Steven Spielberg - History

Steven Spielberg - History


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Steven Spielberg

1947-

Movie Director

Steven Spielberg credit Gage Skidmore


Steven Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on December 18, 1946. In his teenage years Spielberg made many amateur films. He made his first independent film while still in high school. While attending Cal State Long Beach Spielberg got a got an unpaid intern job at Universal studios. He was given a chance to make a short film. The studio Vice President was so impressed he offered Spielberg a seven year directing contract.
Spielberg was 21 at the time and his first job as a director was with Rod Serling on the pilot episode of Night Gallery. Star Joan Crawford was shocked to have a 21 year old direct her, but immediate recognized his abilities.

His first big success came in 1975 with the blockbuster Jaws. Since then Spielberg has provided the public with a steady stream of successful movies, including Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), ET: The Extraterrestrial (1982), Schindler's List (1993), Amistadt (1997) Saving Private Ryan (1998), Catch Me if You Can (2002), War of the Worlds (2005) Munich (2005) Indiana Jones , Flags of Our Fathers(2006) Letters from Iwo Jima (2006)the Kingdom of Crystal Skull(2008), Lincoln (2012) and Bridge of Spies (2016).

Spielberg has also produced and directed for television.

Books

Steven Spielberg: A Biography, Second Edition

Steven Spielberg: A Life in Films (Jewish Lives)


Steven Spielberg's Pretty OK With Netflix Now

Steven Spielberg has had an intriguing character arc as of late. He caused a little drama a few years ago for his purported belief that movies made for Netflix that get theatrical award season runs shouldn’t qualify for Oscars . Then he worked with Apple TV and whatever the hell Quibi was . N ow, the lauded filmmaker has entered a new partnership with none other than Netflix.

Deadline reports that Spielberg’s Amblin Partners has inked a deal with the streamer that will co-exist alongside the director’s current deal with Universal Pictures. Neither Universal nor Netflix will have first-look power over Spielberg’s upcoming projects, but the deal with Netflix means Spielberg’s production house will develop “multiple movies per year” for streaming, according to the trade. “[Spielberg is] a creative visionary and leader and, like so many others around the world, my growing up was shaped by his memorable characters and stories that have been enduring, inspiring and awakening,” Netflix Co-CEO and chief content officer Ted Sarandos said in a statement. “We cannot wait to get to work with the Amblin team and we are honored and thrilled to be part of this chapter of Steven’s cinematic history.”

Spielberg added in his own statement: “At Amblin, storytelling will forever be at the center of everything we do, and from the minute Ted and I started discussing a partnership, it was abundantly clear that we had an amazing opportunity to tell new stories together and reach audiences in new ways. This new avenue for our films, alongside the stories we continue to tell with our longtime family at Universal and our other partners, will be incredibly fulfilling for me personally since we get to embark on it together with Ted, and I can’t wait to get started with him, Scott [Stuber, Netflix’s Head of Global Film], and the entire Netflix team.”

In spite of Spielberg’s public tussle with Netflix back in 2018, the news is not entirely surprising given the director’s trajectory. For nearly a decade Spielberg has talked about the movie industry’s slow but certain push towards VOD content, and Spielberg’s been involved on streaming shows from the production side like Showtime and Paramount+’s upcoming Halo series (which the director has been connected to for years at this point), or his work on the Amazing Stories reboot for Apple TV+ . Just last year, Spielberg pitched and developed Spielberg’s After Dark for the short-lived Quibi streaming platform, which will now air on Roku’s Roku channel after Quibi crashed and burned late last year . While some might be quick to poke a bit of schadenfreude at Spielberg teaming up with his one-time “nemesis”—and Netflix’s deal is a major get—it’s not quite as surprising as some may think it to be.


7 Holocaust Films You Should See

Jewish Film 101

My Jewish Learning is a not-for-profit and relies on your help

For years, Steven Spielberg was Hollywood&rsquos boy wonder. Boy wonder because everything he touched turned to gold, undoubtedly, but also for the irrepressible innocence of his outlook on the world&ndashwhich revolved around childhood hopes and fears&ndashand the boyish sense of adventure found in his films. For many fans, the touching naiveté of Spielberg films like E.T. (1982) was the attraction, while for others, the director&rsquos seeming immersion in Saturday-morning serials and the romance of the Hollywood studio system revealed an artist willfully blinkered to the adult world.

It was no secret, in the early years of Spielberg&rsquos ascendance, that he was Jewish (his mother was something of a celebrity in her own right in Jewish Los Angeles for owning a kosher restaurant), but his films contained little that would explicitly tie him to his religious heritage. Nonetheless, he was embraced by the Jewish community as a hero as few others have been&ndasha Jewish kid from southern California who had become America&rsquos preeminent showman, and a filmmaker and businessman nonpareil.

Blockbuster Hits

Spielberg had occasionally interacted with serious matters in his films, from Robert Shaw&rsquos gripping story of the sinking of the USS Indianapolis in Jaws (1975) to the Nazi bad guys of Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), but his seeming inability to tackle the world&rsquos ugliness with any seriousness made him a whipping boy for critics, who saw him as the root of Hollywood&rsquos new love for brain-dead summer blockbusters over heartier fare. Having emerged at the tail end of the American New Wave film movement of the 1970s, Spielberg (along with his sometime collaborator George Lucas) was offered as evidence of that cinematic flowering&rsquos early demise.

Of course, much of this attitude was unfounded, and simply unfair. Bashing Spielberg for the works he had not made, rather than honestly assessing those he had, was nonsensical, and led to hasty judgments of early Spielberg films like Jaws and Raiders. Demanding seriousness of a born entertainer like Spielberg was missing the point of where his talents lay&ndashor so it seemed.

A Turning Point

Schindler&rsquos List (1993) marked the crucial turning point in Spielberg&rsquos career&ndashthe moment when he simultaneously embraced seriousness and Jewishness in his work. Spielberg had attempted straightforward drama before, in The Color Purple (1985) and the underrated Empire of the Sun (1987), but Schindler&rsquos List was the first of his dramas to assume responsibility for the past, and for Jewish history. When Raiders of the Lost Ark had first hit theaters, critics had been puzzled, and sometimes offended, by the jokey, cartoon-villain Nazis on display, and in many ways, Schindler&rsquos List was a long-delayed response to those critics, and a mea culpa for the understandable but still lingering offense of Spielberg&rsquos youthful lack of historical grounding. For the Spielberg of Raiders, the Nazis were conveniently well-dressed baddies available to dog Indiana Jones&rsquo steps for the Spielberg of Schindler&rsquos List, the enormity of Nazi evil was too great to possibly be contained within a single film.

Much has been written about Schindler&rsquos List (see here), but perhaps the most surprising aspect of the film is its awe-inspiring rigor&ndashsomething Spielberg, always intent on pleasing his audiences, had never been capable of before. Naysayers made much of Schindler&rsquos List being Spielberg&rsquos Holocaust, in which the hero is a Nazi and the Jews all survive, but this glib response misses much of the nuance of the film, which owes more to the searing simplicity of austere French filmmaker Robert Bresson than E.T. Schindler&rsquos List finds hope in even the darkest moments of the Nazi genocide, but it also understands the mind-numbing everyday brutality of otherwise placid-seeming Germans, and the ways in which time, and especially money, could be translated into another life saved. Schindler&rsquos List grasps the economy of the Holocaust and its frightful trafficking in human lives, and honors high-minded celebrants of the sanctity of human life less than the calculators&ndashmen like Oskar Schindler, and his assistant Itzhak Stern&ndashwho intuitively knew just what it would cost to save a life.

Following Schindler&rsquos List, Spielberg invested his newfound cultural capital in a series of dramas that, like his Oscar-winning picture, were intended to wrestle with history. Boy wonder no longer, Spielberg sought to address American slavery (Amistad, 1997) and World War II (Saving Private Ryan, 1998), and perhaps even more courageously (at least in the eyes of film buffs) took on an unfinished Stanley Kubrick project (A.I.) and brought it to the big screen in 2001. Not all these films were as critically or commercially successful as Schindler&rsquos List. Saving Private Ryan was an enormously moving tribute to the wartime Greatest Generation and a remarkably frank evocation of battle, but Amistad lacked the fire of Schindler&rsquos List and Saving Private Ryan, and A.I. was a substantial misfire. At the same time, he also faced Schindler&rsquos critics head-on by funding and overseeing the enormous Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, which has now compiled more than 50,000 eyewitness testimonies from Holocaust survivors. This has become an invaluable resource for historians and those interested in preserving a record of history&rsquos horrors.

Twelve years after the enormous critical and commercial success of Schindler&rsquos List, Spielberg returned to explicitly Jewish material with Munich (2005), which sought to tell an unfamiliar tale from contemporary Israeli history. Munich begins with a horrifically realistic recreation of the kidnapping of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches at the 1972 Munich Olympics, with Spielberg&rsquos new footage intermingled with the now-familiar television coverage of the unfolding events. The tense hostage stand-off ends in the death of all eleven Israelis, and leaves the country and its leaders mourning their dead and thirsting for revenge against the Black September terrorists responsible for the athletes&rsquo deaths.

Based on a controversial memoir by an ex-Mossad agent, Munich details the hunting down and killing of each of the terrorists associated with the Munich disaster by a crack team of Israeli secret agents. Spielberg&rsquos technique in Munich is as fine as it has ever been there are moments that rival the best of Hitchcock for suspense, and Janusz Kaminski&rsquos photography is exceptionally beautiful. But the movie that Spielberg thought he was making is very different from the one he actually made, and Munich functions far more smoothly as a tense action-thriller taking place on the margins of reality&ndashand plausibility&ndashthan a philosophical drama of Israeli and Palestinian cycles of violence and counter-violence.

Munich desires to be taken seriously, to be Spielberg&rsquos equivalent of Schindler&rsquos List for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. But some combination of the dubious source material, Spielberg&rsquos shaky grasp of the roots of the violence, and the film&rsquos own unconscious taste for bullets over broadsides makes for a movie more adrenaline-fueled than thought-provoking. Wonderfully stirring, Munich has little at all to say about the seemingly endless battle between Israelis and Palestinians, and the little it does offer is jumbled and tentative. Part of the problem is that Munich takes place in the 1970&rsquos, which may as well be another century for its relevance to the contemporary landscape of the Middle East.

