Teleferik gondola in Ankara, Turkey
Eurasia’s largest urban cable car is a system of lines using 10-person cabins that run a total of 3.2 km with 4 different stations around the city. The first part of the line opened in 2014 and was built to synchronize with the city’s metro stations to help relieve traffic in the neighborhoods of Şentepe and Yenimahalle.
Constantine Telepherique in Constantine, Algeria
The Gondola Project argues that this gondola in Constantine, Algeria is one of the most successful cable systems in the world. Since it opened in June 2008, the system has averaged approximately 3 million riders per year, all on only 1.5 km of cable.
Emirates Air Line in London
One of the more controversial gondola projects on this list due to its sky-high costs, the Emirates Air Line cable car crosses the River Thames in London and was built with a sponsorship from the airline Emirates. It’s the first urban cable car in the United Kingdom and it opened in 2012. And while many other gondolas on this list also function as a tourist destination, critics say that the Thames gondola’s fare structure makes it cost prohibitive for locals to use.
Santorini Cable Car in Greece
It would be easy to dismiss the Santorini cable car as a touristy gimmick meant to take advantage of the Greek island’s captivating views. But the gondola actually serves an essential transportation purpose: the cable cars shuttle about 1,200 people per hour from the port up to Santorini’s capital city of Fira. The alternative? A windy, terrifying road.
Nizhny Novgorod Cable Car in Russia
This Poma-built gondola crosses the Volga river in Russia to connect the city of Nizhny Novgorod with the town of Bor. Opened in 2012, the 13-minute trip drastically reduced travel time between the two cities.
Roosevelt Island Tram & Hurricane Sandy
In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, transit users line the streets of Manhattan in wait for buses (as seen from above in the Roosevelt Island Tramway - which was barely even affected). Image via flickr user Mark Lyon.
Anyone care to venture a guess as to which public transit system in New York City was first to whir back to life after the onslaught of Hurricane Sandy?
As frequent commenter Giorgio first mentioned here, the Roosevelt Island Tramway was back up and running days before any other fixed link transit system in the greater New York Area.
If you’ll recall, virtually all transit in New York was suspended the evening of Sunday, October 28th. All transit, rationally, was suspended on October 30th effectively shutting the city down entirely.
Then, after the worst of the storm passed, the Roosevelt Island Tram re-opened for regular service on Tuesday, October 30th at 4pm – just 43 hours after it was shut down. Limited subway service wouldn’t resume for another 2 days after that.
I’ve intentionally hesitated to discuss this matter as I don’t want us to be seen as leveraging a catastrophe to further our own goals. But after reading in Transportation Nation that gaps in the NYC subway remain “stubbornly unrepaired,” I thought it important to bring this issue up.
By bringing it up, however, I fully understand that I risk being seen as a gloater. So let’s just clear that up right now: I’m not gloating. Nor am I indicting any of New York City’s fine transit authorities, the MTA or its capabilities in a post-Sandy world. I’m just stating a fact.
Look, Hurricane Sandy was brutal and wreaked a degree of havoc on North America’s most extensive transit system never before seen. Yet amidst all that disaster, the Roosevelt Island Tramway was resilient in a way that no other system was.
That’s a story worth telling.
Does that change anything about the current state of transit in New York? Of course not. But it is a tiny victory that hasn’t received even the modicum of attention it probably deserves.
It’s all fine and well to disregard the physical characteristics that define a transit technology and focus purely on the issue of service levels and geometry.
But at the end of the day there come times when the physical characteristics of a transit technology directly impacts said service levels and geometry.
It’s like saying a basketball player’s ability has nothing to do with his height and weight. In polite company that’s what we’re supposed to say. But we all know full-well that Shaq isn’t Shaq unless he’s 300 pounds and 7 feet tall.
The Roosevelt Island Tramway was resilient in the face of Sandy almost exclusively because of its physical characteristics just as subways and tunnels were powerless exclusively due to their physical characteristics.
Again, this isn’t an indictment of subways or a call to replace the MTA exclusively with cable propelled transit technologies. That would be insane.
Instead it’s to point out that we have a transit technology here that is resistant to disaster. Taken to its logical next step, could we not imagine the surgical use of cable systems within a complementary, multi-modal transit network as an emergency back-up?
Much of the transit struggles in NYC centred on people’s inability to move from mainland areas to Manhattan and vice versa. As demonstrated by the Roosevelt Island Tramway, cable transit systems can solve that problem with relative ease.
The movement of the glaciers left New York with nine distinct physiographic regions. Each has its own characteristic landforms, with distinctive geologic structures and patterns of erosion. In the northeast the Adirondack upland is characterized by the highest and most rugged mountains in the state, reaching 5,344 feet (1,629 metres) at Mount Marcy and 5,114 feet (1,559 metres) at Algonquin Peak of Mount McIntyre. With the exception of some forestry activities, the region’s main economic value is for recreation. A large part of it has been designated as a wilderness preserve by the state.
