Frank Moss

Frank Moss

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Frank Moss was born in Leyland on 5th November 1909. A goalkeeper, he played for Leyland Motors and Lostock Hall before joining Preston North End in February 1928. He played 24 league games for the club before being transferred to Oldham Athletic in the Second Division.

Moss mainly played in the reserves but Herbert Chapman, the Arsenal manager, saw his potential and bought him for £3,000. Chapman's assistant, Bob Wall, later commented: "What impressed Chapman even more than the sureness of his hands was Frank's physical courage."

He made his debut against Chelsea on 21st November 1931. Moss remained the first-team goalkeeper for the rest of the season. He joined a team that included Alex James, David Jack, Cliff Bastin, Joe Hulme, Eddie Hapgood, Bob John, Jimmy Brain, Tom Parker, Herbert Roberts, Alf Baker and George Male.

Arsenal won the First Division by four points in the 1932-33 season. Alex James was in fine form. So also was Cliff Bastin, the team's left-winger, was top scorer with 33 goals. Moss was also impressive and as Jeff Harris, the author of Arsenal Who's Who, pointed out: "Moss was brave, agile with an uncanny sense of anticipation and kicked well with both feet."

Frank Moss won his first international cap for England against Scotland on 14th April 1934. England won 3-0 and Moss was retained for the games against Hungary (1-2), Czechoslovakia (1-2) and Italy (3-2).

Sunderland was their main challengers to Arsenal in the 1933-34 season thanks to a forward line that included Raich Carter, Patsy Gallacher, Bob Gurney and Jimmy Connor. In March 1934 Sunderland went a point ahead. However, Arsenal had a game in hand and a win against Everton at Goodison Park would give the club the title. During the game Moss suffered a dislocated shoulder and was forced to play on the left-wing. Moss went on to score a goal in Arsenal's 2-0 victory.

Moss played in five games in the 1935-36 season but his dislocated shoulder continued to give him problems and he was replaced by George Swindin. Moss eventually retired from the game at the age of 27 as a result of his shoulder injury.

Frank Moss died on 7th February 1970.


After receiving his law degree Moss worked for two years on the legal staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission. He returned to Utah in 1939 and became a law clerk to Utah Supreme Court Justice James H. Wolfe. In 1940 he was elected a judge in Salt Lake City's Municipal Court. During World War II he was on the Judge Advocate General's staff of the U.S. Army Air Corps in England. Following the war he returned to Salt Lake and was reelected a city judge. He was elected Salt Lake County Attorney in 1950 and was reelected in 1954.

In 1956 Moss ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for governor. Two years later he ran for the U.S. Senate against two-term incumbent Arthur V. Watkins, who was a close ally of both the Eisenhower administration and the Mormon Church, and also against J. Bracken Lee, a non-Mormon and former two-term Utah governor (1949-57), who was running as an independent after losing to Watkins in the Republican primary. The Republican vote was split in the general election and Moss was elected with less than 40 percent of the vote.

Moss was elected to a second term in 1964, soundly defeating with 57 percent of the vote Brigham Young University President Ernest L. Wilkinson, a conservative Republican, in a bitter campaign. He was elected to a third term in 1970 when he won 56 percent of the vote against four-term congressman Lawrence Burton. The campaign was close until the final weeks, when a series of attempts by Burton misfired which had tried to paint Moss as an unpatriotic, closet liberal who supported reduced penalties for drug use and riots on college campuses.

In the early years of his Senate career, Moss followed the tradition of sitting in the back row and keeping quiet. As he gained seniority, however, he became increasingly visible and eventually gained a measure of national prominence, in particular with regard to environmental, consumer, and health care issues. He became an expert on water issues and wrote a book on the subject, The Water Crisis (1967) worked to secure additional national parks for Utah and initiated important investigations into the care of the elderly in nursing and retirement homes, and into physicians' abuses of the federal Medicaid program.