All in all, Munich is more proof of Spielberg&rsquos desire to be taken seriously than impetus for us to actually do so, and it is only a successor to Schindler&rsquos inasmuch as it marks yet another step away from the entertaining but unintellectual adventurism of his early career. In one of the more unlikely and wonderful transformations in film history, the boy wonder has turned himself into the great historical chronicler, taking American film on a guided tour of the past, and leaving no stone unturned in the process.


Things Have Changed: Steven Spielberg’s Amblin Will Make Movies for Netflix

The filmmaker has advocated for movies as theatrical experiences, but now his company has aligned with the streaming giant.

In the battle of theatrical vs. streaming, Steven Spielberg always came down firmly on the side that movies belong on big screens before large audiences, not exclusively at home on viewers’ televisions. The maker of E.T., Raiders of the Lost Ark, and Schindler’s List obviously carries immense weight when it comes to defining what counts as a movie—and what doesn’t. So, his remarks years ago sparked intense debate and disagreement, especially about whether streaming movies should be eligible for Oscars.

Today, there’s a surprising detente: Spielberg’s production company, Amblin Partners, announced a new deal to supply multiple “feature films” to Netflix each year.

“At Amblin, storytelling will forever be at the center of everything we do, and from the minute Ted and I started discussing a partnership, it was abundantly clear that we had an amazing opportunity to tell new stories together and reach audiences in new ways,” Spielberg said in a statement.

“Ted” would be Netflix co-CEO and chief content officer Ted Sarandos, who added: “Steven is a creative visionary and leader and, like so many others around the world, my growing up was shaped by his memorable characters and stories that have been enduring, inspiring and awakening. We cannot wait to get to work with the Amblin team and we are honored and thrilled to be part of this chapter of Steven’s cinematic history.”

Spielberg himself has not revealed plans to direct any of the Netflix movies, and he made it clear in the announcement that he still had a longstanding partnership with Universal Pictures to make theatrical releases. Still, a giant like Spielberg’s arrangement with Netflix feels like a landmark in the ever-present tension between movies and TV. Some might call it a capitulation, others merely a new alliance in a longtime battle for audiences. The filmmaker articulated that division himself in this 2018 interview with Britain’s ITV News, saying the debut of movies on streaming services are “a challenge to cinema, the same way television in the early 1950s pulled people away from movie theaters and everybody stayed home…”

“Hollywood’s used to that,” he added. “We are accustomed to being highly competitive with television.”

He even namechecked Netflix when talking about this subject, saying pointedly that smaller movies were losing ground at theaters, which he blamed on theatrical distributors focusing too much on spectacle and already well-known properties. “The difference today is a lot of studios would rather make tentpole, guaranteed-box-office hits from their inventory of branded successful movies than take chances on smaller films. Those smaller films, that studios used to make routinely, are now going to Amazon and Hulu and Netflix.”

Spielberg invoked his 2017 newspaper drama starring Tom Hanks and Meryl Streep as one such film: “I’ll still make The Post for audiences, asking them to please go to the movies and see The Post and not make it directly for Netflix.”

In the years since those comments, Spielberg’s contemporary and fellow champion of the theatrical experience, Martin Scorsese, has forged a productive partnership with Netflix, which released his 2019 gangland epic The Irishman, which collected 10 Oscar nominations, including best director and best picture. Meanwhile, Amblin has remained a powerhouse at the Academy Awards with films like 1917 and The Trial of the Chicago 7, as well as best picture winner Green Book.

But in that 2018 interview, Spielberg made himself clear: the Oscars should be for theatrical releases. “Once you commit to a television format, you’re a TV movie. Certainly, if you’re a good film, you deserve an Emmy. But not an Oscar,” he said. “I don’t believe that films that are just given token qualifications in a couple of theaters for less than a week should qualify for the Academy Award nomination.”

About a year later, Spielberg soften his position in an email to The New York Times, which his representatives told Vanity Fair represent his current feelings: “I want people to find their entertainment in any form or fashion that suits them. Big screen, small screen—what really matters to me is a great story and everyone should have access to great stories. However, I feel people need to have the opportunity to leave the safe and familiar of their lives and go to a place where they can sit in the company of others and have a shared experience—cry together, laugh together, be afraid together—so that when it’s over they might feel a little less like strangers. I want to see the survival of movie theaters. I want the theatrical experience to remain relevant in our culture.”


CASTING

There was never any doubt about Harrison Ford returning as the eponymous adventurer, but who would join him on his next adventure? A second outing for Karen Allen’s Marion Ravenwood was quickly ruled out, Lucas preferring to emulate the James Bond series and feature a different love interest in each film. So the search got underway for a replacement. One possibility, a serious actor from New York by the name of Kate Capshaw, was initially unsure.

Capshaw: “I was living in Hollywood, and one night, my boyfriend and his friend wanted to take my girlfriend and me to see Raiders of the Lost Ark. I told them that they should go and we would do something together while they were in the theater, but he was very persistent. I went, very petulant and sulky, and stayed that way for about two minutes after the movie started. When I came out, if there had been anyone doing interviews, I would have been a great advertisement for going to see that movie!”

Capshaw: “I got a phone call from my agent saying the sequel to Raiders of the Lost Ark was being cast and, ‘They would love to meet you’. But I was looking at foreign films and little art films, and being a very serious actor studying in Manhattan I was not interested in doing a sequel. I expressed that to my agency who, in hindsight, was very patent and tolerant of my judgement and arrogance. And so we set a time to meet Steven.”

Capshaw: “I think George and Steven had been looking for “the girl” — by the way, even while we made the movie they always referred to her as “the girl” — and the casting director suggested me because I had just come out to Los Angeles and there is always heat surrounding the new girl. At that time, I didn’t ‘do’ sequels. And I didn’t ‘do’ action adventure. For my screen test — with Steven, not Harrison — it was a scene between Willie and Indy where she’s really hungry. It’s difficult to find audition scenes when there’s so much action. You can’t just go in and yell.”

Spielberg: “I took her tape from that reading and I thought she was absolutely Willie. She wasn’t that character in real life but she had the energy for that girl. I remember taking the tape over to Harrison’s house that night and saying, ‘Look I’ve got about 20 girls on tape. But I only want to show you on.’ And I put Kate in, and he said, ‘She’s the one’.”

Spielberg: “I look back and I say, ‘Well, the greatest thing that I got out of that movie was I met Kate Capshaw. We were married years later that to me was the reason I was fated to make Temple of Doom.”

Capshaw wouldn’t be the only new face to join Indy on his descent into hell. Looking to add emotion to the story, Spielberg wanted a child sidekick, and after a brief search, he found the perfect boy to play orphan Short Round — Ke Huy Quan.

Kathleen Kennedy: “Ke actually didn’t show up to do the interview. He brought his brother. But the entire time that he was trying to tell his brother what to do, we kept looking at him — until we finally said, ‘Who is this kid?’ and we asked him to audition. We then ran to the phone, called Steven, and said, ‘We think we found him.”

Quan: “A few days later we got a call from Steven’s office, asking me to go meet him. My mom dressed me up in a three-piece suit. But when I walked in, Steven took a look at me and said, ‘We’d love for you to come back the next day, but when you do, be very casual. So I went back in jeans and a shirt, and I auditioned with Harrison. Steven told me what he wanted, what the scene was about, and then he just let me say whatever I wanted. After that, he told me I got the part.”

Quan: “I had never seen Star Wars or Raiders, never seen Jaws. So when I met Steven, Harrison and George, I didn’t know who they were. I guess it helped in a way.”

Casting was less straightforward for the film’s major Indian characters — Roshan Seth as the corrupt Indian Prime Minister Chattar Lal and Amrish Puri as the villainous cult leader Mola Ram. Securing Puri, who was shooting another 18 films when he was cast, proved particularly difficult.

Robert Watts (producer): “This was something I had never before come up against. The Indian film industry operates in a manner that would drive me stark raving mad. The actors work sometimes two or even three shifts a day, four-hour shift. And they may work on two or three different films they’ll be in one in the morning and another in the afternoon. In the end, we had four different visits from Amrish (one in Sri Lanka, three in London). He had to juggle around all his Indian commitments to do this movie. It wasn’t easy.”

Seth: wasn’t really able to deliver the role of Chattar Lal. What Spielberg wanted was an Oxford-educated Indian smoothie who was a crook. If I were to play it now, I would really know how to play that. I didn’t at that time.”

Ford was always going to return for Temple of Doom (though he took exception to Lucasfilm’s announcement that he would go on to appear in another four Indy adventures). The biggest conundrum was where to take the character in this second outing.

Ford: “They must be talking to Roger Moore then [about future Indiana Jones films]. I enjoy him [Indy] very much but it’s one at a time for me”

Ford: “Of course I’m doing the second Raiders film. With great pleasure. Steven Spielberg is going to direct it. So this is very exciting for me. It was one of the best working relationship experiences of my life working with Steven.”

Spielberg: “I wanted a kid in this movie. I wanted this mission to come from Indiana’s heart.”

Spielberg: “Indiana Jones is not just a gravedigger, as in Raiders, obsessed with the material object of his quest. In his one he saves lives. Many lives. Young lives.”

Ford: “There are very few character scenes in the film. George Lucas felt that was established in the first and really this is an all out action adventure film. It’s not a character drama.”

Frank Marshall (producer): “In the credits you’ll see: ‘Physical Conditioning for Mr. Ford by Body by Jake, Inc.’ That’s Jake Steinfeld, whom you may have seen in People magazine. He specializes in training entertainment personnel and worked with Harrison Ford before and during the movie, keeping him in shape. He was also working out Steven (Spielberg) every day. Jake used to double for the Incredible Hulk and every once in a while in Sri Lanka you’d hear this voice bellowing, ‘Okay! Drop and give me fifty, ONE-TWO-THREE-FOUR. ‘ Amazingly enough, there was an old YMCA in Kandy, so he and Harrison would go down there to work out two or three times a week. It was the most primitive weight room I’ve ever seen, with very old weights and ancient benches. Incredible.”