The St. Lawrence Lowlands extend northeastward from Lake Ontario to the ocean along the boundary with Canada. Within this area are three subdivisions: a flat to gently rolling strip of land along the St. Lawrence River a range of hills south and east of the plain and, farther south and east, a long, narrow plain dotted with lakes.
The Hudson-Mohawk Lowland follows the Hudson River north from New York City to Albany and then turns west along the Mohawk River. The Hudson valley, between the Catskill Mountains on the west and the Taconic Range on the east, is from 10 to 20 miles (15 to 30 km) wide the Mohawk valley reaches widths of 30 miles (50 km). Those routes provided access from New York City and New England into the hinterland of New York. Cutting pathways through the mountains of central and western New York, these rivers became the state’s avenues of commerce, serving first as the basis of the Erie Canal and later as the route of the New York Central Railroad and of the Governor Thomas E. Dewey (New York State) Thruway.
To the east of the Hudson River lies the New England Upland, extending eastward into Massachusetts and Connecticut and southward across the lower Hudson valley into Pennsylvania.
Two small regions complete the geographic picture in southeastern New York. The Atlantic Coastal Plain, which extends from Massachusetts to Florida, takes in Long Island and Staten Island. A small finger of the eastern Piedmont region juts up from New Jersey for some distance along the west bank of the Hudson.
The Appalachian Highlands, the largest region in New York, comprises about one-half of the state, extending westward from the Hudson valley to the state’s southern and western boundaries. The Catskill Mountains (the peaks of which reach some 2,000 to 4,000 feet [600 to 1,200 metres]), the Finger Lakes Hills area, and the Delaware River basin are located in this region. The Catskills, with their mountains and lakes, are primarily a recreation area. The Finger Lakes region also provides many opportunities for summer and winter sports, and its valleys provide excellent grasslands for dairying. The Delaware basin is a mixed-farming area.
A plateaulike region known as the Erie-Ontario Lowlands lies to the north of the Appalachian Highlands and west of the Mohawk valley and extends along the southern shores of the Great Lakes. It is composed of lake plains bordering the Great Lakes that extend up to 30 miles (50 km) inland from the lakes. Because of the moderating influence of the lakes on the weather, the region has become an important fruit-growing area. Between the lake lowlands and the western reaches of the Adirondacks and north of Oneida Lake lies the Tug Hill Upland, which is one of the least-settled parts of the state because of its poor soil and drainage and its excessive winter snow conditions.
'1776 Unites' releases Black history curriculum to counter New York Times' 1619 Project
Trump pledges to restore ‘patriotic education’ amid ‘1619 Project’ debate
Latasha Fields, co-pastor of Our Report Ministries explains why religious Americans should reject the idea that slavery is what defines the nation on ‘Fox &amp Friends.’
1776 Unites, a group that says it wants to "shape the American future by drawing on the best of its past," released its first curriculum program this week in part to counter the New York Times' 1619 Project.
The curriculum, developed by civil rights leader Bob Woodson and American Enterprise Institute scholar Ian Rowe, offers lesson plans, activities, reading guides and other resources to illustrate what 1776 Unites calls a "more complete and inspiring story of the history of African-Americans in the United States."
"1776 Unites maintains a special focus on stories that celebrate black excellence, reject victimhood culture, and showcase African-Americans who have prospered by embracing America’s founding ideals," the group writes of the new curriculum.
The New York Times Magazine launched the 1619 Project last year on the 400th anniversary of the beginning of slavery in America. It aims to "reframe the country’s history by placing the consequences of slavery and the contributions of black Americans at the very center of our national narrative."
The Times' project has since expanded into a full-fledged curriculum, with tens of thousands of students in all 50 states using the materials.
The 1619 Project received substantial praise. The director of the project, Nikole Hanna-Jones, won the Pulitzer Prize for her introductory essay.
"Without the idealistic, strenuous and patriotic efforts of black Americans, our democracy today would most likely look very different — it might not be a democracy at all," Hanna-Jones wrote.
But it also has received criticism. A group of historians led by Princeton professor Sean Wilentz wrote a letter to the New York Times that cites multiple factual errors in the project.
"On the American Revolution, pivotal to any account of our history, the project asserts that the founders declared the colonies’ independence of Britain 'in order to ensure slavery would continue.' This is not true," said the letter, which the Times published in December 2019.
In March of this year, Northwestern University professor Leslie Harris wrote in Politico that she "vigorously argued against" Hanna-Jones' claim that "patriots fought the American Revolution in large part to preserve slavery in North America."
