Phrygia Timeline

Phrygia Timeline

  • 1200 BCE

    Phrygians invade Anatolia and destroy the Hittite Empire.

  • c. 850 BCE

    Gordium becomes the capital of the Phrygians.

  • 738 BCE - c. 696 BCE

    Reign of King Mita of the Mushki (possibly the real King Midas).

  • 709 BCE

    Mita of the Mushki (possibly King Midas) allies with King Sargon II of Assyria.

  • 696 BCE

    Gordium is sacked by the Cimmerians.

  • c. 625 BCE

    Lydia drives back the Cimmerians and conquers Phrygia.

  • 547 BCE

    Phrygia becomes a Satrapy of the Persian empire.

  • 286 CE

    Theodosius I settles Visigoths in Phrygia.


Phrygia

Ancient country in Asia Minor, corresponding to modern Turkey which formed a number of independent kingdoms between 1200 and 700 BCE. The kingdoms formed a loose confederation, where the main centres were Mides City (western Anatolia) and Gordium (central Anatolia). The land of Phrygia was mountainous.
The boundaries of the Phrygia varied through the centuries. Its greatest extent was around 1000 BCE, when it covered approximately all of Anatolia.
According to the most popular theory, the Phrygians were immigrants from Thrace in Europe (Bulgaria). After the fall of the Phrygian kingdoms, the people stayed in Anatolia, and would become part of the later Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey.
Later mythic kings of Phrygia were alternately named Gordias and Midas. Gordum was the Phrygian word for city.
Homer tells that the Phrygians were at one time attacked by the Amazons (an exclusive women-only society).
The name Phrygia would continue even after the fall of the kingdoms.

Economy
As with all other powers of the time, agriculture was the central activity in the Phrygian economy. It is assumed that Phrygia was feudal, but in addition large lands were owned by cult centres and the high priests.
Sheep rearing was an important activity, producing wool of fine quality. Horse rearing was important for governing the large lands, allowing officials to move over large distances quickly.
Among the industries, the Phrygians produced metalwork, wood carving and carpet weaving. It is also said that they developed the art of embroidery.

Culture
The Phrygians benefited from the Hittite culture, and adopted many of their social structures and customs.
The cultural centres were the cities of Midas City and Gordium. Many of the inhabitants here knew how to read and write.
For the Phrygians, music appears to have been central. King Midas is told to have been taugth in music by Orpheus (from Greek legends). It is assumed that the warlike mode in Greek music was adopted from Phrygian music.

Language
Phrygian language belonged to the Indo-European family, which survived no longer than until the 6th century CE.
It was probably close to Greek early scholarship suggested close relation to Thracian, Armenian or Illyrian. In most cases Phrygian language used an alphabet originating with the Phoenicians. The available inscriptions in the Phrygian language have not yet been translated. Inscriptions which used a script close to the Greek, have been translated, and some of the Phrygian vocabulary identified.
Old Phrygian texts date mainly to ca. 730-450 BCE, consisting of 80 remain, most from Gordium. New Phrygian texts date from 1st and 2nd centuries CE.
The Phrygian alphabet has been suggested to draw upon North Syrian, Cilician and/or Greek origins.

Religion
The Phrygian religion was based around nature worship. Cybele, the Great Mother and the male god Sabazius were the central deities. Her principal cultic centre was at Pessinus.
Cybele would later be adopted into Greek and Roman religions. In her Phrygian version she is in a human shape and wears a long belted dress, a high cylindrical headdress and a veil covering the whole body.
Sabazios was the sky and father god, and would be depicted also in human shape and riding on a horse. The Greeks would associate Sabazios with Zeus.
In Roman religion we learn that there was a conflict between the two main deities, and this might well have applied to the Phrygian myths as well. Cybele had created the Lunar Bull which Sabazios had to fight together with his horse.

History
1200 BCE: The Phrygians invade Anatolia from Thrace, and thanks to the collapse of the Hittite kingdom, they are able to take control over all the central tableland.
730: Assyrians take control over the eastern parts of Phrygia.
Around 725-696: The time of King Midas, the king which the legends tell had the ability to turn everything he touched into gold (see more under Sardis).
7th century: Cimmerian invasion into the Phrygian lands, destroying many of the small kingdoms.
676: The Cimmerians conquer and destroy Gordium. By this, the Lydians could take control over much of the old Phrygian territories.