Ford: “I don’t know why they did that to me. I got three years older and the character got one year younger. So I’m four years older than the character. And I can feel the difference,”


Steven Spielberg Signs Massive Deal With Netflix

Steven Spielberg signs a massive deal with Netflix that will see Amblin Partners produce multiple films for the streaming service per year.

Steven Spielberg has signed a massive deal with Netflix through his Amblin Partners. Netflix has taken a number of recent steps to maintain its position as the top streaming service. With competitors like Hulu, HBO, and Disney+ chipping away at its status, the streamer is in great need of additional content and talent to fend them off.

Meanwhile, Spielberg is among the most recognizable names in Hollywood. Widely seen as one of the greatest directors in cinematic history, he's the brilliant mind behind timeless masterpieces such as Jaws, E.T., and Saving Private Ryan. Spielberg co-founded his entertainment company, Amblin Partners, in 2015 and quickly struck a partnership with Universal Pictures. Universal has distributed several very high profile Amblin films recently, including the Oscar-winning Green Book and 1917. Amblin's search for growth and audiences has led it to another significant partnership.

As reported by Deadline, Spielberg has signed a deal with Netflix. Amblin Partners will produce multiple films per year for the streamer, while continuing to do the same for Universal. In a statement, Netflix's co-CEO and chief content officer Ted Sarandos called Spielberg a "creative visionary and leader," while also saying the streamer is "honored and thrilled to be part of this chapter of Steven’s cinematic history.” Check out Spielberg's statement on the deal below:

At Amblin, storytelling will forever be at the center of everything we do, and from the minute Ted and I started discussing a partnership, it was abundantly clear that we had an amazing opportunity to tell new stories together and reach audiences in new ways. This new avenue for our films, alongside the stories we continue to tell with our longtime family at Universal and our other partners, will be incredibly fulfilling for me personally since we get to embark on it together with Ted, and I can’t wait to get started with him, Scott [Stuber, Netflix’s Head of Global Film], and the entire Netflix team.

The announcement comes as a surprise to some, considering Spielberg made comments two years ago that were critical of streaming services. However, Deadline notes that "his camp maintains he never said it or anything he might have said was severely taken out of context." It's worth noting that Netflix and Amblin have worked together in the past on projects including The Trial of the Chicago 7, so the director has already shown he has no problem collaborating with the streamer.

The announcement displays Netflix's dedication to growth and improvement. Streaming has always been a competitive field, but with the recent pandemic, the intensity of the competition has skyrocketed. In an effort to compete with Disney+'s plan to release 100 new titles per year, Netflix has been debuting one film per week. The streamer's partnership with Amblin showcases its intent to deliver more content per year and to produce very high quality films. Netflix is particularly in need of a boost after suffering losses with the cancellation of multiple shows including Jupiter's Legacy, Dad Stop Embarrassing Me!, and The Irregulars. None of these shows were cheap to make and illustrate a need for Netflix to step up the quality of its content. With a visionary like Spielberg at its side, Netflix is promising viewers some top notch films in the future.


Steven Spielberg

Steven Spielberg (b. 1946) is a film director of iconic status. Many of his films have been international box office champions, and have entered our pop culture lexicon. These include Jaws, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Hook, the Indiana Jones movies, and Jurassic Park.

In 1990, he appeared in The Muppets Celebrate Jim Henson, presenting a special segment on Jim Henson's work in the fantasy genre of filmmaking.

In the 2007 TCM documentary Spielberg on Spielberg, the filmmaker discussed what inspired him to make Schindler's List. He recalls his grandmother teaching English to Nazi concentration camp survivors, one of whom would entertain the 3-year-old Spielberg with a trick involving the numbers printed on his arm. He cites this as sticking out in his memory for a time in his life when he was learning his letters and numbers, since in those days, there was no Sesame Street.


Steven Spielberg

    Quotes
  • ( Heartwarming Trivia
  • WMG File:Spielberg 4933.jpg

Before you were born, his name had to be attached to the project.

Every so often someone emerges in a field and manages to not only revolutionize it, but do so several times. Steven Spielberg is one of those people, with a career that has gone uninterrupted since the mid-70's and is one of the most influential powers in Hollywood.

Playing with his video camera as a kid, he enrolled in a community college with a small film program and used those connections to get work until he got his big break, a low-budget, cult hit TV film Duel. Duel was an expertly made action thriller that got him a lot of attention, enough to be brought on as the director for the film that would launch him into the stratosphere, Jaws, the first summer blockbuster (Not so big as Star Wars, but big enough and one of the most critically acclaimed films of all time to this day).

With basically a blank check, he followed this with benign Alien Invasion Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the 30's serial throwback Raiders of the Lost Ark (the first of the Indiana Jones films he directed all the sequels as well) and the family favourite ET the Extraterrestrial, which became the highest grossing film of all time in its day.

In 1985, he branched into directing The Color Purple, which was nominated for several Oscars and his first ultra-serious drama it would not be his last.

He is also known for being a collaborator with other very popular films including Poltergeist and The Goonies (a team effort with Richard Donner and Chris Columbus). Even today he is found working in a lot of the megablockbusters like Transformers.

Steven is a long time friend of George Lucas, ever since they met at a film festival when both were in college (Spielberg said he was insanely jealous of Lucas' student film that eventually became THX 1138). While their only official collaborations are Indiana Jones, they frequently spend time together and discuss each others projects. Spielberg is also a frequent collaborator with Stan Winston, the puppeteer and makeup virtuoso who brought the dinosaurs of Jurassic Park and the robots of A.I.: Artificial Intelligence marvelously to life.

In 1994, he was a co-founder of the studio DreamWorks SKG. He still runs Amblin Productions. Now works on a live-action Ghost in the Shell adaption, a work he has said he is fond of.

Spielberg went on to make Hook in 1991, and Jurassic Park in 1993 became another one of the most popular films in history, revolutionizing the use of CG animation in film. Schindler's List in the same year won the Best Picture Oscar and is treasured all over the world to this day, Saving Private Ryan won a handful more and the controversial A.I.: Artificial Intelligence saw him taking over the directoral reins from Stanley Kubrick, who died in mid-production. Catch Me If You Can saw him reteaming with Tom Hanks from Saving Private Ryan, and became another acclaimed hit.

Spielberg has also done television work, as well. He directed an episode of Rod Serling's Night Gallery, and has produced television shows such as Amazing Stories, Sea Quest DSV, ER, and United States of Tara.

He's also delved into animation as well. He collaborated with Don Bluth in the 1980's to produce box office successes like An American Tail and The Land Before Time, also starting his own animation studio, Amblimation, which would go on to produce the somewhat less successful We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story, An American Tail: Fievel Goes West, and Balto. He is also known as the executive producer for (and mistakenly believed to have created, thanks to In Case You Forgot Who Wrote It) Warner Bros Silver Age cartoons Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs, Freakazoid, Pinky and The Brain, and Pinky Elmyra and The Brain. --


Personal life

Marriages and children

Spielberg met actress Amy Irving in 1976 at the suggestion of director Brian De Palma, who knew he was looking for an actress to play in Close Encounters. After meeting her, Spielberg told his co-producer Julia Phillips, "I met a real heartbreaker last night." Although she was too young for the role, she and Spielberg began dating and she eventually moved into what she described as his "bachelor funky" house. They lived together for four years, but the stresses of their professional careers took a toll on their relationship. Irving wanted to be certain that whatever success she attained as an actress would be her own: "I don't want to be known as Steven's girlfriend," she said, and chose not to be in any of his films during those years. As a result, they broke up in 1979, but remained close friends. Then in 1984 they renewed their romance, and in November 1985 they married, after the birth of their son, Max Samuel. But after 3 1/2 years of marriage, many of the same competing stresses of their careers caused them to divorce in 1989. They agreed to maintain homes near each other to facilitate the shared custody and parenting of their son. Their divorce was recorded as the third most costly celebrity divorce in history.

Spielberg subsequently developed a relationship with actress Kate Capshaw, whom he met when he cast her in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. They married on October 12, 1991. Capshaw is a convert to Judaism. They currently move among their four homes in Pacific Palisades, California Quelle Farm, Georgica Pond in East Hampton, New York New York City and Naples, Florida.

There are seven children in the Spielberg-Capshaw family:

    (born August 9, 1976) – daughter from Kate Capshaw's previous marriage to Robert Capshaw
  • Max Samuel Spielberg (born June 13, 1985) – son from Spielberg's previous marriage to actress Amy Irving
  • Theo Spielberg (born August 21, 1988) – son adopted by Capshaw before her marriage to Spielberg, who later also adopted him (born May 14, 1990, Los Angeles)
  • Sawyer Avery Spielberg (born March 10, 1992, Los Angeles)
  • Mikaela George (born February 28, 1996) – adopted with Kate Capshaw
  • Destry Allyn Spielberg (born December 1, 1996)

Religion

Spielberg grew up in a Jewish household and had a bar mitzvah ceremony in Phoenix when he turned 13. He grew away from Judaism during his high-school years, after his family moved to various cities and found themselves the only Jews in their new neighborhoods. Before those years, his family was involved in the synagogue and had many Jewish friends and nearby relatives.

He remembers his grandparents telling him about their life in Russia, where they were subjected to religious persecution, causing them to eventually flee to the United States. He was made aware of the Holocaust by his parents, who he says "talked about it all the time, and so it was always on my mind." His father had lost between sixteen and twenty relatives during the Holocaust.

Spielberg "rediscovered the honor of being a Jew," he says, before he made Schindler's List, when he married Kate Capshaw. Until then, having become a filmmaker, he only felt his connection to Judaism when he visited his parents. He says he made the film partly to create "something that would confirm my Judaism to my family and myself."

Kate is Protestant and she insisted on converting to Judaism. She spent a year studying, did the "mikveh" the whole thing. She chose to do a full conversion before we were married in 1991, and she married me after becoming a Jew. I think that, more than anything else, brought me back to Judaism.

