Julian Hale

Julian Hale


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Nathan Hale is executed by the British for spying

In New York City on September 22, 1776, Nathan Hale, a Connecticut schoolteacher and captain in the Continental Army, is executed by the British for spying.

A graduate of Yale University, Hale joined a Connecticut regiment in 1775 and served in the successful siege of British-occupied Boston. On September 10, 1776, he volunteered to cross behind British lines on Long Island to spy on the British in preparation for the Battle of Harlem Heights.

Disguised as a Dutch schoolmaster, the Yale-educated Hale slipped behind British lines on Long Island and successfully gathered information about British troop movements for the next several weeks. While Hale was behind enemy lines, the British invaded the island of Manhattan they took control of the city on September 15, 1776. When the city was set on fire on September 20, British soldiers were told to look out for sympathizers to the Patriot cause. The following evening, September 21, Hale was captured while sailing Long Island Sound, trying to cross back into American-controlled territory. Although rumors surfaced that Hale was betrayed by his first cousin and British Loyalist Samuel Hale, the exact circumstances of Hale’s capture have never been discovered.

Hale was interrogated by British General William Howe and, when it was discovered that he was carrying incriminating documents, General Howe ordered his execution for spying, which was set for the following morning. After being led to the gallows, legend holds that the 21-year-old Hale said, “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.” There is no historical record to prove that Hale actually made this statement, but, if he did, he may have been inspired by these lines in English author Joseph Addison’s 1713 play Cato: “What a pity it is/That we can die but once to serve our country.”


Robert Sever Hale

Robert Sever Hale was born to George Silsbee Hale, a prominent attorney, and Ellen Sever Hale on October 3, 1869. He graduated from Harvard in 1891, completed a two-year graduate course in mechanical lines at Cornell in 1893, and went on to work as a research engineer at the Edison Electric Illumination Company. A “wealthy society man” whose family maintained homes in Boston’s Back Bay and Bar Harbor, Maine, Mr. Hale took up residence at the exclusive Tennis and Racquet Club.

While at Lucerne in 1912, Mr. Hale met 27-year-old milliner and international beauty prize winner May N. Wilson of Boston. Ms. Wilson was a daughter of John T. Wilson of Glasgow. The two were married in Boston by the Rev. Dr. A. A. Berle on December 23, 1913. A “society sensation,” their wedding made national news and was announced in the New York Times, Chicago Daily Tribune, and San Francisco Call and Post, among others. The couple boarded the Lusitania and honeymooned abroad.

It was during the final years of Mr. Hale’s marriage (which ended in 1922) that Lord Robert Baden-Powell, who is widely regarded as the father of the scouting movement, wrote Rovering to Success. The book detailed how young men could continue their personal development during adulthood. Baden-Powell’s service-based philosophy captivated Mr. Hale, who by 1918 had already begun permitting local Boy Scout troops to use his land (known at that time as the Dover-Westwood Scout Reservation). A staunch advocate of self-reliance, he began publishing newsletters in earnest and quickly established the epicenter of Rover Scouting in New England.

In the midst of the Great Depression, Mr. Hale chartered Scoutland with his brother, Boston lawyer Richard Walden Hale, on May 19, 1930. Throughout the following decade he led various efforts to improve the organization’s communications, finances, infrastructure, and ecosystems. He was a major proponent of education: In addition to launching a book rental program for scouts, Mr. Hale personally funded scholarships for Harvard students to work at Scoutland.
In addition to writing extensively about scouting, Mr. Hale published two books, The Language of Economics and Ethics (1936) and The Revolution in Economics (1938). In the latter, he aimed to address “those who are willing to think and decide for themselves upon the gigantic problems which confront so ominously our present civilization.”

Mr. Hale passed away on New Year’s Eve in 1941 at the age of 72.