Contents

Phrygia describes an area on the western end of the high Anatolian plateau, an arid region quite unlike the forested lands to the north and west. Phrygia begins in the northwest where an area of dry steppe is watered by the Sakarya and Porsuk river system and is home to the settlements of Dorylaeum near modern Eskisehir, and the Phrygian capital Gordion. The climate is harsh with hot summers and cold winters olives will not easily grow here and the land is mostly used for livestock grazing and the production of barley. South of Dorylaeum, there is another important Phrygian settlement, Midas City (Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir), situated in an area of hills and columns of volcanic tufa. To the south again, central Phrygia includes the cities of Afyonkarahisar (ancient Akroinon) with its marble quarries at nearby Docimium (İscehisar), and the town of Synnada. At the western end of Phrygia, stood the towns of Aizanoi (modern Çavdarhisar) and Acmonia. From here to the southwest lies the hilly area of Phrygia that contrasts to the bare plains of the region's heartland. Southwestern Phrygia is watered by the Maeander (Büyük Menderes River) and its tributary the Lycus, and contains the towns of Laodicea on the Lycus and Hierapolis. [1]


Religion

It was the "Great Mother", Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was originally worshipped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as "Mountain Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine.

The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.


Scythians and Cimmerians

According to scholars, the Scythians and Cimmerians were identified with a large population of the Lost Israelites tribes that were once in exile. They are located on the Bible Timeline Chart with History during 200 BC. There are accounts from the Assyrians that the Cimmerians were partly Israelite.

The Cimmerians, in particular, were a group of Indo-Europeans that lived in the northern part of Caucasus and the Azov Sea, about 1300 BC. By the 8th century BC, the Scythians drove them southward and into Anatolia. The Cimmerians were considered Iranians while others referred to them as Thracians.

After they had left the Pontic steppe, these people decided to head off to Anatolia and succeeded in conquering Phrygia in the years 696 to 695 BC. They reached the pinnacle of their success when they took over Sardis, Lydia‘s capital, in 652 BC. However, they quickly reached their decline, specifically when they were defeated by the Alyattes between the years 637 and 626 BC. After their defeat, there was a lack of information about this group of people, although there were assumptions that they remained in Cappadocia.

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There were minimal details in terms of the origin of this tribe. Some possibilities are that the Cimmerians had some relations with the Thracians or Iranians. Historians claim that these people may have been under the rule of an elite Iranian background.

Herodotus, a Greek historian, noted that the Cimmerians once lived in the regions on the north coast of the Black Sea and Caucasus. These places are nearby modern-day Russia and Ukraine. However, Renate Rolle, an archaeologist, claimed that there was an absence of evidence that the Cimmerians settled in the southern portion of Russia.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, most scholars accepted the accounts of Herodotus in terms of the origin of the Cimmerians. However, Sir Henry Layard had different claims about this tribe. His studies opened up new sources that are centuries older than what were stated by Herodotus. In the Assyrian records, the Cimmerians were situated in a kingdom that was not distant from Urartu. This was the Iron Age Kingdom, which was located around Armenian’s highland called Lake Van, a place in the southern part of Caucasus.

The Israelites were brought to the center portion of Assyria. Eventually, warriors of Israelite and Syrian descent became a part of the Assyrian armies. They also gained influence and power, and they were taken to Mannae for training. Mannae was among the places were the Cimmerians were believed to have settled.

Historically, Mannae became the center of the Scythian tribe. These people were one with the Cimmerians, and the two tribes even lived and functioned in the similar geographical zones. In fact, the names of these two groups of people have become rather interchangeable in most Assyrian books and historical sources.


Asian Christianity

Christianity is sometimes described as a "Western religion," meaning that it has been influential primarily in the West, that is, Europe and North America. Indeed, at the beginning of this century 64% of all Christians lived in Europe and North America. Even today Asian Christians now make up only 10% of the world population of Christians. And in their own countries Asian Christians represent a mere 3.5% of the population of Asia. So in most of Asia, Christianity is a minority religion submerged in other cultures.