His work as chair of the Consumer Subcommittee of the Senate Commerce Committee probably brought him the most national attention. He sponsored a measure that required improved labeling on cigarette packages about the health hazards of smoking and banned cigarette advertising on radio and television he also sponsored the Consumer Product Warranty and Guarantee Act, the Toy Safety Act, the Product Safety Act, and the Poison Prevention Packaging Act. Following his loss in 1976 to Orrin Hatch, a conservative lawyer who had the support of Ronald Reagan, he returned to private life and the practice of law in Washington, D.C., and Salt Lake City.

Disclaimer: Information on this site was converted from a hard cover book published by University of Utah Press in 1994.

Moss History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Moss is a name of ancient Anglo-Saxon origin and comes from the family once having lived near a peat bog. The name comes from the Old English word mos, which denoted a peat bog. The name may have been taken on as a hereditary surname by someone who lived near a peat bog. However, there are also place names that have come from this word, and the surname may have come from a pre-existing name for a town, village, or parish. Other instances of this surname may also have evolved from the personal name, Moses and there was also an Ashkenazic Jewish name of uncertain origins that has evolved into Moss. Alternatively, the name could have an ancient Norman surname derived from "Godefridus de la Mosce, Normandy, [who] held a fief from Philip Augustus of the honour or Malherbe." [1]

Set of 4 Coffee Mugs and Keychains

$69.95 $48.95

Early Origins of the Moss family

The surname Moss was first found in Lancashire at Chat Moss, a large area of peat bog near the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester. [2]

Alternatively, the name could have derived from Moss, a village and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire. One of the earliest records of the name was Ailmerus filius Mosse or Almer Mosse who was listed in Norfolk 1153-1168. [3]

Later, the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 listed Henry Mosse, as holding lands in Lincolnshire at that time. The Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 listed Robertus de Mos and Johannes del Mosse. [4]

At about the same time, further north in Scotland, Gregory de Moss was tenant of the Earl of Douglas in Louchurde, 1376. [5]

Coat of Arms and Surname History Package

$24.95 $21.20

Early History of the Moss family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Moss research. Another 107 words (8 lines of text) covering the years 1286, 1327, 1327, 1405, 1567, 1662, 1608, 1628, 1641, 1666 and are included under the topic Early Moss History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Unisex Coat of Arms Hooded Sweatshirt

Moss Spelling Variations

Sound was what guided spelling in the essentially pre-literate Middle Ages, so one person's name was often recorded under several variations during a single lifetime. Also, before the advent of the printing press and the first dictionaries, the English language was not standardized. Therefore, spelling variations were common, even among the names of the most literate people. Known variations of the Moss family name include Moss, Mos, Mosse and others.

Early Notables of the Moss family (pre 1700)

Distinguished members of the family include Richard Moss. "In 1608 the capital messuage of Richard Moss, a recusant, of Skelmersdale [Lancashire], was granted on lease by the king to Edward Thurstan and Robert Webb. Richard Moss was still living in 1628 when, as a convicted recusant, he paid double to.
Another 49 words (4 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Moss Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Moss family to Ireland

Some of the Moss family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 77 words (6 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Moss migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Moss Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Richard Moss who settled in Virginia in 1635
  • Joe and Jane Moss, who settled in Virginia in 1635
  • Jo Moss, aged 21, who landed in Virginia in 1635 [6]
  • Jane Moss, who landed in Virginia in 1642 [6]
  • Edward Moss, who landed in Virginia in 1655 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Moss Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Anne Moss, who arrived in Virginia in 1702 [6]
  • Hanah Moss, who landed in Virginia in 1702 [6]
  • Robert Moss, who arrived in Virginia in 1704 [6]
  • William Moss, who arrived in Virginia in 1705 [6]
  • Margaret Moss, who arrived in Virginia in 1717 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Moss Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Anna Moss, aged 35, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1805 [6]
  • Bryan Moss, who arrived in America in 1806 [6]
  • Charles Moss, who landed in America in 1806 [6]
  • Rose Moss, who landed in America in 1806 [6]
  • Charles Moss, who landed in Maryland in 1831 [6]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Moss migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Moss Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Robert Moss, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • John Moss, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • John Moss, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Mr. Amos Moss U.E. who settled in New Brunswick c. 1784 [7]
  • Mr. John Moss U.E. who settled in Home District [York County], Ontario c. 1784 he served in Butlers Ranger [7]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Moss Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Charles Moss, aged 23 who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Lotus" departing from the port of Liverpool, England but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 [8]

