Wikipedia lists the following Ottoman currencies: Akçe, Para, Kuruş, Lira, Sultanî, but I would like to now which were prevalent in actual use (or, rather, uses). Also, such a variety suggests that perhaps different geographical areas saw the use of different currencies. Another aspect that occurs to me is: how prevalent was the use of European currencies, in comparison to Ottoman currency(ies)?
From 1516 to 1917 it was Ottoman money, named gold liran asmali. To be specific, from 1807 to 1918 they used a different Ottoman currency named tamashlik,onlic,sikwin. In 1914 when the Ottomans lost in WWI, French Liran gold became prevalent. In 1917/11/23 the British announced that Egyptian money was legal, as well as Ottoman, and any money from allies.
References (not in English, or a Latin alphabet):
Behind the Middle East Crisis
Lo, I am about to make Jerusalem a cup of reeling to all the peoples round about. on that day I will make Jerusalem a heavy stone for all the peoples all who lift it shall grievously hurt themselves. And all the nations of the earth will come together against it. -Zechariah 12:2-3
Israel and the PLO have been sliding toward full-blown war since September 2000, as the last shreds of the Oslo Peace Process dissolved into an intifada and successive terrorist activities. The Palestinian National Authority's chief representative to the United States, Hassen Abdel Rahman, told a meeting of the U.S. Institute of Peace last April that if Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon continued on the current path, ". the gates of hell will open. We will go back, not to 1967, but to 1948 and unleash radicalism on the whole region." 1
In the world media, the propaganda war still rages equally fiercely, paralleling the conflict it describes. Every night, talk channel pundits and their Israeli or Palestinian guests scream a bewildering array of claims, counter claims, propaganda and information, leaving the uninformed Westerner with the impression that this is a bad family feud that any wise person should remain far from. It is virtually impossible to sort out the arguments presented by Israelis and Palestinians without a lot of effort, but one thing is painfully obvious: both sides can't even agree on the historical facts that spawned today's conflict. It is also clear that both groups operate from two fundamentally incompatible worldviews, something the global secular community is using to point to religion as the cause of all the world's problems.
The Beginning of the Strife
The conflict is as old as Abraham's two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, patriarchs of the two peoples. The modern chapter began in the late 19th century, with the rise of Zionism as a result of the trial of a Jewish French military officer named Alfred Dreyfus, accused of treason. A Jewish newspaper reporter, Theodor Herzl, was covering the trial and in the course of the proceedings eventually realized that Dreyfus was being railroaded because he was Jewish. From that realization Herzl came to believe Jews would never be safe until they had a homeland of their own, and modern Zionism was born.
Two key historical events in this story occurred in the early 20th century. First, during WWI the British, under General Edmund Allenby, captured Jerusalem from the Ottoman Turks in 1917. Until that time, Jerusalem and Palestine were backwater regions of the Ottoman Empire, with its capital in Istanbul. Mark Twain visited Jerusalem in the 19th century and records it as a filthy old city in total disrepair. As Zionist Jews trickled into Palestine, they bought property from the absentee landowners - oftentimes the most undesirable portions of land at inflated prices - and converted swamps and desert land into blossoming agricultural kibbutzim (communes). With the increase of economic opportunity in Palestine, more and more Muslims began gravitating to the region to take advantage of the economic boom.
The second key event occurred when Britain promulgated the Balfour Declaration, saying His Majesty's government viewed with favor the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
As the number of Jews in Palestine increased, so did tensions between Arabs and Jews, fomented largely by the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Husseini. Today's conflict was formalized with the birth of the Israeli state in 1948, when the United Nations - in a cliffhanger majority - of one vote - partitioned Palestine into two states, one for Jews (Israel) and one for Arabs (Jordan). The Jewish suffering of the Holocaust was a tremendous impetus for the world to accommodate the Jews, who had suffered so greatly during World War II. The Arabs rejected the partition plan and attacked the new Jewish state, initiating the 1948 Israeli War of Independence.