But didn't Jesus teach that the Gospel was for the whole world? Well then what about Asia? As we dig into it, we find that the Gospel has a long, noble, and interesting history in Asia. Missionary and historian Dr. Samuel Moffett* in a recent book tells us that "The church began in Asia. Its earliest history, its first centers were Asian. Asia produced the first known church building, the first New Testament translation, perhaps the first Christian king, the first Christian poets, and even arguably the first Christian state. Asian Christians endured the greatest persecutions. They mounted global ventures in missionary expansion the West could not match until after the thirteenth century."

Jesus Was Asian
Christianity began in Asia! Jesus spent all of his earthly life in Palestine, on the continent of Asia, and the early church had its strongest congregations in Asia Minor, (which, conquered by Islam, has become modern Turkey.)

When the church began on the day of Pentecost there were plenty of Asians there, people from Persia, Medea, and Mesopotamia (modern Iran and Iraq), Cappadocia, Pontus, Phrygia and Pamphylia (modern Turkey). See Acts 2:9-10. Some of these Asians were undoubtedly among the three thousand who were baptized that day. They returned to their homes with much to tell about Jesus.

The apostle Paul went first to the cities of Asia Minor. Galatians, Ephesians, and Colossians were epistles written to Asian churches. The churches of Revelation 2-3 (Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, etc.) were all in Asia Minor.

Great Opportunity Wasted
It may just be the greatest botched opportunity in all church history. In the 1260s, the Polos, an Italian merchant family, journeyed to China and were well received at the court of the great Kublai Khan. Before they returned to Italy in 1269, Kublai Khan requested them to ask the pope to send 100 teachers of science and religion to instruct the Chinese in the learning and faith of Europe. The Pope only managed to send two Dominican friars with the Polos in November, 1271 but a war frightened the two friars, and even they turned back. The Polos, including young Marco, continued their journey to the Chinese emperor without the requested religious teachers. How might the history of Christianity in Asia been different had this incomparable opportunity been seized!

Thomas to India
Early church tradition also speaks of Christianity's spread eastward. The story goes that Jesus' disciples drew lots for which parts of the world they would evangelize, and India fell to the apostle Thomas. Christians in India to this day have a strong tradition that Thomas came to their land in 52 AD

When Marco Polo traveled through India in the thirteenth century and Vasco de Gama landed there in the late fifteenth century, they both found Christians continuing the liturgy of the ancient Syrian church. Hindu rulers and the Indian caste system had prevented extensive evangelism among the populace, but the Malabar Indian Christians had been able to pass their beliefs to their own children for centuries.

First Christian Nation
The early Christian message spread along established trade routes. Edessa, modern Urfa in Turkey, was an early trade center between the East and the Roman world. By 150 AD, Christianity was strongly established there. The early church writer Tertullian wrote of a strong Christian community in Persia by 220 AD Gregory the Illuminator led King Tiridates of Armenia to Christ about 301.

China
The T'ang dynasty (618-907) of China hospitably received foreigners at its court among these were a large number of Nestorian Christians. Portions of Scripture, including the Sermon on the Mount, were translated into Chinese, and the "Gloria in Excelsis Deo" was also used as a Chinese hymn of praise. Even into the ninth century, Arab traders visiting China recorded the Chinese emperor's knowledge of Noah, the prophets, Moses, and Jesus.

When the Moslem Arabs conquered large portions of Asia beginning in the seventh century, it became illegal for Christians to evangelize or actively seek converts to their faith. The Christian communities already established in India, Persia, and Mesopotamia clung to their past and became ghettos in an Islamic culture and society. Early traditions and liturgies continued for centuries, even when the original languages used were no longer intelligible to the participants.

*Samuel Hugh Moffett, A History of Christianity in Asia: Volume 1, Beginnings to 1500. Harper and Row, San Fransisco, 1992. We highly recommend this book as an outstanding in-depth resource to accompany this six-part series of Glimpses.

Notable first
Armenia was the world's first nation to officially embrace Christianity as its religion (around 301). The Armenian church has never accepted papal rule but shares some Roman Catholic as well as some Greek Orthodox doctrines.


Historic Premillennialism: Taking the Long View

THE DAYS WILL COME in which vines shall grow,” imagined Papias of Hierapolis, “each having ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs, and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and in each one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes, and every grape when pressed will give two hundred gallons of wine. And when any of the saints shall lay hold of a cluster, another shall cry out, 'I am a better cluster, take me bless the Lord through me.'” Papias (c.60-120) was perhaps the first post-biblical author to describe the thousand-year visible Kingdom of Christ—the Millennium.