Moss migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Moss Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. William Moss, British Convict who was convicted in Yorkshire, England for 14 years, transported aboard the "Caledonia" on 5th July 1820, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [9]
  • Thomas Moss, English convict from Lancaster, who was transported aboard the "America" on April 4, 1829, settling in New South Wales, Australia[10]
  • Priscilla Moss, English convict from Surrey, who was transported aboard the "America" on December 30, 1830, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[11]
  • George Moss, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Argyle" on March 5th, 1831, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[12]
  • Mr. William Moss, English convict who was convicted in Surrey, England for life, transported aboard the "Captain Cook" on 2nd May 1833, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[13]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Moss migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Moss Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Miss Jessie Moss, (b. 1858), aged Infant, British settler travelling from Gravesend aboard the ship "Maori" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 14th April 1858 [14]
  • Mr. John Moss, (b. 1831), aged 27, British labourer travelling from Gravesend aboard the ship "Maori" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 14th April 1858 [14]
  • Mrs. Emma Moss, (b. 1833), aged 25, British settler travelling from Gravesend aboard the ship "Maori" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 14th April 1858 [14]
  • Mr. John Moss, British settler travelling from London aboard the ship "Matoaka" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 26th September 1859 [14]
  • Mr. Moss, British settler travelling from Liverpool aboard the ship 'Mermaid' arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 19th October 1859 [14]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Moss (post 1700) +

  • Kate Moss (b. 1974), English fashion model, second on the Forbes top-earning models list in 2012
  • Alan Edward Moss (b. 1930), English cricketer
  • Joseph Neil "Joey" Moss (1963-2020), born with Down syndrome, Canadian dressing room attendant for the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League and the Edmonton Eskimos
  • Harold Moss (1929-2020), American politician and businessman, 34th mayor of Tacoma, Washington, first African American member of the city's council
  • Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss OBE (1929-2020), British Formula One racing driver, inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame
  • Mr. Alan Stephen Moss M.B.E., British Senior Lecturer for RAF Central Training School, was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire on 8th June 2018, for services to Apprentice Training [15]
  • Randy Gene Moss (b. 1977), American professional football wide receiver, inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2018
  • Eric Moss (1974-2019), American football player for the Minnesota Vikings (1997�) and the Scottish Claymores (1999)
  • Arthur J. Moss (1932-2018), American cardiologist, Distinguished Professor in Cardiology at Rochester
  • Cecil Moss (1925-2017), South African rugby union player, coach and a professional physician, South Africa National Rugby Union Coach (1982�)
  • . (Another 11 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Moss family +

HMS Prince of Wales
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. John Barrow Moss, English Second Waiter from Crosby, Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [17]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. William Moss (d. 1912), aged 34, English 1st Saloon Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [18]
  • Mr. Albert Johan Moss, aged 29, Norwegian Third Class passenger from Bergen who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking in collapsible B [18]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Tommy Lee Moss, American Mess Attendant Second Class from Kentucky, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [19]

Related Stories +

The Moss Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: En la rose je fleurie
Motto Translation: I flourish in the rose.

MOSS Genealogy

WikiTree is a community of genealogists growing an increasingly-accurate collaborative family tree that's 100% free for everyone forever. Please join us.

Please join us in collaborating on MOSS family trees. We need the help of good genealogists to grow a completely free shared family tree to connect us all.


Frank Moss - History

Burlington Street School |
Aston Manor |
Walsall |

1915-28 Aston Villa, Free, 283 (9) |

George Ramsay led Management Committee |
Billy Smith led Management Committee |

Player #259 for Aston Villa, Frank Moss played as a centre back for the club.

Frank played for Villa between 1914-15 and 1928-29 making 283 appearances.