During this time the Arabs inside the fledgling state of Israel fled their homes to avoid getting caught in the impending conflict, also fearing rule under Jewish dominion. This group of refugees became the group of people we call the Palestinians today. Many fled to Jordan or other neighboring states, where they were placed in refugee camps and never assimilated into the greater culture of those countries. Even though most of the original 1948 refugees have died, many of their descendents still live in camps and to this day demand the right of return to their former homes inside Israel. The Israeli government has refused to grant this right because the Palestinian numbers would overwhelm the economic and political demographics of Israel, making the Israeli Jews minorities in their own country. This issue will somehow have to be addressed if there is to be a satisfactory peace.
The events surrounding the 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War is perhaps the biggest bone of contention regarding today's conflict: borders and who started the fight. Frequently, demands are heard about UN Resolution 242, which requires Israel to keep to its pre-1967 borders with its Arab neighbors, but no one can agree exactly what that will mean. At the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, no peace treaty was signed a cease-fire armistice was the only thing defining borders and the terms of peace. A peace treaty was to be hammered out later, something which the Arab countries subsequently refused to do, since they still intended to retake the territory of Israel when the occasion presented itself.
On May 15, 1967, Israeli intelligence discovered that Egypt was concentrating large-scale forces in the Sinai peninsula - remember this is before the days of satellite intelligence. On May 19, the United Nations Emergency Force stationed on the border between Egypt and Israel was evacuated at the demand of Egypt's president, Gamal Abdel-Nasser. During the night of May 22-23, Egypt's navy blockaded the Straits of Tiran opening into the Indian Ocean, prohibiting passage to Israeli ships. On May 30, Jordan joined the Egyptian-Syrian alliance of 1966 and placed its armies under Egyptian command. Iraq followed suit shortly thereafter. Meanwhile, military detachments from other Arab countries began arriving. By the end of May, Israel confronted a Muslim force of 465,000 troops, 2,880 tanks and 810 fighter aircraft along the entire length of her borders with Arab countries, which had not been there less than a month earlier.
As Arab radio crackled with "drive-them-into-the-sea" rhetoric, the situation became very tense. Technically, the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran could probably be considered the first bellicose act of war, but there had been no violence or lives lost. Despite a huge Egyptian army threatening its southern border, Israel tried to diplomatically defuse the crisis by approaching Britain and France, who had guaranteed freedom of Israeli navigation. Those counties reneged on their promise. U.S. President Johnson proposed breaking the blockade with an international armada. In a May 28 broadcast, Israel's Prime Minister Levi Eshkol agreed to wait and see.
By June 4 it became clear that diplomatic channels had failed. Faced with imminent danger, Israel launched a preemptive air strike to shatter Arab air forces while their aircraft were still on the ground, a move which succeeded. During the six days of the war, in fierce fighting Israel took the Golan Heights from Syria, the Sinai Desert from Egypt, and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, from Jordan - all of the territories that have been on the table for negotiation during the Oslo Peace Process. Israel returned the Sinai to Egypt during the historic Camp David agreement under President Jimmy Carter, negotiated between Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Sadat would later pay for this with his life as the result of an assassination. The remaining territories are still held by Israel. The Palestinians view these lands as having been seized and occupied by Israeli aggression, while Israelis view them as spoils of a war they didn't start or want.
Jerusalem remains a stumbling block to peace as the Palestinians claim the city was theirs before the 1967 War, while the city is the heart and soul of the Jewish nation and religion. It was the once-great capital of King David and the site of Solomon's and, later, Herod's temple. Even though Muslims considered Jerusalem to be a holy site, building the Al-Aksa Mosque on the Temple Mount in a.d. 687 to commemorate the site from which Mohammed made his Miraaj or Night Journey into the heavens, the city itself was virtually ignored until Jewish immigrants returned in significant numbers. The city is now the greatest source of division between Israelis and Palestinians, since the side that rules Jerusalem will hold dominion over the other's holy sites. Neither the Israelis nor the Palestinians can agree to willingly give up any part of the Temple Mount. It is the ultimate point of honor.