The early Gnostic heretic Cerinthus (c.100) elaborated on the physical pleasures of the Millennium—including “nuptial” pleasures—to a degree that scandalized the orthodox.

Some early orthodox and heretical Christians found the tangible, sensual expectations of the Millennium irresistible. But as Christians gained more experience with these expectations, they found sufficient reason to be wary.

The First Premillennialist

As years turned into decades, and decades into centuries, it became clear that, in spite of the hopes of some, the Millennium hadn’t started with Jesus' resurrection. Although some modern scholars speculate this might have caused dismay, there is no evidence—either in internal exhortations or in answers to external critics—that it bothered anyone.

Christians routinely prayed that the end of the world be postponed. It appears that the delay was simply not an issue. Those who expected the Millennium were confident that it would come. The question was simply when.

As the years wore on, those who thought about the Millennium began to rethink the event that would initiate it. If the Resurrection had not started the Millennium, perhaps the Second Coming would.

Justin Martyr (c.100-c.165) shared Papias’s millennial expectation. In his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin affirmed his expectation that the faithful departed would rise from the dead and reign with Christ for a thousand years in a rebuilt Jerusalem. Still, he differed from Papias in two interesting ways.

First, Justin said openly that not all Christians shared his expectation: “I and many others are of this opinion, and believe that such will take place . but, on the other hand, many who belong to the pure and pious faith, and are true Christians, think otherwise.” Such tolerance was not given for other doctrines, such as the resurrection of the dead. “Some who are called Christians . say there is no resurrection of the dead, and that their souls, when they die, are taken to heaven do not imagine that they are Christians” Second, Justin linked the beginning of the Millennium he expected not to Christ’s resurrection, as Papias had done, but to Christ’s “second advent.” He believed faithful Christians would rise from the dead to live with Christ in the new Jerusalem. After the Millennium had been completed, the rest of humanity would rise from the dead then all would receive the Last Judgment. This seems to be the first post-scriptural writing that placed the Millennium after the Second Coming, thus clearly placing the present age before the Millennium. Justin appears to have been the first premillennialist.

Subsequent writers followed his lead. Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130-c. 200) is best known for his vigorous defense of Christianity against the Gnostics on such points as the bodily resurrection of the dead. In his book Against all Heresies, Irenaeus followed his teacher Papias, maintaining that when the faithful departed are raised, they will reign with Christ for a thousand years of bliss. Jerusalem would be rebuilt, famine would be unknown, and animals would live in harmony with each other and with man. However, like Justin and unlike Papias, Irenaeus expected this to happen after the coming of the Antichrist and the second coming of Christ.

Calming the Enthusiasts

Justin and Irenaeus spoke of the Millennium as a far-off event they hoped for someday. Its only importance to Christian living was as a reminder of the hope that should guide a Christian’s life. But late in the 100s, some Christians began to see signs that the Millennium was imminent. The most worrisome of these were the Montanists.

Probably in 172, Montanus began to proclaim that Jerusalem would soon descend near Phrygia (west-central Asia Minor). Montanus and his female associates, Prisca and Maximilla, claimed the Millennium had begun and God had given them authority over the Christian church. To reject their pronouncements, they said, was to blaspheme against the Holy Spirit: Luke 12’s “unforgivable sin.” Montanus was eventually condemned by the church, though not for his eschatology.

In the early 200s, Hippolytus of Rome predicted that Christ would establish the Millennium in 496. He was one of the few early writers to predict the date of the Second Coming, but not for reasons we’d expect. Better known for his Apostolic Tradition, which contains one of the earliest surviving texts of a prayer to consecrate the bread and cup during Communion, Hippolytus worked out this date in his ground breaking study of the book of Daniel—the earliest surviving Christian commentary on a single book of the Bible.

The question of the Second Coming was a lively one at the time. A few chapters before his date prediction, Hippolytus told of a foolish Syrian church leader who had led his people into the desert to await the Second Coming. Another leader, this time in Pontus (northern Asia Minor), had predicted that Christ would come again in a year’s time. His people trusted him as they trusted Scripture itself, and when the year ended without the Second Coming, they were devastated. Many despaired of Scripture and of their religion: “The virgins got married the men withdrew to their farms and those who had recklessly sold all their possessions were eventually to be found begging.”