Following the criticism, the Times issued a correction, changing a passage to make it clear that protecting slavery was a primary motivation for "some of the colonists," not all of them.
The curriculum developed by 1776 Unites, which launched in February, aims to create an alternative to the 1619 Project.
“Some of the most well-respected historians in the country have overwhelmingly discredited and rejected key elements of the 1619 Project,” Rowe told National Review. “We’re not in competition with them, but it is important to highlight the contrast that exists.”
Some educators, such as Albert Paulsson, a high school social studies teacher in New Jersey, are excited about the alternative project.
"The 1776 Unites curriculum teaches that resilience in the face of opposition defines Black America in particular, and that there is a rich history of Black Americans who rose above the harshest of circumstances by embracing their own personal agency and living out the true founding values of our country," Paulsson said this week. "These stories continue to unfold all around us today."
President Trump has been a vocal critic of the 1619 Project, arguing Thursday that it "rewrites American history to teach our children that we were founded on the principle of oppression, not freedom."
The president said he is creating a "1776 Commission" to "promote patriotic education."
Education Secretary Betsy DeVos said Thursday that she does not think the federal government should have a role in setting the curriculum of schools, but that the 1776 Unites curriculum "sounds really wonderful," according to Politico.
“Curriculum is best left to the states and local districts at local education agencies, but we can talk about curriculum that actually honors and respects our history and embraces all of the parts of our history and continues to build on that," DeVos told Rowe on Thursday, Politico reported. "Because we know that if we do not know and understand history, we are bound to repeat it."
The Original New York Central Railroad Is Born
The modern New York Central Railroad map was a collection of predecessor properties which merged or were acquired over many years. The earliest component was one of the industry's pioneers, the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad.
In an effort to pay for this public works project, the state restricted railroads from handling the more lucrative freight movements or do so by paying a toll. The other early predecessors of the NYC dealt with similar issues, finding it difficult moving freight in the face of state opposition.New York Central F3A's #1630 and #1631 in a publicity photo for the "Pacemaker" high-speed freight service (also the name of a passenger consist serving the New York - Cleveland - Chicago market) taken at Indianapolis, Indiana in November of 1949.
Six other small roads comprised what later became the NYC's main line between Albany and Buffalo. These systems included the Utica & Schenectady, Syracuse & Utica, Auburn & Syracuse, Auburn & Rochester, Tonawanda Railroad, and Attica & Buffalo.
The U&S was chartered on April 29, 1833 and opened 78 miles between its namesake cities in 1836. It proved how successful railroads could become, moving many passengers, despite the state regulations placed upon it.
At Utica, the Syracuse & Utica was chartered on May 11, 1836 to extend rail service westward to Syracuse, opening a 53-mile route in August of 1839.
New York Central's "Great Steel Fleet": History, Schedule, Consist, & Photos
"20th Century Limited" (Train): Route, Interior, Consist, Timetable
The 20th Century Limited was the flagship passenger train of the NYC, operating until 1967 (just prior to the Penn Central merger).
"Empire State Express" (1941 Train): 999, Poster, Consist
The Empire State Express was actually an early train that dated back to the 19th century. It was streamlined in the 1940s and remained in service until 1971.
New England States (Train): Tours, Timetable, Consist
The New England States was New York Central's premier Boston-New York train, established in the late 1930s. It survived until 1967.
NYC's Southwestern Limited (Train): Timetable, Consist, Route
The Southwestern Limited was a long-running New York Central service between New York and St. Louis established in the late 1800s. It survived until the mid-1960s.
"Lake Shore Limited" (Train): Schedule, Consist, Timetable
The Lake Shore Limited dates back as the Exposition Flyer of 1893 serving Chicago and New York. It is still operated today by Amtrak.
New York Central's "Pacemaker" (Train): Schedule, Consist
The Pacemaker was New York Central's all-coach service between New York and Chicago. It survived until the mid-1960s.
NYC's "Wolverine" (Train): Timetable, Consist, Route
The Wolverine was a New York to Chicago train operated by the New York Central running via southern Ontario. The name survived into Amtrak.
NYC's "Ohio State Limited" (Train): Timetable, Route, Consist
The Ohio State Limited was New York Central's top train between New York and Cincinnati established in the 1920s. It was discontinued in 1967.
NYC's "Detroiter" (Train): Timetable, Route, Consist
The Detroiter was arguably the preeminent train serving New York and Detroit, operated by New York Central. It survived until 1959.
NYC's "Cleveland Limited" (Train): Timetable, Consist, Route
The Cleveland Limited was a long-running New York Central train serving New York and its home city. It disappeared in 1967.