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In 1885 Kelly's Directory described Little Hale as a township with an 1881 population of 362, and land of some parts light loam, and some, clay. Chief crops grown were wheat, barley, oats, beans, seeds and turnips. The village contained a post office, and a National School for 130 children, with an average attendance of 90. The 3rd Marquess of Bristol was Lord of the Manor. Little Hale commercial occupations at the time were twelve farmers, publicans at the Nags Head and Bowling Green public houses, two shopkeepers, a grocer & draper, a wheelwright and a shoe maker. The settlement of Broadhurst existed 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south-east from Little Hale. [1]

In 1933 Kelly's described a Little Hale township area of 2,481 acres (10.0 km 2 ) and 7 acres (0.03 km 2 ) of water, and a 1921 population of 264. Lord of the Manor was the 4th Marquess of Bristol MVO. No school was noted in the village. Little Hale commercial occupations were nineteen farmers, a wheelwright, two shopkeepers, one of whom ran the post office, and a publican at the Bowling Green public house. There was a bus service between the village and Sleaford. No mention was made of the settlement of Broadhurst. [2]

Little Hale was originally a township in Great Hale ancient parish in the Kesteven part of Lincolnshire. It was made a separate civil parish in 1866. [3] When a township, it was in Aswardhurn wapentake, and was in Sleaford poor law union and rural sanitary districts. [4] From 1894 to 1931 it was in Sleaford Rural District, and from 1931 to 1974 it was in East Kesteven Rural District. [4] Since 1974 it has been in North Kesteven district. [5]

It was in the Southern Lincolnshire constituency for the United Kingdom parliament from 1832 to 1867, which changed its name to become the South Lincolnshire constituency in between 1867 and 1885, the North Kesteven constituency from 1885 to 1918, and from 1918 to 1997, it was in Grantham constituency. [6] Since 1997, it has been in the Grantham and Stamford constituency.


Community Reviews

I received an ARC from NetGalley in exchange for an honest review.

Women in Aviation by Julian Hale is a great little introductory primer on American and British female pilots. It discusses major firsts for women in aviation history and it spotlights important figures as well. Instead of just featuring the early days, I enjoyed that it goes up to the present by even going into NASA and space flight. I definitely learned some things that I didn&apost know before especially when it comes to British wom I received an ARC from NetGalley in exchange for an honest review.

Women in Aviation by Julian Hale is a great little introductory primer on American and British female pilots. It discusses major firsts for women in aviation history and it spotlights important figures as well. Instead of just featuring the early days, I enjoyed that it goes up to the present by even going into NASA and space flight. I definitely learned some things that I didn't know before especially when it comes to British women pilots. Plus, thanks to the further reading section I know where I can go if I'm interested in learning more. The only reason I'm giving this short book four stars is because reading the eARC is a bit tricky at times due to formatting. Overall, though, Hale's book is a great place to start if you are interested in the topic, or if you are particularly interested in the topic like me and are always looking for more. . more

Women in Aviation by Julian Hale is a great, compact overview of some of the pioneers in regards to women and aviation. From the initial female pilots to even current day, breaking into what is considered “a man’s field” has been a challenge for any capable and talented woman.

It was great to read a little about each milestone: first female pilots, first African American female pilot, women that were part of the ATA/USAAF/Spitfire Girls, to post-war and modern era.
These women were, are, role mo Women in Aviation by Julian Hale is a great, compact overview of some of the pioneers in regards to women and aviation. From the initial female pilots to even current day, breaking into what is considered “a man’s field” has been a challenge for any capable and talented woman.

It was great to read a little about each milestone: first female pilots, first African American female pilot, women that were part of the ATA/USAAF/Spitfire Girls, to post-war and modern era.
These women were, are, role models and this generation should be thankful, and in awe, of how much these brave and talented women were able to overcome and champion their way into what should have been a rightful place and position.
While this text is shorter in length, it makes up in the fact that it is jam packed with useful and interesting information, fabulous photos depicting these amazing women, and straight to the point information that leaves the reader an interest and desire to search out for more.

Thank you NetGalley and Shire Publications for this ARC and in return I am submitting my unbiased and voluntary review and opinion.

This review has been submitted to GR same day and will be posted on Amazon and B&N upon release. . more

From the time of my first ride in a bi-plane, I have been hooked on aviation. This book is perfect for anyone, male or female, who loves aviation. The book begins with praise for Katharine Wright, sister and influencer of the Wright Brothers and continues through the present with well to little known women who made a mark on aviation. This mini-encyclopedia is interspersed with archival photographs and includes a section on further reading and places to visit.