Millennial expectations were gaining a bad name, so Hippolytus wanted to dampen expectations. He first worked out the date of Christ’s birth: 5,500 years after the world was created. He then reckoned that the Millennium would begin 6,000 years after the creation of the world, so that the world would end after 7,000 years—a commonly-held view in those days. Clearly, then, Christ would return 500 years after his birth—and nearly three centuries after Hippolytus’s book. Placing Christ’s return so far in the future probably helped Hippolytus defuse the expectations of Christians who expected to see the Millennium soon.

Another attempt to dampen millennial expectations was made by the great thinker of the third-century church, Origen (c. 185-c. 254). Origen took delight in allegory and symbolism and felt no need to interpret Daniel or Revelation literally. Yes, the “best” Christians will be princes and rulers, but they will both rule over “the souls of lower condition” and also teach them about higher things, so that they can be fashioned into a “living stone” that can take its place in the spiritual Jerusalem to come.

Origen’s allegorical approach also focused on actions performed by faithful souls, rather than on an unfolding millennial chronology. In this way, Origen could contrast the pagan submission to Fate against the Christian sense that one’s choices made a difference. An increasing number of Christian thinkers would come to prefer this approach.

The “Great Captain” Arrives

When the Great Persecution broke upon the church in 303, there was speculation that the dreaded tribulation may have arrived, with the Emperor Diocletian as the first beast of Revelation 13, and his Caesar Galerius as the second beast.

Then Constantine won the empire in battle in 312 and immediately called a halt to the persecution. He promised to restore the church’s property and offered to act as its sponsor and patron. The surviving Christians were ecstatic. “The Angel of the mighty council, the great Captain and Leader of the armies of God . suddenly appeared,” wrote Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260-340) referring to Constantine.

In the face of such joyous circumstances, who needed to hope for a Millennium in the indefinite future? It was easy to conclude the Millennium had indeed arrived, and that Christ’s second coming would occur at some date after the Millennium was complete—a postmillennial view.

Resources:

If you're interested in the early church, be sure to read the interesting and well-written The Triumph of the Meek: Why Early Christianity Succeeded.

Links:

The works of the early church fathers can be found at Wheaton College’s Ecole Initiative.

A lengthy treatment of the early church fathers' eschatology from a dispensationalist perspective, titled Theology Adrift is interesting reading.

By Dana Netherton

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #61 in 1999]

Dana Netherton is a freelance writer with a Ph.D. in church history from the University of London.

Next articles

Stamboom Homs » Hécube "of Troy" Princess of Phrygia I (± 100-± 100)

Hecuba
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108 Hecuba is an asteroid.
Hecuba (also Hekuba or Hekabe) was a Trojan queen in Greek mythology, daughter of Dymas.

With her husband, King Priam, Hecuba had twenty children including Creusa, Hector, Antiphus, Deiphobus, Ilione, Laodice, Polydorus, Polites, Helenus, Paris and Cassandra.

With the god Apollo, Hecuba had a son named Troilius. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilius reached the age of twenty alive. He and his sister, Polyxena, were ambushed and killed by Achilles during the Trojan War.

Polydorus, Priam's youngest son, was sent with gifts of jewelry and gold to the court of King Polymestor to keep him safe during the Trojan War. The fighting grew vicious and Priam was frightened for the child's safety. After Troy fell, Polymestor threw Polydorus to his death to take the treasure for himself. Hecuba, though she was enslaved by the Achaeans when the city fell, eventually avenged her son.

In another tradition, Hecuba went mad upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena. Dante described this episode, which he derived from Latin sources:

E quando la fortuna volse in basso
l'altezza de' Troian che tutto ardiva,
sì che 'nsieme col regno il re fu casso,
Ecuba trista, misera e cattiva,
poscia che vide Polissena morta,
e del suo Polidoro in su la riva
del mar si fu la dolorosa accorta,
forsennata latrò sì come cane . . .
And when fortune overturned the pride
of the Trojans, who dared everything, so that
both the king and his kingdom were destroyed,
Poor wretched captured Hecuba,
after she saw her Polyxena dead
and found her Polydorus on the beach,
was driven mad by sorrow
and began barking like a dog . . .
Inferno XXX: 13-20

Hecuba is seen as the leading character in the play, The Trojan Women (in Greek, Troiades) and Hecuba, both tragedies by the Greek playwright Euripides.