Frank was born in Aston, less than a mile from Villa Park, on 17th April 1895 and he made his debut appearance for Villa on the 5th April 1915 aged 19.

Villa had signed Frank from Walsall in February 1914.

Like many footballers of the period, Frank’s career was interrupted by the Great War. Frank joined the Lincolnshire Regiment as a Private but suffered a severe knee injury in the 3rd battle of Ypres which led to his re-deployment as a PT instructor back home gaining promotion to the rank of Corporal.

During his time with Villa, Frank won the FA Cup in 1919-20 however despite being a first team regular of obvious talent he couldn’t help Villa finish higher than a single 3rd place, which came in his final season 1928-29.

Frank did have the honour of being made Villa captain and also served as England captain, winning 5 caps.

Frank played his last game for Villa on the 27th August 1928 before moving to Cardiff City a few days later for a fee of £2,500.

Frank played the bulk of his career under the George Ramsay led Management Committee and latterly the same structure led by Billy Smith.

Frank’s move to Cardiff wasn’t the end of his contribution to Villa however as his sons, Frank Jr and Amos went on to be important players for Villa in the inter war and post war periods.

Frank Sr played out his footballing career with Worcester City before becoming landlord of a Worcester pub in 1939.

Frank passed away in Worcester on 15th September 1965 aged 70.

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_117,h_170,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/Ashley%20Young%202021.jpg" />

Frank Moss and the 1913 Lockout

Sir,—The recent letter regarding James Byrne (HI 21.5, Sept./Oct. 2013) prompted me to write concerning Frank Moss, another forgotten figure of 1913, who was the ITGWU organiser for the Swords district farm labourers. Throughout September and October 1913, the Swords farm labourers, under Moss’s leadership, engaged in violent clashes with police in Swords and took part in a major riot in Dublin. Moss’s aggressive tactics culminated in the Swords riot on the night of Wednesday 9 October 1913, when around 100 strikers stoned the police barracks and smashed the windows of shops that supported the farmers. The police ended the riot with baton charges, leaving many strikers and police seriously injured, including Moss.

On 24 October Moss was found guilty of intimidation and sentenced to three months in prison. He immediately began a hunger strike, but instead of being released, as James Byrne and James Connolly had been, after only two days he was moved to the prison hospital and force-fed. It is possible that Byrne’s pneumonia and consequent death prompted the prison authorities to force-feed Moss. Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and James Connolly condemned what they saw as torture, and spoke of Moss being dragged to the feeding chair, strapped down, head held by brutal prison guards, a tube forced up his nose or his jaws pried open, his throat held until blood came from his eyes, of vomiting and coughing up blood.

Force-feeding continued until 3 November, when Moss resumed eating. He was sent back to his cell on 8 November but recommenced a hunger strike on 10 November. He was force-fed until 27 November, when he again resumed eating and was allowed to serve the remainder of his sentence in the prison hospital. Moss was released from Mountjoy on 14 January 1914, and returned to Swords to resume leadership of the strikers. However, a month later he was charged with smashing a window during the Swords riot and was sentenced to fourteen days’ imprisonment. Back in Mountjoy, Moss went on hunger strike again but on 20 February a feeding tube was brutally forced up his nose, causing internal damage and agonising pain for hours afterwards.

Following this Moss went off his hunger strike but took only bread and tea for the remainder of his sentence. With his health declining rapidly, having lost 15kg in eleven days, he was released three days early on 25 February 1914 and returned to Swords.