My rating is 5 Stars: Highly recomm From the time of my first ride in a bi-plane, I have been hooked on aviation. This book is perfect for anyone, male or female, who loves aviation. The book begins with praise for Katharine Wright, sister and influencer of the Wright Brothers and continues through the present with well to little known women who made a mark on aviation. This mini-encyclopedia is interspersed with archival photographs and includes a section on further reading and places to visit.

My rating is 5 Stars: Highly recommended! For reference my version of a 5 star review is “I absolutely loved it! It will stay with me for a long time and/or I would read it again in the future. Highly recommended.”

As a reviewer for NetGalley, I received a copy of this book in exchange for an honest review.

I wish to thank Net Galley and Osprey Publishing for allowing me to read an advanced copy of this book. I have voluntarily read and reviewed an advanced copy of this book. All thoughts and opinions are my own.

This book is a one of a kind. It stays on target from the beginning to the end informing its readers about all aspect of women in the field of aviation. It begins with the hot air balloonists, goes to Katherine Wright then progresses through the Golden Age of flight and continues to the spa I wish to thank Net Galley and Osprey Publishing for allowing me to read an advanced copy of this book. I have voluntarily read and reviewed an advanced copy of this book. All thoughts and opinions are my own.

This book is a one of a kind. It stays on target from the beginning to the end informing its readers about all aspect of women in the field of aviation. It begins with the hot air balloonists, goes to Katherine Wright then progresses through the Golden Age of flight and continues to the space age. It describes their journeys, their loses and their accomplishments in a field that is highly masculine. The pictures are wonderful and add so very much to the story.

I would highly recommend this book to anyone with an interest in aviation, strong women and history. . more