He credits her with fueling his family's current level of observance and for keeping the "momentum flowing" in their lives, as they now observe Jewish holidays, light candles on Friday nights, and give their children Bar and Bat Mitzvahs. "This shiksa goddess has made me a better Jew than my own parents."

Producing Schindler's List in 1993 also renewed his faith, Spielberg says, but "it really was the fact that my wife took a profound interest in Judaism." He waited ten years after being given the story in 1982 to make the film, as he did not yet feel "mature" enough. He first wanted to have a family, "to figure out what my place was in the world. . When my first son, [Max] was born, it greatly affected me. . A spirit began to ignite in me, and I became a Jewish dad. "

He said that making the film became a "natural experience" for him, adding, "I had to tell the story. I've lived on its outer edges." The film, writes biographer Joseph McBride, thereby became the "culmination" of Spielberg's long personal struggle with his Jewish identity. Some claim the film has made Spielberg "the one true heir to the great Jewish moguls who created Hollywood," most of whom had actively avoided depicting Jews or the Holocaust in their films.

Wealth

Forbes magazine places Spielberg's personal net worth at $3.7 billion. It was revealed in 2009 during the Madoff Ponzi scheme investigation that Spielberg and Capshaw were among the investors defrauded by Bernie Madoff.

Yachting

In 2013, Spielberg purchased the 282-foot (86 m) mega-yacht Seven Seas for US$182 million. He has since put it up for sale and in the meantime has made it available for charter. At US$1.2 million per month, it is one of the most expensive charters on the market. He has ordered a new 300-foot (91 m) yacht costing a reported US$250 million.

Recognition

In 2002, Spielberg was one of eight flag bearers who carried the Olympic Flag into Rice-Eccles Stadium at the Opening Ceremonies of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City. In 2006, Premiere listed him as the most powerful and influential figure in the motion picture industry. Time listed him as one of the 100 Most Important People of the Century. At the end of the 20th century, Life named him the most influential person of his generation. In 2009, Boston University presented him an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree.

According to Forbes' Most Influential Celebrities 2014 list, Spielberg was listed as the most influential celebrity in America. The annual list is conducted by E-Poll Market Research and it gave more than 6,600 celebrities on 46 different personality attributes a score representing "how that person is perceived as influencing the public, their peers, or both." Spielberg received a score of 47, meaning 47% of the US believes he is influential. Gerry Philpott, president of E-Poll Market Research, supported Spielberg's score by stating, "If anyone doubts that Steven Spielberg has greatly influenced the public, think about how many will think for a second before going into the water this summer."

Politics

Spielberg has usually supported U.S. Democratic Party candidates. He has donated over $800,000 to the Democratic party and its nominees. He has been a close friend of former President Bill Clinton and worked with the President for the USA Millennium celebrations. He directed an 18-minute film for the project, scored by John Williams and entitled The American Journey. It was shown at America's Millennium Gala on December 31, 1999, in the National Mall at the Reflecting Pool at the base of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen escorts Spielberg through a military honor cordon into the Pentagon.

Spielberg resigned as a member of the national advisory board of the Boy Scouts of America in 2001 because of his disapproval of the organization's anti-homosexuality stance. In 2007, the Arab League voted to boycott Spielberg's movies after he donated $1 million for relief efforts in Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War. On February 20, 2007, Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg, and David Geffen invited Democrats to a fundraiser for Barack Obama. In February 2008, Spielberg pulled out of his role as advisor to the 2008 Summer Olympics in response to the Chinese government's inaction over the War in Darfur. Spielberg said in a statement that "I find that my conscience will not allow me to continue business as usual." It also said that "Sudan's government bears the bulk of the responsibility for these on-going crimes, but the international community, and particularly China, should be doing more.." The International Olympic Committee respected Spielberg's decision, but IOC president Jacques Rogge admitted in an interview that "[Spielberg] certainly would have brought a lot to the opening ceremony in terms of creativity." Spielberg's statement drew criticism from Chinese officials and state-run media calling his criticism "unfair". In September 2008, Spielberg and his wife offered their support to same-sex marriage by issuing a statement following their donation of $100,000 to the "No on Proposition 8" campaign fund, a figure equal to the amount of money Brad Pitt donated to the same campaign less than a week prior.

Spielberg supported Hillary Clinton for President of the United States in the 2016 election. He donated US$1 million to Priorities USA, a pro-Clinton Super PAC.

In 2018, Spielberg and his wife Kate Capshaw donated $500,000 to the March for Our Lives student demonstration in favor of gun control in the United States.

Hobbies

A collector of film memorabilia, Spielberg purchased a balsa Rosebud sled from Citizen Kane (1941) in 1982. He bought Orson Welles's own directorial copy of the script for the radio broadcast The War of the Worlds (1938) in 1994. Spielberg has purchased Academy Award statuettes being sold on the open market and donated them to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, to prevent their further commercial exploitation. His donations include the Oscars that Bette Davis received for Dangerous (1935) and Jezebel (1938), and Clark Gable's Oscar for It Happened One Night (1934).

Spielberg is a major collector of the work of American illustrator and painter Norman Rockwell. A collection of 57 Rockwell paintings and drawings owned by Spielberg and fellow Rockwell collector and film director George Lucas were displayed at the Smithsonian American Art Museum July 2, 2010 – January 2, 2011, in an exhibition titled Telling Stories.

Spielberg is an avid film buff and, when not shooting a picture, he will watch many films in a single weekend. He sees almost every major summer blockbuster in theaters if not preoccupied and enjoys most of them.

Since playing Pong while filming Jaws in 1974, Spielberg has been an avid video gamer. Spielberg played many of LucasArts adventure games, including the first Monkey Island games. He owns a Wii, a PlayStation 3, a PSP, and an Xbox 360, and enjoys playing first-person shooters such as the Medal of Honor series and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. He has also criticized the use of cutscenes in games, calling them intrusive, and feels making story flow naturally into the gameplay is a challenge for future game developers.

Stalking

In 2001, Spielberg was stalked by conspiracy theorist and former social worker Diana Napolis. She accused him, along with actress Jennifer Love Hewitt, of controlling her thoughts through "cybertronic" technology and being part of a satanic conspiracy against her. Napolis was committed to a mental institution before pleading guilty to stalking, and released on probation with a condition that she have no contact with either Spielberg or Hewitt.

Jonathan Norman was arrested after making two attempts to enter Spielberg's Pacific Palisades home in June and July 1997. Norman was jailed for 25 years in California. Spielberg told the court: "Had Jonathan Norman actually confronted me, I genuinely, in my heart of hearts, believe that I would have been raped or killed."


Contents

Early Life

Spielberg was born on December 18, 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio. [9][10]  His mother, Leah (née Posner, later Adler January 12, 1920 – February 21, 2017), [11]  was a restaurateur and concert pianist, and his father, Arnold Spielberg (born 1917), was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. [12]  His family was Orthodox Jewish. [13][14][15]  Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian [16][17]  immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s his grandmother was from Sudylkiv, while his grandfather was from Kamianets-Podilskyi. [18][19]  In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years later, the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. [20][21]:548  Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 to 1957, in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis. [22]

As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, eight, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never really ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." [23][24] Spielberg also said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses. It was horrible." [25][26][27]  At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. [28]  Throughout his early teens, and after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. [29]

In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badgeby making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. [30]  Years later, Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera. He said yes, and I got an idea to do a Western. I made it and got my merit badge. That was how it all started." [31]  At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere. using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films. [21]:548  In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would later inspire Close Encounters. The film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, and was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. [32]

After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, California, where he later graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965. He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, [33]  and soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying initially with his father. His long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average. [21]:548  He then applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. [34]

While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department. [35][36]  He was later given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, and offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract. It made him the youngest director ever to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio. [21]:548  He subsequently dropped out of college to begin professionally directing TV productions with Universal. [37][38] Spielberg later returned to California State University, Long Beach and completed his BA degree in Film and Electronic Arts in 2002. [39]

Career

1970s

His first professional TV job came when he was hired to direct one of the segments for the 1969 pilot episode of Night Gallery, written by Rod Serling and starring Joan Crawford. [40] Crawford, however, was "speechless, and then horrified" at the thought of a twenty-one-year-old newcomer directing her, one of Hollywood's leading stars. "Why was this happening to me?" she asked the producer. [41]  Her attitude changed after they began working on her scenes:

When I began to work with Steven, I understood everything. It was immediately obvious to me, and probably everyone else, that here was a young genius. I thought maybe more experience was important, but then I thought of all of those experienced directors who didn't have Steven's intuitive inspiration and who just kept repeating the same old routine performances. That was called "experience." I knew then that Steven Spielberg had a brilliant future ahead of him. Hollywood doesn't always recognize talent, but Steven's was not going to be overlooked. I told him so in a note I wrote him. I wrote to Rod Serling, too. I was so grateful that he had approved Steven as the director. I told him he had been totally right. [41]

She and Spielberg were reportedly close friends until her death. The episode is unusual in his body of work, in that the camerawork is more highly stylized than his later, more "mature" films. After this, and an episode of Marcus Welby, M.D., Spielberg got his first feature-length assignment: an episode of The Name of the Game called "L.A. 2017". This futuristic science fiction episode impressed Universal Studios and they signed him to a short contract. He did another segment on Night Gallery and did some work for shows such as Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law and The Psychiatrist, before landing the first series episode of Columbo (previous episodes were actually TV films).

Based on the strength of his work, Universal signed Spielberg to do four TV films. The first was a Richard Matheson adaptation called Duel. The film is about a psychotic Peterbilt 281tanker truck driver who chases the terrified driver (Dennis Weaver) of a small Plymouth Valiant and tries to run him off the road. Special praise of this film by the influential British critic Dilys Powell was highly significant to Spielberg's career. Another TV film (Something Evil) was made and released to capitalize on the popularity of The Exorcist, then a major best-selling book which had not yet been released as a film. He fulfilled his contract by directing the TV film-length pilot of a show called Savage, starring Martin Landau. Spielberg's debut full-length feature film was The Sugarland Express, about a married couple who are chased by police as the couple tries to regain custody of their baby. Spielberg's cinematography for the police chase was praised by reviewers, and The Hollywood Reporter stated that "a major new director is on the horizon." [9]:223  However, the film fared poorly at the box office and received a limited release.