Apollo also fell in love with Cassandra, daughter of Hecuba and Priam, and Troilius's half-sister. He promised Cassandra the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo--unable to take back his gift--cursed her, so that no one would ever believe her prophecies.

ADAM AND EVE GENEALOGY:
Notes for KING OF TROY PRIAM:
Priam (Podarces)

Being the only son of Laomedon to survive a war against Heracles, he was ransomed by his sister, and he became king of Troy.

His first wife was Arisbe, daughter of Merops, king of Percote. They had a son, Aesacus, who was a gifted seer. Priam soon married Hecuba, daughter of Dymas. With Hecuba, he became father of Hector, Paris, Cassandra, Helenus and many other children (some say as many as fifty, by some other women as well as Hecuba). Before Paris was born, Hecuba had a vision, that the seer interpreted that Paris would one-day causes the destruction of Troy. Priam had his second son by Hecuba, exposed in the wild.

He was ally of Mygdonians and fought the Amazons, in his youth. Years later, Paris returned to Troy and was recognised. Their parents had forgotten the warning by the seer (possibly Aesacus) and welcome him home.

When three goddesses asked Paris to judge and award the golden apple to the fairest goddess, he awarded the apple to goddess of love, Aphrodite. Aphrodite promised him the fairest woman, Helen of Sparta. This would result in the outbreak of war between the Greeks and the Trojans.

Priam would have return Helen, when Greek embassy demanded the return of Helen to her husband Menelaüs (Menelaus). But Paris prevailed upon his father to refuse. As a result the war lasted for ten years and all but one son would die in the war. His son, Helenus, also a seer, would be the only son to survive the war. Hecuba all his daughter became enslaved. Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, would kill the aged king (Priam).

More About KING OF TROY PRIAM:
A.k.a.: Priamos / Podarces
Title-: (Last) King of Troy / High King of Troy

More About PRINCESS OF PHRYGIA HECUBA:
Individual Note: Father was Dymas King of Phrygia
Title-: Princess of Phrygia

"Hecuba (also Hekabe Ancient Greek: Ἑκάβη) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy, with whom she had 19 children. She was of Phrygian birth her father was Dymas, and her mother (Eunoë) was said to be a daughter of Sangarius, god of the Sangarius River, the principal river of ancient Phrygia.

In the Iliad, Hecuba appears as the mother of Hector, and laments his death in a well-known speech in Book 24 of the epic.

With the god Apollo, Hecuba had a son named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was killed by Achilles during the Trojan War.

Polydorus, Priam's youngest son by Hecuba, was sent with gifts of jewelry and gold to the court of King Polymestor to keep him safe during the Trojan War. The fighting grew vicious and Priam was frightened for the child's safety. After Troy fell, Polymestor threw Polydorus to his death to take the treasure for himself. Hecuba, though she was enslaved by the Achaeans when the city fell, eventually avenged her son, blinding Polymestor and killing his children.

In another tradition, Hecuba went insane upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena. Dante described this episode, which he derived from Italian sources:

E quando la fortuna volse in basso

l'altezza de' Troian che tutto ardiva,

sì che 'nsieme col regno il re fu casso,

Ecuba trista, misera e cattiva,

poscia che vide Polissena morta,

e del suo Polidoro in su la riva

del mar si fu la dolorosa accorta,

forsennata latrò sì come cane.

And when fortune overturned the pride

of the Trojans, who dared everything, so that

both the king and his kingdom were destroyed,

Poor wretched captured Hecuba,

after she saw her Polyxena dead

and found her Polydorus on the beach,

and began barking like a dog.

A third story says that she was given to Odysseus as a slave, but as she snarled and cursed at him, the gods turned her into a dog, allowing her to escape.