Hale County

Reconstructed Mississippian Compound Located in the west-central part of the state in Alabama's Black Belt, the area that now constitutes Hale County was home to three Alabama governors: Israel Pickens, John Gayle, and Thomas Seay. Hale County's Moundville Archaeological Park includes a number of Mississippian-era mounds built by Native Americans more than 1,000 years ago. The town of Greensboro claims the title of Alabama's "Catfish Capital" and was the birthplace of the Hale County Civic Improvement League, one of the nation's first civil-rights associations. The county is governed by a representative five-member commission and includes four incorporated communities.
  • Founding Date: January 30, 1867
  • Area: 661 square miles
  • Population: 15,159 (2016 Census estimate)
  • Major Waterways: Black Warrior River
  • Major Highways: State Route 69, State Route 14
  • County Seat: Greensboro
  • Largest City: Greensboro
Hale County Courthouse The lands of present-day Hale County were ceded to the United States by the Choctaw Indians in the 1816 Treaty of Fort St. Stephens. Hale County was created by the Alabama State Legislature on January 30, 1867, from parts of Greene, Marengo, Perry, and Tuscaloosa Counties. The county was named in honor of Lt. Col. Stephen F. Hale, a Greene County lawyer and soldier who died in Richmond, Virginia, during the Civil War. The earliest settlers came to Hale County from Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and the Carolinas. Some of the earliest settlements and towns included Greensboro, New Bern (now Newbern), Moundville (originally known as Carthage), and Havana. Greensboro was the first county seat of Hale County and remains so today. The first Hale County courthouse was established in 1867 in the former Salem Baptist Church. That structure was torn down in 1907 and replaced with the current building in 1908. It suffered a major fire in 1935, which destroyed most of the upper floors and clocktower they were rebuilt that year. Stephen Fowler Hale Throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Hale County has been connected with several well-known artists. In 1936, Walker Evans photographed the area for the 1941 book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, on which he collaborated with writer James Agee. Multimedia artist William Christenberry photographed Hale County's architecture from the 1960s to 2000s. Hale County is also the home to Auburn University's Rural Studio, a nationally renowned architectural outreach program founded by Samuel Mockbee and D. K. Ruth and based in Newbern. Butterfly House According to 2016 Census estimates, the population of Hale County is 15,159. Of that total, 58.3 percent of respondents identified themselves as African American, 40.0 percent as white, 1.2 percent as Hispanic, 0.3 percent as Native American, 0.2 percent as two or more races, 0.1 percent as Asian, and 0.1 percent as Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. The county seat, Greensboro, had a population of 2,482. Other significant population centers include Moundville, Akron, and Newbern. The median household income was $33,351, compared with $44,758 for the state as a whole, and the per capita income was $19,296, compared with $24,736 for the state as a whole. Burroughs and Tengle Children Like most of Alabama's counties, farming was the prevailing occupation of Hale County until the middle of the twentieth century. Given the rich, dark soil of the Black Belt, cotton was the main crop in the county and remained so until the 1930s. During the Great Depression, farmers diversified into corn and livestock, and cotton fields were turned into pasture for beef and dairy cows. In the 1960s, farmers turned to soybeans and grain-fed catfish as the predominant cash crops. The economy was based largely in agriculture until the mid-twentieth century, but the many acres of forest along the Black Warrior River were a draw for the timber industry as well. Unlike neighboring counties, Hale County did not fully take part in the industrialization boom of the mid-twentieth century, remaining largely rural and agricultural, accounting for its high rates of poverty today.
  • Educational services, and health care and social assistance (26.7 percent)
  • Manufacturing (16.7 percent)
  • Retail trade (15.5 percent)
  • Professional, scientific, management, and administrative and waste management services (7.9 percent)
  • Construction (6.6 percent)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and extractive (5.9 percent)
  • Arts, entertainment, recreation, and accommodation and food services (4.4 percent)
  • Transportation and warehousing, and utilities (3.9 percent)
  • Finance and insurance, and real estate, rental, and leasing (3.8 percent)
  • Other services, except public administration (3.6 percent)
  • Public administration (3.3 percent)
  • Wholesale trade (1.3 percent)
  • Information (0.2 percent)
Hale County Map Comprising more than 660 square miles, Hale County is part of Alabama's Black Belt and lies in the west-central part of the state wholly within the Coastal Plain physiographic section. The landscape consists of rolling prairies and coastal plains dotted with oak and pine forests. Hale County is bordered by Tuscaloosa County to the north, Bibb and Perry Counties to the east, Marengo County to the south, and Greene County to the west. A small portion of the Warrior Coal Basin of the Warrior Coal Field lies in the northernmost part of Hale County. Black Warrior River There are several recreational opportunities for visitors to Hale County. Moundville Archaeological Park is a 320-acre park that features 26 large prehistoric platform mounds. The park includes a reconstructed Indian village, the Jones Archaeological Museum, nature trails, campgrounds, and picnic sites on the banks of the Black Warrior River. The very northeast corner of Hale County is encompassed by Talladega National Forest, which covers 375,000 acres at the southern edge of the Appalachian Mountains. Rugged mountains, forests, waterfalls, and streams afford visitors various opportunities for recreational activity including camping, hiking, backpacking, fishing, and bird watching. Magnolia Grove Known as Alabama's Catfish Capital, Greensboro is home to a variety of historical attractions. Because Greensboro managed to escape the Civil War relatively unscathed, a large number of antebellum homes and churches remain. The entire downtown district of the town is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and features nearly 150 nineteenth-century structures, 60 of which predate the Civil War. The Noel-Ramsey House, built between 1819 and 1821, is the only remaining residence of French settlers from nearby Demopolis's Vine and Olive Colony. A two-story Greek Revival house, Magnolia Grove was built around 1840 and sits among 15 acres of magnolia trees and formal gardens. The house was the boyhood home of Rr. Adm. Richmond Pearson Hobson, a naval hero in the Spanish-American War. The house now serves as a museum featuring family portraits, heirlooms, and furnishings from the 1830s to the early twentieth century. Original outbuildings include a kitchen and an enslaved family cottage. The Greensboro Opera House is a performance venue housed in a historic 1903 building.

Oak Grove School Located in Greensboro, visitors can tour the Safe House Black History Museum, which houses photos of Martin Luther King Jr., a collection of media sources on African American history, an 1860 slave-auction document, and cement imprints of the hands of Lewis Black. Black was the founder of the Hale County Civic Improvement League, one of the first civil-rights groups in the country. The Oak Grove School, a two-room school that served African American children, is located in the nearby town of Gallion. The school was built with funds donated by Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears and Roebuck, and now serves as a community heritage center.

The Heritage of Hale County, Alabama. Clanton, Ala.: Heritage Publishing Consultants, 2001.