Studio producers Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown offered Spielberg the director's chair for Jaws, a thriller-horror film based on the Peter Benchley novel about an enormous killer shark. Spielberg has often referred to the gruelling shoot as his professional crucible. Despite the film's ultimate, enormous success, it was nearly shut down due to delays and budget over-runs. But Spielberg persevered and finished the film. It was an enormous hit, winning three Academy Awards (for editing, original score and sound) and grossing more than $470 million worldwide at the box office. It also set the domestic record for box office gross, leading to what the press described as "Jawsmania." [9]:248  Jaws made Spielberg a household name and one of America's youngest multi-millionaires, allowing him a great deal of autonomy for his future projects. [9]:250  It was nominated for Best Picture and featured Spielberg's first of three collaborations with actor Richard Dreyfuss.

Rejecting offers to direct Jaws 2, [42]  King Kongand Superman, Spielberg and actor Richard Dreyfuss re-convened to work on a film about UFOs, which became Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977). One of the rare films both written and directed by Spielberg, Close Encounters was a critical and box office hit, giving Spielberg his first Best Director nomination from the Academy as well as earning six other Academy Awardsnominations. It won Oscars in two categories (Cinematography, Vilmos Zsigmond, and a Special Achievement Award for Sound Effects Editing, Frank E. Warner). This second blockbuster helped to secure Spielberg's rise. His next film,�, a big-budgeted World War II farce, was not nearly as successful and though it grossed over $92.4 million worldwide (and did make a small profit for co-producing studios Columbia and Universal) it was seen as a disappointment, mainly with the critics. [43]

Spielberg then revisited his Close Encountersproject and, with financial backing from Columbia Pictures, released Close Encounters: The Special Edition in 1980. For this, Spielberg fixed some of the flaws he thought impeded the original 1977 version of the film and also, at the behest of Columbia, and as a condition of Spielberg revising the film, shot additional footage showing the audience the interior of the mothership seen at the end of the film (a decision Spielberg would later regret as he felt the interior of the mothership should have remained a mystery). Nevertheless, the re-release was a moderate success, while the 2001 DVD release of the film restored the original ending.

1980s

Next, Spielberg teamed with Star Wars creator and friend George Lucas on an action adventure film, Raiders of the Lost Ark, the first of the Indiana Jones films. The archaeologist and adventurer hero Indiana Jones was played by Harrison Ford (whom Lucas had previously cast in his Star Wars films as Han Solo). The film was considered an homage to the cliffhanger serials of the Golden Age of Hollywood. It became the biggest film at the box office in 1981, and the recipient of numerous Oscar nominations including Best Director (Spielberg's second nomination) and Best Picture (the second Spielberg film to be nominated for Best Picture). Raiders is still considered a landmark example of the action-adventure genre. The film also led to Ford's casting in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner. [44]

A year later, Spielberg returned to the science fiction genre with E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. It was the story of a young boy and the alien he befriends, who was accidentally left behind by his companions and is attempting to return home. E.T. went on to become the top-grossing film of all time. It was also nominated for nine Academy Awards including Best Picture and Best Director and it won 4 out of them. [45] Between 1982 and 1985, Spielberg produced three high-grossing films: Poltergeist (for which he also co-wrote the screenplay), a big-screen adaptation of The Twilight Zone (for which he directed the segment "Kick The Can"), [46]  and The Goonies (Spielberg, executive producer, also wrote the story on which the screenplay was based). [47]  Spielberg appeared in a cameo on Cyndi Lauper's music video for the movie's theme song, "The Goonies 'R' Good Enough". [48]

Steven Spielberg and Chandran Rutnam on a location in Sri Lanka during the filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.

His next directorial feature was the Raidersprequel Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. Teaming up once again with Lucas and Ford, the film was plagued with uncertainty for the material and script. This film and the Spielberg-produced Gremlins led to the creation of the PG-13 rating due to the high level of violence in films targeted at younger audiences. In spite of this, Temple of Doom is rated PG by the MPAA, even though it is the darkest and, possibly, most violent Indy film. Nonetheless, the film was still a huge blockbuster hit in 1984. It was on this project that Spielberg also met his future wife, actress Kate Capshaw. [49]

In 1985, Spielberg released The Color Purple,an adaptation of Alice Walker's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name, about a generation of empowered African-American women during depression-era America. Starring Whoopi Goldberg and future talk-show superstar Oprah Winfrey, the film was a box office smash and critics hailed Spielberg's successful foray into the dramatic genre. Roger Ebert proclaimed it the best film of the year and later entered it into his Great Films archive. The film received eleven Academy Awardnominations, including two for Goldberg and Winfrey. However, Spielberg did not get a Best Director nomination.

In 1987, as China began opening to Western capital investment, Spielberg shot the first American film in Shanghai since the 1930s, an adaptation of J. G. Ballard's autobiographical novel Empire of the Sun, starring John Malkovich and a young Christian Bale. The film garnered much praise from critics and was nominated for several Oscars, but did not yield substantial box office revenues. Reviewer Andrew Sarris called it the best film of the year and later included it among the best films of the decade. [50]  Spielberg was also a co-producer of the 1987 film *batteries not included.

After two forays into more serious dramatic films, Spielberg then directed the third Indiana Jones film, 1989's Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Once again teaming up with Lucas and Ford, Spielberg also cast actor Sean Connery in a supporting role as Indy's father. The film earned generally positive reviews and was another box office success, becoming the highest-grossing film worldwide that year its total box office receipts even topped those of Tim Burton's much-anticipated film Batman, which had been the bigger hit domestically. Also in 1989, he re-united with actor Richard Dreyfuss for the romantic comedy-drama Always, about a daredevil pilot who extinguishes forest fires. Spielberg's first romantic film, Always was only a moderate success and had mixed reviews.

1990s

In 1991, Spielberg directed Hook, about a middle-aged Peter Pan, played by Robin Williams, who returns to Neverland. Despite innumerable rewrites and creative changes coupled with mixed reviews, the film proved popular with audiences, making over $300 million worldwide (from a $70 million budget).

In 1993, Spielberg returned to the adventure genre with the film version of Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, about a theme park with genetically engineered dinosaurs. With revolutionary special effects provided by friend George Lucas's Industrial Light & Magiccompany, the film would eventually become the highest-grossing film of all time (at the worldwide box office) with $914.7 million. This would be the third time that one of Spielberg's films became the highest-grossing film ever.

Spielberg's next film, Schindler's List, was based on the true story of Oskar Schindler, a man who risked his life to save 1,100 Jews from the Holocaust. [51]  Schindler's List earned Spielberg his first Academy Award for Best Director (it also won Best Picture). With the film a huge success at the box office, Spielberg used the profits to set up the Shoah Foundation, a non-profit organization that archives filmed testimony of Holocaust survivors. In 1997, the American Film Institutelisted it among the 10 Greatest American Films ever Made (#9) which moved up to (#8) when the list was remade in 2007.

In 1994, Spielberg took a hiatus from directing to spend more time with his family and build his new studio, DreamWorks, [52]  with partners Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen. In 1996, he directed the sequel to 1993's Jurassic Parkwith The Lost World: Jurassic Park, which generated over $618 million worldwide despite mixed reviews, and was the second biggest film of 1997 behind James Cameron's Titanic(which topped the original Jurassic Park to become the new recordholder for box of

His next film, Amistad, was based on a true story (like Schindler's List), specifically about an African slave rebellion. Despite decent reviews from critics, it did not do well at the box office. Spielberg released Amistad under DreamWorks Pictures, [53]  which has produced all of his films from Amistad onwards with the exception of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, The Adventures of Tintin and Ready Player One. [54]

His 1998 theatrical release was the World War II film Saving Private Ryan, about a group of U.S. soldiers led by Capt. Miller (Tom Hanks) sent to bring home a paratrooper whose three older brothers were killed in the same twenty-four hours, June 5–6, of the Normandy landing. The film was a huge box office success, grossing over $481 million worldwide and was the biggest film of the year at the North American box office (worldwide it made second place after Michael Bay's Armageddon). Spielberg won his second Academy Award for his direction. The film's graphic, realistic depiction of combat violence influenced later war films such as Black Hawk Down and Enemy at the Gates. The film was also the first major hit for DreamWorks, which co-produced the film with Paramount Pictures (as such, it was Spielberg's first release from the latter that was not part of the Indiana Jones series). Later, Spielberg and Tom Hanks produced a TV mini-series based on Stephen Ambrose's book Band of Brothers. The ten-part HBO mini-series follows Easy Company of the𧅥st Airborne Division's 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The series won a number of awards at the Golden Globes and the Emmys.

2000s

In 2001, Spielberg filmed fellow director and friend Stanley Kubrick's final project, A.I. Artificial Intelligence which Kubrick was unable to begin during his lifetime. A futuristic film about a humanoid android longing for love, A.I.featured groundbreaking visual effects and a multi-layered, allegorical storyline, adapted by Spielberg himself. Though the film's reception in the US was relatively muted, it performed better overseas for a worldwide total box office gross of $236 million.

Spielberg and actor Tom Cruise collaborated for the first time for the futuristic neo-noir Minority Report, based upon the science fiction short story written by Philip K. Dick about a Washington D.C. police captain in the year 2054 who has been foreseen to murder a man he has not yet met. The film received strong reviews with the review tallying website Rotten Tomatoes giving it a 92% approval rating, reporting that 206 out of the 225 reviews they tallied were positive. [55]  The film earned over $358 million worldwide. Roger Ebert, who named it the best film of 2002, praised its breathtaking vision of the future as well as for the way Spielberg blended CGI with live-action. [56]

Spielberg's 2002 film Catch Me If You Can is about the daring adventures of a youthful con artist (played by Leonardo DiCaprio). It earned Christopher Walken an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor. The film is known for John Williams's score and its unique title sequence. It was a hit both commercially [57]  and critically. [58]

Spielberg collaborated again with Tom Hanks along with Catherine Zeta-Jones and Stanley Tucci in 2004's The Terminal, a warm-hearted comedy about a man of Eastern European descent who is stranded in an airport. It received mixed reviews but performed relatively well at the box office. In 2005, Empire magazine ranked Spielberg number one on a list of the greatest film directors of all time.