Hecuba in arts and literature

* Central character of the play Hecuba by Euripides

* Character in King Priam by David Park (1958-61)

* Referenced in Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant

* Mentioned in "Fortune plango vulnera" of Carmina Burana

* Character in the play The Trojan Women, also by Euripides

* Mentioned in Act II Scene 2 of Hamlet, by William Shakespeare

* Central character of Cortege of Eagles by Martha Graham (1967)

* Character in the play The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, by Jean Giraudoux

* Solinus, De vita Caesarum X.22

* Lactantius, Divinae institutions I.22

* Pomponius Mela, De chorographia II.26

* Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.423-450, 481-571

* Tsotakou-Karveli. Lexicon of Greek Mythology. Athens: Sokoli, 1990."

Marriage 1 PRIAM @ OF TROY

Birth: abt 1215 BC PHRYGIA, BLACK SEA REGION, GREEK KINGDOMS, ANCIENT TURKEY

Death: BC OF SIMMERIA, BLACK SEA REGION, TROYA, ANCIENT TURKEY

Spouse: Priamo OF TROY, HIGH KING

Marriage: abt 1200 BC, BLACK SEA REGION, TROY, ANCIENT TURKEY

Priam married HECUBA/HEKABE. She was the daughter of Dymas, a Phrygian. Hecuba was made a captive of the Achaeans/Greeks after her husband's death. In various scenes depicting the Trojan war, she is portrayed on Greek vases as a beautiful young woman. A fresco in the Casa di Cecilio Iucundo at Pompeii shows a sad Hecuba looking down from a window on the procession that returns Hector's body to Troy. When Troy was born Hecuba had a dream that he would be the cause of the downfall of Troy so he was sent Mount Ida as a shepherd. (Bulfinch, 1968 Encyclopedia Mythica, 2005)

Hecuba (also Hekábe, Hecabe, Hécube Ancient Greek: Ἑκάβη) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy, with whom she had 19 children. The most famous of her children was Hector of Troy. She was of Phrygian birth her father was Dymas, and her mother Eunoë was said to be a daughter of Sangarius, god of the Sangarius River, the principal river of ancient Phrygia.

In the Iliad, Hecuba appears as the mother of Hector, and laments his death in a well-known speech in Book 24 of the epic.

With the god Apollo, Hecuba had a son named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was killed by Achilles during the Trojan War.

Polydorus, Priam's youngest son by Hecuba, was sent with gifts of jewelry and gold to the court of King Polymestor to keep him safe during the Trojan War. The fighting grew vicious and Priam was frightened for the child's safety. After Troy fell, Polymestor threw Polydorus to his death to take the treasure for himself. Hecuba, though she was enslaved by the Achaeans when the city fell, eventually avenged her son, blinding Polymestor and killing his children.

In another tradition, Hecuba went insane upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena. Dante described this episode, which he derived from Italian sources:

E quando la fortuna volse in basso

l'altezza de' Troian che tutto ardiva,

sì che 'nsieme col regno il re fu casso,

Ecuba trista, misera e cattiva,

poscia che vide Polissena morta,

e del suo Polidoro in su la riva

del mar si fu la dolorosa accorta,

forsennata latrò sì come cane.

And when fortune overturned the pride

of the Trojans, who dared everything, so that

both the king and his kingdom were destroyed,

Poor wretched captured Hecuba,

after she saw her Polyxena dead

and found her Polydorus on the beach,

and began barking like a dog.

A third story says that she was given to Odysseus as a slave, but as she snarled and cursed at him, the gods turned her into a dog, allowing her to escape.

"Hecuba (also Hekabe Ancient Greek: Ἑκάβη) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy, with whom she had 19 children. She was of Phrygian birth her father was Dymas, and her mother (Eunoë) was said to be a daughter of Sangarius, god of the Sangarius River, the principal river of ancient Phrygia.

In the Iliad, Hecuba appears as the mother of Hector, and laments his death in a well-known speech in Book 24 of the epic.

With the god Apollo, Hecuba had a son named Troilus. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was killed by Achilles during the Trojan War.

Polydorus, Priam's youngest son by Hecuba, was sent with gifts of jewelry and gold to the court of King Polymestor to keep him safe during the Trojan War. The fighting grew vicious and Priam was frightened for the child's safety. After Troy fell, Polymestor threw Polydorus to his death to take the treasure for himself. Hecuba, though she was enslaved by the Achaeans when the city fell, eventually avenged her son, blinding Polymestor and killing his children.