Moss was also involved in the formation of the Irish Citizen Army. In March 1914 he was elected to its governing committee and used his popularity with the farm labourers to recruit throughout north County Dublin. However, after 1914 Moss disappears from history. He died of tuberculosis at the Alan Ryan Hospital, Pigeon House Road, Ringsend, on 9 April 1925, aged 55. His last address was 31 Marlborough Street, Dublin, the location of James Larkin’s Workers’ Union of Ireland, later known as ‘Unity Hall’. It is not known whether Moss was working for the union or whether Larkin was letting an old comrade stay there because he was perhaps too ill to work and had nowhere else to go. Neither is it known where Frank Moss is buried, but perhaps with the assistance of interested readers we might locate the final resting place of this forgotten figure from 1913.—Yours etc.,

How Humble Moss Healed the Wounds of Thousands in World War I

The First World War had just begun, and already the wounds were rotting on the battlefield. In the last months of 1914, doctors like Sir. W. Watson Cheyne of the Royal College of Surgeons of England noted with horror the “great prevalence of sepsis,” the potentially life-threatening response triggered by a bad infection. And by December 1915, a British report warned that the thousands of wounded men were threatening to exhaust the material for bandages.

Related Content

Desperate to get their hands on something sterile that would keep wounds clear of infection, doctors started getting creative. They tried everything from irrigating the wounds with chlorine solutions to creating bandages infused with carbolic acid, formaldehyde or mercury chloride, with varying degrees of success. But in the end, there simply wasn’t enough cotton—a substance that was already in high demand for uniforms and its recently discovered use as an explosive—to go around.

What were the Allied Powers to do? A Scottish surgeon-and-botanist duo had an idea: stuff the wounds full of moss.

Yes, moss, the plant. Also known as sphagnum, peat moss thrives in cold, damp climates like those of the British Isles and northern Germany. Today, this tiny, star-shaped plant is known for its use in horticulture and biofuel, not to mention its starring role in preserving thousands-year-old "bog bodies" like the Tollund Man, which Smithsonian Magazine revisited last month. But humans have also used it for at least 1,000 years to help heal their injuries.

In ancient times, Gaelic-Irish sources wrote that warriors in the battle of Clontarf used moss to pack their wounds. Moss was also used by Native Americans, who lined their children’s cradles and carriers with it as a type of natural diaper. It continued to be used sporadically when battles erupted, including during the Napoleonic and Franco-Prussian wars. But it wasn’t until World War I that medical experts realized the plant's full potential.

In the war's early days, eminent botanist Isaac Bayley Balfour and military surgeon Charles Walker Cathcart identified two species in particular that worked best for staunching bleeding and helping wounds heal: S. papillosum and S. palustre, both of which grew in abundance across Scotland, Ireland and England. When the men wrote an article in the “Science and Nature” section of The Scotsman extolling the moss’s medicinal virtues, they noted that it was already widely used in Germany.

But desperate times called for desperate measures. Or, as they wrote: “Fas est et ab hoste doceri”—it is right to be taught even by the enemy.

Field surgeons seemed to agree. Lieutenant-Colonel E.P. Sewell of the General Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt wrote approvingly that, “It is very absorbent, far more than cotton wool, and has remarkable deodorizing power.” Lab experiments around the same time vindicated his observations: Sphagnum moss can hold up to 22 times its own weight in liquid, making it twice as absorptive as cotton.

This remarkable spongelike quality comes from Sphagnum’s cellular structure, says Robin Kimmerer, professor of ecology at SUNY-Environmental Science and Forestry and the author of Gathering Moss: A Natural and Cultural History of Mosses. “Ninety percent of the cells in a sphagnum plant are dead,” Kimmerer says. “And they’re supposed to be dead. They’re made to be empty so they can be filled with water.” In this case, humans took advantage of that liquid-absorbing capacity to soak up blood, pus and other bodily fluids.

Sphagnum moss also has antiseptic properties. The plant’s cell walls are composed of special sugar molecules that “create an electrochemical halo around all of the cells, and the cell walls end up being negatively charged,” Kimmerer says. “Those negative charges mean that positively charged nutrient ions [like potassium, sodium and calcium] are going to be attracted to the sphagnum.” As the moss soaks up all the negatively charged nutrients in the soil, it releases positively charged ions that make the environment around it acidic.

For bogs, the acidity has remarkable preservative effects—think bog bodies—and keeps the environment limited to highly specialized species that can tolerate such harsh environments. For wounded humans, the result is that sphagnum bandages produce sterile environments by keeping the pH level around the wound low, and inhibiting the growth of bacteria.