Also in 2005, Spielberg directed a modern adaptation of War of the Worlds (a co-production of Paramount and DreamWorks), based on the H. G. Wells book of the same name (Spielberg had been a huge fan of the book and the original 1953 film). It starred Tom Cruise and Dakota Fanning, and, as with past Spielberg films, Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) provided the visual effects. Unlike E.T. and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which depicted friendly alien visitors, War of the Worlds featured violent invaders. The film was another huge box office smash, grossing over $591 million worldwide.

Spielberg's film Munich, about the events following the 1972 Munich Massacre of Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games, was his second film essaying Jewish relations in the world (the first being Schindler's List). The film is based on Vengeance, a book by Canadian journalist George Jonas. It was previously adapted into the 1986 made-for-TV film Sword of Gideon. The film received strong critical praise, but underperformed at the U.S. and world box-office it remains one of Spielberg's most controversial films to date. [59]  Munich received five Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture, Film Editing, Original Music Score (by John Williams), Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Director for Spielberg. It was Spielberg's sixth Best Director nomination and fifth Best Picture nomination.

In June 2006, Steven Spielberg announced he would direct a scientifically accurate film about "a group of explorers who travel through a worm hole and into another dimension", [60]  from a treatment by Kip Thorne and producer Lynda Obst. [61]  In January 2007, screenwriter Jonathan Nolan met with them to discuss adapting Obst and Thorne's treatment into a narrative screenplay. The screenwriter suggested the addition of a "time element" to the treatment's basic idea, which was welcomed by Obst and Thorne. [61]  In March of that year, Paramount hired Nolan, as well as scientists from Caltech, forming a workshop to adapt the treatment under the title Interstellar. [62]  The following July, Kip Thorne said there was a push by people for him to portray himself in the film. [63]  Spielberg later abandoned Interstellar, which was eventually directed by Christopher Nolan. [64]

Spielberg directed Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, which wrapped filming in October 2007 and was released on May 22, 2008. [65][66]  This was his first film not to be released by DreamWorks since 1997. The film received generally positive reviews from critics, [67]  and was financially successful, grossing $786 million worldwide.

Spielberg's film Munich, about the events following the 1972 Munich Massacre of Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games, was his second film essaying Jewish relations in the world (the first being Schindler's List). The film is based on Vengeance, a book by Canadian journalist George Jonas. It was previously adapted into the 1986 made-for-TV film Sword of Gideon. The film received strong critical praise, but underperformed at the U.S. and world box-office it remains one of Spielberg's most controversial films to date. [59]  Munich received five Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture, Film Editing, Original Music Score (by John Williams), Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Director for Spielberg. It was Spielberg's sixth Best Director nomination and fifth Best Picture nomination.

In June 2006, Steven Spielberg announced he would direct a scientifically accurate film about "a group of explorers who travel through a worm hole and into another dimension", [60]  from a treatment by Kip Thorne and producer Lynda Obst. [61]  In January 2007, screenwriter Jonathan Nolan met with them to discuss adapting Obst and Thorne's treatment into a narrative screenplay. The screenwriter suggested the addition of a "time element" to the treatment's basic idea, which was welcomed by Obst and Thorne. [61]  In March of that year, Paramount hired Nolan, as well as scientists from Caltech, forming a workshop to adapt the treatment under the title Interstellar. [62]  The following July, Kip Thorne said there was a push by people for him to portray himself in the film. [63]  Spielberg later abandoned Interstellar, which was eventually directed by Christopher Nolan. [64]

Spielberg directed Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, which wrapped filming in October 2007 and was released on May 22, 2008. [65][66]  This was his first film not to be released by DreamWorks since 1997. The film received generally positive reviews from critics, [67]  and was financially successful, grossing $786 million worldwide.

2010s

In early 2009, Spielberg shot the first film in a planned trilogy of motion capture films based on The Adventures of Tintin, written by Belgian artist Hergé, [68]  with Peter Jackson. The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn, was not released until October 2011, due to the complexity of the computer animation involved. The world premiere took place on October 22, 2011 in Brussels, Belgium. [69]  The film was released in North American theaters on December 21, 2011, in Digital 3D and IMAX. [70] It received generally positive reviews from critics, [71]  and grossed over $373 million worldwide. [72]  The Adventures of Tintin won the award for Best Animated Feature Film at the Golden Globe Awards that year. [73]  It is the first non-Pixar film to win the award since the category was first introduced. [74][75]  Jackson has been announced to direct the second film. [76]

Spielberg followed with War Horse, shot in England in the summer of 2010. [77]  It was released just four days after The Adventures of Tintin, on December 25, 2011. The film, based on the novel of the same name written by Michael Morpurgo and published in 1982, follows the long friendship between a British boy and his horse Joey before and during World War I – the novel was also adapted into a hit play in London which is still running there, as well as on Broadway. Distributed by Walt Disney Studios, with whom DreamWorks made a distribution deal in 2009, War Horse was the first of four consecutive Spielberg films released by Disney. War Horse received generally positive reviews from critics, [78]  and was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture. [79]

Spielberg next directed the historical drama filmLincoln, starring Daniel Day-Lewis as United States President Abraham Lincoln and Sally Field as Mary Todd Lincoln. [80]  Based on Doris Kearns Goodwin's bestseller Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, the film covered the final four months of Lincoln's life. Written by Tony Kushner, the film was shot in Richmond, Virginia, in late 2011, [81]  and was released in the United States in November 2012. [82][83]  Upon release, Lincoln received widespread critical acclaim, [84]  and was nominated for twelve Academy Awards (the most of any film that year) including Best Picture and Best Director for Spielberg. [85]  It won the award for Best Production Design and Day-Lewis won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Lincoln, becoming the first three-time winner in that category as well as the first to win for a performance directed by Spielberg.

It was announced on May 2, 2013, that Spielberg would direct the film about the story of U.S. sniper Chris Kyle, titled American Sniper. [86]  However, on August 5, 2013, it was announced that Spielberg had decided not to direct the film, which was instead directed by Clint Eastwood. [87]

Spielberg promoting Ready Player One (2018) in Japan.

Spielberg directed 2015's Bridge of Spies, a Cold War thriller based on the� U-2 incident, and focusing on James B. Donovan's negotiations with the Soviets for the release of pilot Gary Powers after his aircraft was shot down over Soviet territory. The film starred Tom Hanks as Donovan, as well as Mark Rylance, Amy Ryan, and Alan Alda, with a script by the Coen brothers. [88]  The film was shot from September to December 2014 on location in New York City, Berlin and Wroclaw, Poland (which doubled for East Berlin), and was released on October 16, 2015. [89][90]  Bridge of Spies received positive reviews from critics, and was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture Rylance won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, becoming the second actor to win for a performance directed by Spielberg.

Spielberg's The BFG is an adaptation of Roald Dahl's celebrated children's story, starring newcomer Ruby Barnhill, and Rylance as the titular Big Friendly Giant. DreamWorks bought the rights in 2010, originally intending John Madden to direct. [91]  The film was the last to be written by E.T. screenwriter Melissa Mathisonbefore she died. It was co-produced and released by Walt Disney Pictures, marking the first Disney-branded film to be directed by Spielberg. The BFG premiered out of competition at the Cannes Film Festival [92]  on May 14, 2016 [93]  and received a wide release in the US on July 1, 2016. [88]

Spielberg directed Tom Hanks and Meryl Streepin The Post, an account of The Washington Post's printing of the Pentagon Papers. [94] Production began in New York on May 30, 2017. [95]  The film began a limited release on December 22, 2017, with a wide release following on January 12, 2018. [96]

Spielberg directed the film adaptation of the popular sci-fi novel Ready Player One, by Ernest Cline. The film stars Tye Sheridan, [97] Olivia Cooke, [98]  Ben Mendelsohn, Simon Peggand Mark Rylance. [99]  It began production in London in July 2016, [100]  a year before The Post, which was filmed, edited and released during the lengthy, effects-heavy post-production period for Ready Player One. Ready Player One was originally slated to be released on December 15, 2017 [101]  by Warner Bros., [102] but was pushed back to March 29, 2018, to avoid competition with Star Wars: The Last Jedi. [103]  It had its world premiere at the South by Southwest film festival, on March 11, 2018. [104]

Upcoming projects

During an interview with The Tech in 2015, Spielberg described how he chooses the film projects he would work on:

[Sometimes], a story speaks to me, even if it doesn't speak to any of my collaborators or any of my partners, who look at me and scratch their heads and say, 'Gee, are you sure you wanna get into that trench for a year and a half?' I love people challenging me that way because it's a real test about my own convictions and [whether] I can be the standing man of my own life and take a stand on a subject that may not be popular, but that I would be proud to add to the body of my work. That's pretty much the litmus test that gets me to say, 'Yeah, I'll direct that one.' [105]

Spielberg plans to direct a new film adaptation of the musical West Side Story. [106]  Tony Kushner stated in July 2017 that he is adapting the classic show's book for Spielberg, though the musical score will remain unchanged, as will the late-1950s setting. [107]  In January 2018, he began an open casting search for the four lead roles, three of the roles being specifically for Latino actors. [108]  On October 2, 2018, it was announced that Ansel Elgort will play the lead role of Tony in the film. [109]

Spielberg also plans to film a fifth installment in the Indiana Jones series. The untitled film is set to star Harrison Ford and will be produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall. It is being written by David Koepp, who has written numerous other films for Spielberg, including the last Indiana Jones film. [110]  It was originally set for release by Disney on July 19, 2019. [111]  It was then announced that filming would begin in the UK in April 2019 [112]  and the film was given a new release date of July 10, 2020. [113]  Filming was postponed again in June 2018, when Jonathan Kasdan was announced as the film's new writer. [114]  Soon after, a new release date of July 9, 2021 was announced. [115]

Spielberg had planned to film his long-planned adaptation of David Kertzer's The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara in early 2017 for release at the end of that year, [116]  but production has been postponed. The book follows the true story of a young Jewish boy in 1858 Italy who was secretly baptized by a family servant and then kidnapped from his family by the Papal States, where he was raised and trained as a priest, causing international outrage and becoming a media sensation. It was first announced in 2014, with Kushner adapting the book for the screen. [117]  Mark Rylance, in his fourth consecutive collaboration with Spielberg, was announced to star in the role of Pope Pius IX. Oscar Isaac was set to star as Mortara's father, but eventually dropped out. [118] Spielberg had difficulty casting the title role, though he saw more than 2000 kids. [119]

Spielberg is attached to direct an adaptation of American photojournalist Lynsey Addario's memoir It's What I Do. Jennifer Lawrence is attached to star in the lead role. [120]

In April 2018, it was announced that Spielberg would be directing a film adaptation of the Blackhawk comic book series. Warner Bros. Pictures is distributing the film, with David Koepp writing the script. [121]  During an earlier interview in 1981 for Raiders of the Lost Ark, Spielberg has likened the film to the Blackhawkseries. [122]

Projects on hold

In 2009, Spielberg reportedly tried to obtain the screen rights to make a film based on Microsoft's Halo series. [123]  In September 2008, Steven Spielberg bought film rights for John Wyndham's novel Chocky and is interested in directing it. He is also interested in making an adaptation of A Steady Rain, [124]  Pirate Latitudes, [125]  The 39 Clues, [126]  and a remake of When Worlds Collide.