"James Whitcomb Riley" (Train): Schedule, Timetable, Consist
The James Whitcomb Riley was a regional passenger train operated by the NYC between Chicago and Cincinnati. Established in 1941 it survived through Amtrak.
"Commodore Vanderbilt" (Train): Steam Locomotive, Consist
The Commodore Vanderbilt, running between New York and Chicago, was New York Central's second most prestigious train. It was lost in 1960.
The next component was the Auburn & Syracuse, chartered on May 1, 1834 it opened between both cities in January of 1838. The road was initially horse powered but introduced steam power a little more than a year later when the locomotive Syracusentered service on June 14, 1839.
At the latter city the system connected with the Tonawanda Railroad, interestingly the earliest chartered system of the bunch except for the Mohawk & Hudson. It had been formed on April 24, 1832, opening to Batavia in 1837. The final push into Buffalo came by way of the Attica & Buffalo Railroad, chartered in 1836.
Following a few years of construction it opened on November 24, 1842 between Buffalo and Attica, thus completing direct rail service from the state capital to Lake Erie.
According to Mike Schafer and Brian Solomon's book, "New York Central Railroad," the state discontinued canal tolls on these railroads during December of 1851. The results were nearly instantaneous as profits soared.
A few years prior to this event, merger talks had already been launched between the group as they understood the benefits of a unified line offering through service.
The consolidation was officially carried out on May 17, 1853 when they formally joined to form the original New York Central Railroad.
The first NYC expanded slightly over the next decade but essentially remained the same system linking the aforementioned endpoints until after the Civil War when Cornelius Vanderbilt acquired control of the property.
It was under the Commodore's guidance that the modern New York Central was born as he pieced together several large railroads into a network under common management stretching from New York to Chicago.
The "Commodore" Takes Control
Enter Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose name remains synonymous with the New York Central Railroad. He was born in 1794 and at the age of 16 began his own ferry service between Staten Island and New York City.
Business savvy, Vanderbilt established a successful steamship operation and earned the title of Commodore by operating the largest schooner on the Hudson River.
He was worth a half-million dollars by 1834 and remained in the shipping industry for another three decades before realizing the future of transportation lay in the railroad.
In 1863 he acquired control of the New York & Harlem and a year later owned controlling interest in the Hudson River Railroad. These two roads provided the later NYC with a coveted entry into downtown Manhattan, an advantage the railroad maintained until the Pennsylvania Railroad opened Pennsylvania Station in 1910."For The Public Service." One of several beautiful paintings commissioned for the railroad by Leslie Ragan. Here we see one of the famous streamlined J-3a Hudson's and other power at Chicago's LaSalle Street Station.
It reached as far as Fordham, in the Bronx, in 1841 and then pushed far beyond the city over the next few years when it opened to Chatham, New York (129 miles away) during 1852 where a connection was established with the Western Railroad (later Boston & Albany).
The nearby Hudson River Railroad (HRRR) was a future competitor to the NY&H. It was chartered on May 12, 1846 to extend from Rensselaer, New York (a connection here was made with the Troy & Greenbush Railroad, later leased by the HRRR) down the eastern shore of the Hudson River until terminating along the western side of Manhattan, opening on October 3, 1851.
This became part of the NYC's future "Water Level Route" high-speed main line. Through shrewd business practices the Commodore gained control of the original New York Central Railroad in 1867.
He then formed a new company, the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad in 1869 the HRRR and NYC were merged into the new operation while the Harlem was leased.
Strollers and Shopping Carts
- No person may bring any animal on or into the tram unless enclosed in a container and carried in a manner which would not annoy other passengers.
- This does not apply to working dogs for law enforcement agencies, to service animals, or to animals which are being trained as service animals and are accompanying persons with disabilities, or to animals which are being trained as service animals by a professional trainer. All service animals and animals being trained as service animals must be harnessed or leashed.
New York: The History behind the New York Post
New York is known for many things, the Statue of Liberty, New York fashion week and among other things, HBO's Sex and the City. But before we forget, oftentimes overshadowed by the immensely popular the New York Times, there's another popular New York daily newspaper that has actually been around as far back as in the 1800s. The New York Evening Post or the New York Post, was actually founded by Alexander Hamilton, who then chose William Coleman to be its first editor-in-chief way back in the New York Post's humble beginnings. After William Coleman's short reign as the New York Post's editor-in-chief, he was then replaced by another William, a William Cullen Bryant, way back in 1829. A fruitful 50 year reign as the New York Post's editor-in chief, William Cullent Bryant was a staunch believer of defending the rights of those who are being enslaved, William Cullent Bryant also showed strong support for the emerging trade union back then. He even went as far as defending the strike of the Society of Journeyman Tailors by trying to link their strike with slavery back in June 1836.The year 1881 had the New York Post welcoming Henry Villard at its helm.