A vial of dried Sphagnum that would've been used for making bandages in WWI. (National Museum of American History) Sanitary napkins made from Sphagnum moss. (National Museum of American History) A single sanitary napkin made from Sphagnum moss. (National Museum of American History) A surgical bandage made of Sphagnum moss, like those used in WWI. (National Museum of American History) Unlikely savior: The remarkable properties of spaghnum moss help preserve long-dead bodies, sequester carbon and even heal wounds. (Premium Stock Photography GmbH / Alamy ) So much potentially misleading information, so little time. (Ivan Chiosea / Alamy)

As the war raged on, the number of bandages needed skyrocketed, and sphagnum moss provided the raw material for more and more of them. In 1916, the Canadian Red Cross Society in Ontario provided over 1 million dressings, nearly 2 million compresses and 1 million pads for wounded soldiers in Europe, using moss collected from British Columbia, Nova Scotia and other swampy, coastal regions. By 1918,ف million dressings per month were being sent out of Britain to hospitals on continental Europe, in Egypt and even Mesopotamia.

Communities around the United Kingdom and North America organized outings to collect moss so the demand for bandages could be met. “Moss drives” were announced in local papers, and volunteers included women of all ages and children. One organizer in the United Kingdom instructed volunteers to “fill the sacks only about three-quarter full, drag them to the nearest hard ground, and then dance on them to extract the larger percentage of water.”

At Longshaw Lodge in Derbyshire, England, the nurses who tended convalescing soldiers trooped out to the damp grounds to collect moss for their wounds. And as botanist P.G. Ayres writes, sphagnum was just as popular on the other side of the battle lines. “Germany was more active than any of the Allies in utilizing Sphagnum … the bogs of north-eastern Germany and Bavaria provided seemingly inexhaustible supplies. Civilians and even Allied prisoners of war were conscripted to gather the moss.”

Each country had its own method for making the bandages, with the British stations filling bags loosely while the American Red Cross provided precise instructions for how to layer the moss with nonabsorbent cotton and gauze. “[The British style] seems to have been looked down upon by the American Red Cross,” says Rachel Anderson, a project assistant in the division of medicine and science at the National Museum of American History who studied the museum’s collection of sphagnum bandages. “The criticism was that you were getting redistribution of the moss during shipment and use.”

But everyone agreed on one thing: moss bandages worked. Their absorbency was remarkable. They didn’t mildew. And from the Allies’ perspective, they were a renewable resource that would grow back without much difficulty. “So long as the peat underneath [the living moss] was not disturbed, the peat is going to keep acting like a sponge, so it enables regrowth of Sphagnum,” says Kimmerer. However, “I can imagine if there were bogs that people used very regularly for harvesting there could be a trampling effect.”

So why aren’t we still using moss bandages today? In part, because the immense amount of labor required to collect it, Anderson says (although manufacturers in the U.S. experimented with using the moss for sanitary napkins called Sfag-Na-Kins).

That’s a good thing, because the real value of this plant goes far beyond bandages. Peatlands full of spaghnum and other mosses spend thousands of years accumulating carbon in their underground layers. If they defrost or dry out, we risk that carbon leaking out into the atmosphere. And while humans are no longer picking them for bandages, scientists fear that bogs and swamplands could be drained or negatively impacted by agriculture and industry, or the peat will be used for biofuel. 

Besides their role in global climate change, peatlands are rich ecosystems in their own right, boasting rare species like carnivorous plants. “The same things that make sphagnum amazing for bandages are what enable it to be an ecosystem engineer, because it can create bogs,” Kimmerer says. “Sphagnum and peatlands are really important pockets of biodiversity.” Even if we no longer require moss’s assistance with our scrapes and lacerations, we should still respect and preserve the rare habitats it creates.

Editor's Note, May 1, 2017: This article originally stated that peat moss releases protons (it releases positively charged ions, known as cations). It also featured a photo of a non-Spaghnum moss species.