Camp Hale

When the War Department decided to establish a unit of mountain troops trained in skiing and winter warfare, a search for an appropriate site for the military post began. Various locations in the western states were investigated. The area around Pando, Colorado, a railway stop on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, proved to be the ideal location, meeting all the criteria set forth by the War Department. A foremost consideration was snowfall, and the area near Tennessee Pass had consistent and heavy snow throughout the winter as well as topography conducive to ski training. Since much of the surrounding land was national forest, acquisition of land and room for maneuvers and training was not a problem. One advantage the site had over others reviewed was accessibility. The Denver and Rio Grande Railway and Highway 24 provided ready access to the valley. This was important for construction phase on the camp because building crews and materials could be brought to the site with out additional costly construction of transportation. Natural water sources from the Eagle River and Homestake Creek were deemed sufficient for camp use, and regional supplies of coal existed in sufficient quantities to meet fuel demands.

Leadville, Colorado, was the closest town to the base. World War II benefited the small community. Mining was the historic foundation of this mountain town. By WWII, molybdenum, a valuable element used to harden steel, had replaced gold and silver as the major source of extractive wealth. Demand for "molly" grew as wartime production increased. Construction and the presence of troops provided new economic life for the struggling mining town. Yet, the only drawback noted in the investigative report was Leadville. It was thought to be lacking in appropriate social and recreational amenities, and the report presented the town negatively stating, "The morals of Leadville are said to be on a rather low plane." Before the Army would allow soldiers into Leadville, the city council and police had to clean up the town by enforcing gambling and liquor laws as well as finding a solution to end the prostitution problem.

WAC Soldier above Camp Hale

The War Department's office of chief Engineers initiated plans for construction of the camp and awarded the contract to Pando Constructors, a business group representing engineers, architects, construction firms, on April 7, 1942. The newly formed construction company had several barriers to overcome, not the least of which was a seven-month time frame, with a completion date set for November 15, 1942. Building the camp was an enormous undertaking. Plans called for the relocation of Highway 24, which formed the southern perimeter of the camp. Buildings necessary for the military post were mess halls, barracks, a hospital, a chapel, a fire station, administration buildings, a post exchange, a finance building, clinics, a stockade, and a guardhouse. Because the mountain division would be using mules, plans included stables, corrals, storage for hay, and a blacksmith shop. Facilities to provide for service and support for the infrastructure included a motor pool, a carpenter shop, a ski shop, a bakery, a ice making plant, and incinerators. Military training required the construction of rifle and pistol ranges, grenade courts, gas chambers, and bayonet courses. Due to the relative isolation from major urban areas, the camp had to provide for the recreational needs of the troops. Recreational buildings included a 2,676 seat theater, an 18,000 square-foot field house, service clubs for enlisted personnel and officers, company day rooms, and an auditorium to hold up to 3,000 people. A new city sprang up practically overnight.

Another challenge included the remoteness of the area making it necessary to bring in workers and materials from long distances. By summer there were nearly 12,00 workers on the construction payroll residing at the camp in temporary barracks, trailers, tents, troop housing as it was completed, and at a variety of facilities in the surrounding communities. Housing was scarce, but workers were paid well. As the completion date approached, workers were guaranteed an ever-increasing number of hours per week. According to the Leadville Herald Democrat, in October workers were first guaranteed sixty, then seventy-hour workweeks. Turnover, however, remained high. During the eight months to completion, more than 40,000 workers had a hand in construction.

10th Mtn. Soldiers were trained to ski and fight at high altitude

Nothing like this project had been tried before. The entire area was a swamp in need of draining in order to lower the ground water level and landfill had to be added where necessary. Part of the solution involved rechanneling the Eagle River to provide for proper drainage of the valley. For the water supply five wells were dug at one end of the valley. The drainage from the camp also threatened to pollute the water supply for the town of Red Cliff. Consequently, builders constructed a sewer system with 13.5 miles of sewer lines and a new source of water was located for the town. One challenge faced was an annual snowfall of 163.5 inches, which necessitated some modification of structural designs for the cantonment buildings. Another difficulty that had to be overcome was the wartime copper shortage that affected the design of the electrical system. The Denver and Rio Grande mail line connected to the military base with rails serving the warehouses, ordnance warehouse, bakery, cold storage, coal yard, grain elevator, and hay sheds. One problem not anticipated or overcome was the pollution in the valley during the winter. Because the camp relied on burning coal for its primary source of energy, air inversions held the smoke and particulates over the camp.