In another tradition, Hecuba went insane upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena. Dante described this episode, which he derived from Italian sources:

E quando la fortuna volse in basso

l'altezza de' Troian che tutto ardiva,

sì che 'nsieme col regno il re fu casso,

Ecuba trista, misera e cattiva,

poscia che vide Polissena morta,

e del suo Polidoro in su la riva

del mar si fu la dolorosa accorta,

forsennata latrò sì come cane.

And when fortune overturned the pride

of the Trojans, who dared everything, so that

both the king and his kingdom were destroyed,

Poor wretched captured Hecuba,

after she saw her Polyxena dead

and found her Polydorus on the beach,

and began barking like a dog.

A third story says that she was given to Odysseus as a slave, but as she snarled and cursed at him, the gods turned her into a dog, allowing her to escape.

Hecuba in arts and literature

* Central character of the play Hecuba by Euripides

* Character in King Priam by David Park (1958-61)

* Referenced in Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant

* Mentioned in "Fortune plango vulnera" of Carmina Burana

* Character in the play The Trojan Women, also by Euripides

* Mentioned in Act II Scene 2 of Hamlet, by William Shakespeare

* Central character of Cortege of Eagles by Martha Graham (1967)

* Character in the play The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, by Jean Giraudoux

* Solinus, De vita Caesarum X.22

* Lactantius, Divinae institutions I.22

* Pomponius Mela, De chorographia II.26

* Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.423-450, 481-571

* Tsotakou-Karveli. Lexicon of Greek Mythology. Athens: Sokoli, 1990."

Marriage 1 PRIAM @ OF TROY

Birth: abt 1215 BC PHRYGIA, BLACK SEA REGION, GREEK KINGDOMS, ANCIENT TURKEY

Death: BC OF SIMMERIA, BLACK SEA REGION, TROYA, ANCIENT TURKEY

Spouse: Priamo OF TROY, HIGH KING

Marriage: abt 1200 BC, BLACK SEA REGION, TROY, ANCIENT TURKEY

Priam married HECUBA/HEKABE. She was the daughter of Dymas, a Phrygian. Hecuba was made a captive of the Achaeans/Greeks after her husband's death. In various scenes depicting the Trojan war, she is portrayed on Greek vases as a beautiful young woman. A fresco in the Casa di Cecilio Iucundo at Pompeii shows a sad Hecuba looking down from a window on the procession that returns Hector's body to Troy. When Troy was born Hecuba had a dream that he would be the cause of the downfall of Troy so he was sent Mount Ida as a shepherd. (Bulfinch, 1968 Encyclopedia Mythica, 2005)

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An heresy which formally emerged in Armenia and Syria holding to the belief that Jesus Christ had two natures but only one will, contrary to the orthodox Christoloical view that Jesus Christ has both a divine and human will each corresponding to his two natures.

An heresy which claimed that its prophesies superceded and fulfilled the doctrines proclaimed by the apostles, emphasizing ecstatic prophesying, avoidance of sin and church discipline, chastity and remarriage. The view also held to the notion that Christians who "fell" from grace could not possibly be redeemed.


St. Bartholomew

This apostle is mentioned among the immediate disciples of our Lord, under the appellation of Bartholomew, though it is evident from divers passages in Scripture, that he was also called Nathanael. After our Lord’s ascension into heaven, Bartholomew visited different parts of the world, in order to propagate the gospel of his Master, and at length penetrated as far as the Hither India. Here he remained a considerable time, and then went to Hierapolis in Phrygia, where he labored (in conjunction with Philip) to plant Christianity in those parts and to convince the blind idolaters of the evil of their ways, and direct them in the paths which lead to eternal salvation. This enraging the bigoted magistrates, they sentenced Bartholomew to death, and he was accordingly fastened to a cross but their consciences staring them in their faces for the iniquity they were about to commit, they ordered him to be taken down and set at liberty.

In consequence of this our apostle left Hierapolis, and went to Lycaonia, where he obtained a great number of converts, whom he instructed and trained up in the principles of the Christian religion. From Lycaonia, he went to Albania, a city on the Caspian Sea, a place miserably overrun with idolatry, from which he labored hard to reclaim the people. But his endeavors to “turn them from darkness unto light, and from the power of Satan unto God,” instead of proving effectual, only procured his destruction. The magistrates were so incensed against him, that they prevailed on the governor to order him to be put death, which was accordingly done with the most distinguished cruelty.


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