Frank Moss - History

After five and a half years in the R.A.A.F. as a signals officer, Frank Moss did a Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme course in accountancy and cost accountancy. Then followed eight years as factory manager and company director of David Gray and Co.

▪ 1939 Royal Australian Air Force – Pilot Officer Signals

▪ 1950 Assistant Secretary The Western Australian Chamber of Manufacturers

▪ 1952 Secretary Director of David Gray & Co. Limited

He was appointed secretary of TVW in January of 1959, and soon after became deeply involved with the business affairs of the embryonic television station, making payments as the building went up and equipment was purchased.

▪ 1959-1976 Foundation Company Secretary

▪ 1976-1978 Executive Director, Finance and Administration

Darcy Farrell points out that Frank Moss was an unsung hero of Channel Seven, and should be recognised for his humanitarian role with in the organisation.

The success of TVW in the early years owes much to the sacrifices key people made meeting deadlines and keeping facilities going under often stressful situations. Most managers were pushing themselves and staff to the limit, and had little time for counseling those in need.

It was always Frank Moss who had a sympathetic ear to people under stress, and his help and advice was a most significant part of the operation, keeping it going when other people were often too busy with the job demands.

A retirement dinner was help at the Sheraton Perth Hotel on Thursday, September 20, 1979, to commemorate Frank’s valued service to the company. In attendance were the following members of the Board, management and colleagues… as shown in this group photograph taken by Douglas Joseph Burton.

Back row, from left: D’arcy Biesot, Darcy Farrell, Greg Byrne, Dick Ashton, Kevin Bicknell, Max Bostock, Syd Donovan, Rolf Lindsey, Bernie Roddy, Wally Staniforth, John Hunn, Jan Vermazen, Alf Binks.

Front row: Bill McKenzie, Joe Sweeney, Jim Cruthers, Frank Moss, Jack Donovan, Ken Kemp, Charles Hugall.

Our History

Frank Mossberg was an inventor and business man in Attleboro, Massachusetts, a center for jewelry manufacturing in the 19th century. His earliest business venture was founded in 1889, as the Mossberg Wrench Company, and initially was a maker of tools for the jeweler's trade. In the early 1890's the company began producing several styles of adjustable bicycle wrenches, a type of tool very popular at the time. In 1899 Frank Mossberg and other investors founded the Frank Mossberg Company to manufacture tools, and the company began production of pipe wrenches, bicycle wrenches and related tools.

The expansion of the automobile industry created great demand for automotive service tools, and in the years from 1910 to 1920 the Frank Mossberg Company became a significant maker of automotive specialty tools. These tools consisted primarily of fixed socket wrenches in many shapes and sizes, and Mossberg was probably second only to Walden-Worcester as a producer of such tools.

During the 1920's the company continued to expand its automotive service tools line. In 1927 the company was reorganized as the APCO-Mossberg Company, in merger with APCO of Providence.

The APCO-Mossberg name is still one synonymous with high quality and superior customer service.

Apco Mossberg Torque Tool & Mfg.
PO Box 2055
Attleboro, MA, 02703

Phone: 508-222-0340
Fax: 508-222-0126
Email us: [email protected]

Please call us, fax us or email us. We're happy to quote any project for you.


Because of FOIA, a wide range of government misconduct and waste has been exposed and threats to the public’s health and safety have been disclosed.

FOIA requests have revealed everything from the FBI’s surveillance of dozens of well-known African-American writers for five decades starting in 1919, to the fact that the U.S. narrowly escaped detonating a hydrogen bomb over North Carolina in 1961 when the B-52 bomber carrying it crashed.

Other notable examples include:

In the 1980s, activists learned after filing an FOIA request that the Environmental Protection Agency knew paper mills were discharging a toxic substance, dioxin, into rivers.

In the aftermath of 2005’s Hurricane Katrina, FOIA requests uncovered wasteful government spending during the recovery efforts.

In 2016, an FOIA request uncovered a government report that a major American supplier of parmesan cheese was substituting wood pulp for parmesan in its products.

Watch the video: 16 Personalities Introducing Themselves