In May 2009, Steven Spielberg bought the rights to the life story of Martin Luther King, Jr.Spielberg will be involved not only as producer but also as a director. [127]  However, the purchase was made from the King estate, led by son Dexter, while the two other surviving children, the Reverend Bernice and Martin III, immediately threatened to sue, not having given their approvals to the project. [128]

Production credits

Since the mid-1980s, Spielberg has increased his role as a film producer. He headed up the production team for several cartoons, including the Warner Bros. hits Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs, Pinky and the Brain, Toonsylvania, and Freakazoid!, for which he collaborated with Jean MacCurdy and Tom Ruegger. Due to his work on these series, in the official titles, most of them say, "Steven Spielberg presents" as well as making numerous cameos on the shows. Spielberg also produced the Don Bluthanimated features, An American Tail and The Land Before Time, which were released by Universal Studios. He also served as one of the executive producers of Who Framed Roger Rabbit and its three related shorts (Tummy Trouble, Roller Coaster Rabbit, Trail Mix-Up), which were all released by Disney, under both the Walt Disney Pictures and the Touchstone Pictures banners. He was furthermore, for a short time, the executive producer of the long-running medical drama ER. In 1989, he brought the concept of The Dig to LucasArts. He contributed to the project from that time until 1995 when the game was released. He also collaborated with software publishers Knowledge Adventure on the multimedia game Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair, which was released in 1996. Spielberg appears, as himself, in the game to direct the player. The Spielberg name provided branding for a LegoMoviemaker kit, the proceeds of which went to the Starbright Foundation.

Spielberg speaking at the Pentagon on August 11, 1999 after receiving the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service from Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen

In 1993, Spielberg acted as executive producer for the highly anticipated television series seaQuest DSV a science fiction series set "in the near future" starring Roy Scheider (who Spielberg had directed in Jaws) and Jonathan Brandis that aired on NBC. While the first season was moderately successful, the second season did less well. Spielberg's name no longer appeared in the third season and the show was cancelled midway through it.

In 1993, Spielberg acted as executive producer for the highly anticipated television series seaQuest DSV a science fiction series set "in the near future" starring Roy Scheider (who Spielberg had directed in Jaws) and Jonathan Brandis that aired on NBC. While the first season was moderately successful, the second season did less well. Spielberg's name no longer appeared in the third season and the show was cancelled midway through it.

Spielberg served as an uncredited executive producer on The Haunting, The Prince of Egypt, Just Like Heaven, [129]  Shrek, Road to Perdition, [130]  and Evolution. He served as an executive producer for the 1997 film Men in Black, and its sequels, Men in Black II and Men in Black III. In 2005, he served as a producer of Memoirs of a Geisha, an adaptation of the novel by Arthur Golden, a film to which he was previously attached as director. In 2006, Spielberg co-executive produced with famed filmmaker Robert Zemeckis a CGI children's film called Monster House, marking their eighth collaboration since 1990's Back to the Future Part III. He also teamed with Clint Eastwood for the first time in their careers, co-producing Eastwood's Flags of Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima with Robert Lorenz and Eastwood himself. He earned his twelfth Academy Award nomination for the latter film as it was nominated for Best Picture. Spielberg served as executive producer for Disturbia and the Transformers live action film with Brian Goldner, an employee of Hasbro. The film was directed by Michael Bay and written by Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman, and Spielberg continued to collaborate on the sequels, Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Transformers: Age of Extinction, and Transformers: The Last Knight. In 2011, he produced the J. J. Abramsscience fiction thriller film Super 8 for Paramount Pictures. [131]

Other major television series Spielberg produced were Band of Brothers, Taken and The Pacific. He was an executive producer on the critically acclaimed 2005 TV miniseries Into the West which won two Emmy awards, including one for Geoff Zanelli's score. For his 2010 miniseries The Pacific he teamed up once again with co-producer Tom Hanks, with Gary Goetzman also co-producing'. The miniseries is believed to have cost $250 million and is a 10-part war miniseries centered on the battles in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Writer Bruce McKenna, who penned several installments of (Band of Brothers), was the head writer.

In 2007, Steven Spielberg and Mark Burnett co-produced On the Lot a short-lived TV reality show about filmmaking. Despite this, he never gave up working on television. He currently serves as one of the executive producers on United States of Tara, a show created by Academy Award winner Diablo Cody which they developed together (Spielberg is uncredited as creator).

In 2011, Spielberg launched Falling Skies, a science fiction television series, on the TNTnetwork. He developed the series with Robert Rodat and is credited as an executive producer. Spielberg is also producing the Fox TV series Terra Nova. Terra Nova begins in the year 2149 when all life on the planet Earth is threatened with extinction resulting in scientists opening a door that allows people to travel back 85 million years to prehistoric times. [132][133]  Spielberg also produced The River, [134]  Smash, [135]  Under the Dome, [136]  Extant, [137]  The Whispers, [138]  a TV adaptation of Minority Report, [139]  and Bull. [140]

In 2008, Spielberg and DreamWorks acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation of the original Ghost in the Shellmanga. Avi Arad and Steven Paul produced, Rupert Sanders directed, and Scarlett Johansson stars in the lead role of the film, which was released in 2017. [141][142][143]

In March 2013, Spielberg announced that he was "developing a Stanley Kubrick screenplayfor a miniseries, not for a motion picture, about the life of Napoleon." [144]  In May 2016, it was announced that Cary Fukunaga is in talks to direct the miniseries for HBO, from a script by David Lenland based on extensive research materials accumulated by Kubrick over many years. [145]

Spielberg had planned to shoot a $200 million adaptation of Daniel H. Wilson's novel Robopocalypse, adapted for the screen by Drew Goddard. [146]  The novel follows a global human war against a robot uprising about 15–20 years in the future. [147]  Like Lincoln, it was to be released by Disney in the United States and Fox overseas. [148]  It was set for release on April 25, 2014, [149]  with Anne Hathaway and Chris Hemsworth set to star, [150]  but Spielberg postponed production indefinitely in January 2013, just before it was to begin. [151]  In March 2018, it was announced that the film will now be directed by Michael Bay. [152]

Spielberg will executive produce Cortes, a historical mini-series written by Steven Zaillianabout the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, and Hernán Cortés's relationship with Aztec ruler Montezuma. [153]  The script is based on an earlier one from 1965 by Oscar-winner Dalton Trumbo. [154]  Javier Bardem will play the lead role of explorer Hernán Cortés. Spielberg was previously attached to direct the project as a feature film. [155]

Onscreen appearances

Spielberg had cameo roles in The Blues Brothers, Gremlins, Vanilla Sky, and Austin Powers in Goldmember, as well as small uncredited cameos in a handful of other films, such as a life-station worker in Jaws. He also made numerous cameo roles in the Warner Bros. cartoons he produced, such as Animaniacs, and even made reference to some of his films. Spielberg voiced himself in the film Paul, and in one episode of Tiny Toon Adventures titled Buster and Babs Go Hawaiian.

In 2017, Spielberg, along with fellow directors Francis Ford Coppola, Guillermo del Toro, Paul Greengrass and Lawrence Kasdan were featured in the Netflix documentary series Five Came Back, which discussed the contributions of film directors Frank Capra, John Ford, John Huston, George Stevens and William Wylertowards recording the events of World War II. Spielberg also served as an executive producer on the series. [156]

Involvement in video games

Apart from being an ardent gamer Spielberg has had a long history of involvement in video games. [157]  He has been giving thanks to his games of his division DreamWorks Interactiveas Someone's in the Kitchen with script written by Animaniacs' Paul Rugg, Goosebumps: Escape from HorrorLand, The Neverhood (all in 1996), Skullmonkeys, Dilbert's Desktop Games, Goosebumps: Attack of the Mutant (all 1997), Boombots (1999), T'ai Fu: Wrath of the Tiger(1999), and Clive Barker's Undying (2001). In 2005 the director signed with Electronic Arts to collaborate on three games including an action game and an award-winning puzzle game for the Wii called Boom Blox (and its 2009 sequel: Boom Blox Bash Party). [158]  Previously, he was involved in creating the scenario for the adventure game The Dig. [159]  In 1996, Spielberg worked on and shot original footage for a movie-making simulation game called Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair. He is the creator of the Medal of Honor series by Electronic Arts. [160]  He is credited in the special thanks section of the 1998 video game Trespasser. [161] In 2013, Spielberg has announced he is collaborating with𧉗 Industries for a live-action TV show of Halo. [162]

Personal Life

Marriages and children

Spielberg first met actress Amy Irving in 1976 at the suggestion of director Brian De Palma, who knew he was looking for an actress to play in Close Encounters. After meeting her, Spielberg told his co-producer Julia Phillips, "I met a real heartbreaker last night." [9]:293  Although she was too young for the role, she and Spielberg began dating and she eventually moved into what she described as his "bachelor funky" house. [9]:294 They lived together for four years, but the stresses of their professional careers took a toll on their relationship. Irving wanted to be certain that whatever success she attained as an actress would be her own: "I don't want to be known as Steven's girlfriend," she said, and chose not to be in any of his films during those years. [9]:295

As a result, they broke up in 1979, but remained close friends. Then in 1984 they renewed their romance, and in November 1985, they married, already having had a son, Max Samuel. After three and a half years of marriage, however, many of the same competing stresses of their careers caused them to divorce in 1989. They agreed to maintain homes near each other as to facilitate the shared custody and parenting of their son. [9]:403  Their divorce was recorded as the third most costly celebrity divorce in history. [166]

Spielberg subsequently developed a relationship with actress Kate Capshaw, whom he met when he cast her in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. They married on October 12, 1991. Capshaw is a convert to Judaism. [167][168]  They currently move among their four homes in Pacific Palisades, California Quelle Farm, Georgica Pond in East Hampton, New York [169]  New York City and Naples, Florida.