The decision to locate the cantonment in national forest proved wise. In a letter dated July 15, 1943, Assistant Agriculture Secretary Grover B. Hill opened up thousands of acres of national forest to the War Department. "In accordance with [that] understanding this letter will be authority for your department to use without restriction all the national forest lands in that area for so long as they are required for military training and such other purposes as your Department feels are necessary in furtherance of the War effort." This led the way for development of a ski facility on Cooper Hill. The 240-acre facility adjacent to the camp serviced ten runs with four rope tows.

The name selected for the post was Camp Hale, named for the late brigadier general Irving Hale, a veteran of the Spanish American War. Pando Constructors completed construction within a month of the due date. Originally designed for 20,353 military personnel and 11,288 animals, Camp Hale eventually housed approximately 16,000 soldiers and 3,900 animals. Approximately 14,000 military personnel stationed there were members of the 10th Mountain Division.

Soldiers traversed mountain peaks with a 90 lb. rucksack. Hale to Aspen 1944

For the Leadville perspective on Camp Hale, the Leadville Herald Democrat provided an interesting chronicle of events. The following bibliography provides a partial reference list of newspaper articles.

The following articles are available from Denver Public Library and Colorado State Historical Society microfilm collections.


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Hale History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Hale is an old Anglo-Saxon name. It comes from when a family lived in a remote valley, or nook. Checking further we found the name was derived from the Old English halh, which had the same meaning. Conversely the name could have been a nickname for someone who was "healthy, stout, a brave man, chief, or hero" having derived from the Anglo-Saxon word "hale." [1]

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Early Origins of the Hale family

The surname Hale was first found in Cheshire, but there are other records of this local name throughout England. Parish named Hales were found in Stafford, Norfolk and Worcester. Norfolk's earliest reference was Alexander de Hales, who was listed there in 1245. [2]

The Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 lists: Richard de la Hale in Oxfordshire and Walter en le Hale in Sussex at that time. Robert in the Hale was listed in the Close Roll, temp. 2 Edward I and according to Kirby's Quest, John atte Hale was listed in Somerset, temp. 1 Edward III [3] [4]

Alexander of Hales (d. 1245), the celebrated theologian, and one of the first of the Christian Philosophers of the thirteenth century, was born in Gloucestershire at a town or village called Hales. [5]

Thomas Hales ( fl. 1250), was an early English poet and religious writer, was a Franciscan friar, and presumably a native of Hales (or Hailes) in Gloucestershire. [5]

The name quickly became native to Scotland as seen by Michel de Hale del counte de Edeneberk who rendered homage to King Edward I in his brief conquest of Scotland in 1296. [6]

Later some of the family were found at Kings Walden in Hertfordshire. "On the north side of the chancel of the church is a chapel, the burial-place of the Hale family, erected by William Hale, who died in 1648." [7]

Hailes Castle is a 14th century castle about a mile and a half south west of East Linton, East Lothian, Scotland. It dates back to c. 1300. Hailes Abbey near Winchcombe in Gloucestershire was built in 1245 or 1246 but little remains of the abbey today.


Capture of Nathan Hale

According to Tiffany, Rogers knew American spies on Long Island had a mission to learn if the Long Islanders sympathized with the patriots.

Robert Rogers (artist conception)

Rogers kept an eye on Hale, thinking him an enemy in disguise. Rogers put on his own disguise and visited Hale in his quarters. Then he told Hale he was troubled at being stuck on Long Island, where the inhabitants sided with the British. He suggested he wanted to spy on British troop movements.

The hapless Hale believed Rogers, his new best friend, and invited him to have dinner with him the next day. They met in a tavern, where Rogers brought three or four men who also pretended interest in spying for the Americans. As they talked, a company of soldiers surrounded the house and seized Hale. Hale denied his identity, but several Connecticut Loyalists recognized him. The British hanged him immediately without a trial.

So goes Consider Tiffany’s account of Nathan Hale’s capture. But should we believe it?

Wrote Hutson, it ‘fits the facts as we know them so well that one is tempted to accept it as being substantially true.’