There are seven children in the Spielberg-Capshaw family:

  • Jessica Capshaw (born August 9, 1976) – daughter from Kate Capshaw's previous marriage to Robert Capshaw
  • Max Samuel Spielberg (born June 13, 1985) – son from Spielberg's previous marriage to actress Amy Irving
  • Theo Spielberg (born August 21, 1988) – son adopted by Capshaw before her marriage to Spielberg, who later also adopted him [170]
  • Sasha Rebecca Spielberg (born May 14, 1990, Los Angeles)
  • Sawyer Avery Spielberg (born March 10, 1992, Los Angeles) [171]
  • Mikaela George (born February 28, 1996) – adopted with Kate Capshaw
  • Destry Allyn Spielberg (born December 1, 1996)

Religion

Spielberg grew up in a Jewish household, including having a bar mitzvah ceremony in Phoenix when he turned 13. He grew away from Judaism after his family moved to various cities during his high school years, where they became the only Jews in the neighborhood. [172]:29  Before those years, his family was involved in the synagogue and had many Jewish friends and nearby relatives.

He remembers his grandparents telling him about their life in Russia, where they were subjected to religious persecution, causing them to eventually flee to the United States. He was made aware of the Holocaust by his parents, who he says "talked about it all the time, and so it was always on my mind." [172]:30 His father had lost between sixteen and twenty relatives during the Holocaust. [9]:21

Spielberg "rediscovered the honor of being a Jew," he says, before he made Schindler's List, when he married Kate Capshaw. [172]:25  Until then, having become a filmmaker, he only felt his connection to Judaism when he visited his parents. He says he made the film partly to create "something that would confirm my Judaism to my family and myself." [173]

Kate is Protestant and she insisted on converting to Judaism. She spent a year studying, did the "mikveh," the whole thing. She chose to do a full conversion before we were married in 1991, and she married me after becoming a Jew. I think that, more than anything else, brought me back to Judaism. [172]:25

He credits her with fueling his family's current level of observance and for keeping the "momentum flowing" in their lives, as they now observe Jewish holidays, light candles on Friday nights, and give their children Bar and Bat Mitzvahs. [172]:26  "This shiksa goddess has made me a better Jew than my own parents." [172]:27

Producing Schindler's List in 1993 also renewed his faith, Spielberg says, but "it really was the fact that my wife took a profound interest in Judaism." [172]:25  He waited ten years after being given the story in 1982 to make the film, as he did not yet feel "mature" enough. [172]:32  He first wanted to have a family, "to figure out what my place was in the world. . When my first son, [Max] was born, it greatly affected me. . A spirit began to ignite in me, and I became a Jewish dad. " [9]:21

He said that making the film became a "natural experience" for him, adding, "I had to tell the story. I've lived on its outer edges." [9]  The film, writes biographer Joseph McBride, thereby became the "culmination" of Spielberg's long personal struggle with his Jewish identity. [174]:18 Some claim the film has made Spielberg "the one true heir to the great Jewish moguls who created Hollywood," most of whom had actively avoided depicting Jews or the Holocaust in their films. [173]

Wealth

Forbes magazine places Spielberg's personal net worth at $3.7 billion. [1]

Yachting

In 2013, Spielberg purchased the 282-foot (86 m) mega-yacht Seven Seas for US$182 million. He has since put it up for sale and in the meantime has made it available for charter. At US$1.2 million per month, it is one of the most expensive charters on the market. He has ordered a new 300-foot (91 m) yacht costing a reported US$250 million. [175]

Recognition

In 2002, Spielberg was one of eight flagbearers who carried the Olympic Flag into Rice-Eccles Stadium at the Opening Ceremonies of the� Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City. In 2006, Premiere listed him as the most powerful and influential figure in the motion picture industry. Time listed him as one of the𧅤 Most Important People of the Century. At the end of the 20th century, Life named him the most influential person of his generation. [176]  In 2009, Boston University presented him an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree. [177]

According to Forbes' Most Influential Celebrities 2014 list, Spielberg was listed as the most influential celebrity in America. The annual list is conducted by E-Poll Market Research and it gave more than 6,600 celebrities on 46 different personality attributes a score representing "how that person is perceived as influencing the public, their peers, or both." Spielberg received a score of 47, meaning 47% of the US believes he is influential. Gerry Philpott, president of E-Poll Market Research, supported Spielberg's score by stating, "If anyone doubts that Steven Spielberg has greatly influenced the public, think about how many will think for a second before going into the water this summer." [178][179][180]

Politics

Spielberg usually supports U.S. Democratic Party candidates. He has donated over $800,000 to the Democratic party and its nominees. He has been a close friend of former President Bill Clinton and worked with the President for the USA Millennium celebrations. He directed an 18-minute film for the project, scored by John Williams and entitled The American Journey. It was shown at America's Millennium Gala on December 31, 1999, in the National Mall at the Reflecting Pool at the base of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. [181]

Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen escorts Spielberg through a military honor cordon into the Pentagon.

Spielberg resigned as a member of the national advisory board of the Boy Scouts of America in 2001 because of his disapproval of the organization's anti-homosexuality stance. [182][183]  In 2007 the Arab League voted to boycott Spielberg's movies after he donated $1 million for relief efforts in Israel during the� Lebanon War. [184][185]  On February 20, 2007, Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg, and David Geffen invited Democrats to a fundraiser for Barack Obama. [186]  In February 2008, Spielberg pulled out of his role as advisor to the� Summer Olympics in response to the Chinese government's inaction over the War in Darfur. [187]  Spielberg said in a statement that "I find that my conscience will not allow me to continue business as usual." It also said that "Sudan's government bears the bulk of the responsibility for these on-going crimes, but the international community, and particularly China, should be doing more.." [188]  The International Olympic Committee respected Spielberg's decision, but IOC president Jacques Roggeadmitted in an interview that "[Spielberg] certainly would have brought a lot to the opening ceremony in terms of creativity." [189] Spielberg's statement drew criticism from Chinese officials and state-run media calling his criticism "unfair". [190]  In September 2008, Spielberg and his wife offered their support to same-sex marriage by issuing a statement following their donation of $100,000 to the "No on Proposition 8" campaign fund, a figure equal to the amount of money Brad Pitt donated to the same campaign less than a week prior. [191]

Spielberg supported Hillary Clinton for President of the United States in the� election. He donated US$1 million to Priorities USA, a pro-Clinton Super PAC. [192]

In 2018, Spielberg and his wife Kate Capshaw donated $500,000 to the March for Our Livesstudent demonstration in favor of gun control in the United States. [193]

Hobbies

A collector of film memorabilia, Spielberg purchased a balsa Rosebud sled from Citizen Kane (1941) in 1982. [194]  He bought Orson Welles's own directorial copy of the script for the radio broadcast The War of the Worlds(1938) in 1994. [195]  Spielberg has purchased Academy Award statuettes being sold on the open market and donated them to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, to prevent their further commercial exploitation. His donations include the Oscars that Bette Davis received for Dangerous (1935) and Jezebel (1938), and Clark Gable's Oscar for It Happened One Night (1934). [196]

Spielberg is a major collector of the work of American illustrator and painter Norman Rockwell. A collection of 57 Rockwell paintings and drawings owned by Spielberg and fellow Rockwell collector and film director George Lucas were displayed at the Smithsonian American Art Museum July 2, 2010 – January 2, 2011, in an exhibition titled Telling Stories. [197]

Spielberg is an avid film buff and, when not shooting a picture, he will watch many films in a single weekend. [198]  He sees almost every major summer blockbuster in theaters if not preoccupied and enjoys most of them. [199]

Since playing Pong while filming Jaws in 1974, Spielberg has been an avid video gamer. Spielberg played many of LucasArts adventure games, including the first Monkey Islandgames. [200][201]  He owns a Wii, a PlayStation 3, a PSP, and an Xbox 360, and enjoys playing first-person shooters such as the Medal of Honor series and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. He has also criticized the use of cutscenes in games, calling them intrusive, and feels making story flow naturally into the gameplay is a challenge for future game developers. [202]

Stalking

In 2001, Spielberg was stalked by conspiracy theorist and former social worker Diana Napolis. She accused him, along with actress Jennifer Love Hewitt, of controlling her thoughts through "cybertronic" technology and being part of a satanic conspiracy against her. Napolis was committed to a mental institution before pleading guilty to stalking, and released on probation with a condition that she have no contact with either Spielberg or Hewitt. [203][204][205]

Jonathan Norman was arrested after making two attempts to enter Spielberg's Pacific Palisades home in June and July 1997. Norman was jailed for 25 years in California. Spielberg told the court: "Had Jonathan Norman actually confronted me, I genuinely, in my heart of hearts, believe that I would have been raped or maimed or killed." [206][207]


Watch the video: Steven Spielberg - The Directors


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    Now everything is clear, thank you very much for the explanation.

  4. Mikagis

    I apologize for interfering ... But this topic is very close to me. I can help with the answer. Write in PM.

  5. Vugul

    Delightful ..

  6. Taudal

    This has already been discussed recently.

  7. Row

    Your thought is very good



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