The Oslo Accord established most of the West Bank and Gaza as Palestinian-controlled areas with the understanding that future negotiations would be required to settle the questions of boundary lines, the establishment of a Palestinian state, the issue of Jerusalem, and the right of return of Palestinian refugees. It was deemed that these issues were too hot to handle, and indeed these issues torpedoed the most recent Camp David talks. In a drive to establish himself as the president whose legacy was to bring peace to the Middle East, President Clinton pressured Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat into addressing these issues prematurely. Coming to an agreement at that point would have meant political suicide for both men, and ultimately it cost Barak his position.
In the meanwhile, it is the common people on both sides who are suffering the effects of the constant violence. Israelis cannot feel safe in any public place, for fear a suicide bomber will strike, while Palestinians fear that Israeli reprisals will spill over into their neighborhoods. The Israeli economy has been hard hit with the decrease in tourism due to the violence, and Palestinians are struck with a 60% unemployment rate, in part because they are not allowed to commute to their jobs in Israel.
Many Westerners fail to understand the deeper religious nature of not only the Middle Eastern conflict, but also how that affects our own position in the world. September 11 caught the United States and the West by surprise, but it shouldn't have. The indicators were all there for anyone with eyes to understand what they were looking at, and it was clear something had to give. Western culture is viewed as a threat to Islam, which by now should have been well underway to converting the globe to the service of Allah. Indeed it really is, as in some parts of the western world it's the fastest growing religion. By 632, the prophet Mohammed had completed the task of conquering the Arabian peninsula, something he began only 10 years earlier. From Arabia, Islam swept through North Africa as well as modern-day Turkey and into the Balkans. From North Africa the Muslims invaded the Iberian peninsula and proceeded into the European heartland, where they were stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732. Muslims continued to have a foothold in Spain, contributing greatly to Spanish culture, until they were finally expelled under Isabella and Ferdinand in 1492.
Islam is a rich and complex culture in itself, which traditionally assumes one of two roles. In a country where it is not dominant, it takes on a submissive, negotiating role until it can achieve the upper hand. Once in dominance, it switches faces and assumes control, imposing itself on the culture in which it finds itself the majority. Ultimately Muslims believe that the whole world will be Muslim, even if it takes a few centuries and any number of setbacks.
Arab Muslims have a love/hate relationship with the West. Muslims view Western culture as being decadent (frankly, they're right), and are distressed that Western governments have intruded into Muslim lands since World War I. Virtually all of the countries of the Middle East today are the result of artificial borders drawn up by Western powers following the Great War. Israel is viewed as a Western thorn in the Islamic heartland an intolerable cancer that ultimately must be dealt with. The question in the Islamic mind is not how much land Israel holds it is the fact that it holds any land at all in what was formerly Muslim territory. This is one core reason why the Middle East can never have peace unless it is imposed from without, and once the external pressure is removed, war will return.
While adhering to 6th-century religious practices, especially concerning sexuality and women, Muslims steadfastly believe in the ultimate global victory of Islam. Still while deploring Western culture, Muslims love Western technology and money. They use email, cell phones, faxes, and the like. They buy Western weapons and clothing and use oil money from Western countries to finance their activities, including terrorism.
World Opinion? Never Again!
The Jewish population of Israel has equally strong emotive ties to the land under question. Jerusalem is mentioned hundreds of times in the Jewish Scriptures. It was from Jerusalem and greater Israel that the Jews were driven into Diaspora. After enduring two millennia of exile, persecution and pogroms, Jews have finally returned to their homeland, about which they would conclude their yearly Passover seders by saying, "Next year in Jerusalem."
The horrors of the Holocaust cemented the need for a Jewish state in the ancestral Jewish homeland. That's why world opinion doesn't impress the Israelis as much as one might think it should. World opinion didn't help the Jews when they were seeking refuge from Hitler's Germany even before the Endlsung (final solution) had been implemented. Ships bearing Jews were turned back to Germany, even from the U.S. Most countries were unwilling to take them in when they desperately needed a place to go and public opinion had totally failed to apprehend the approaching slaughter. Countries have reneged on their vows to aid Israel. So in the Israeli mind, it is their lives in the balance and world opinion is just "talk." The vow, "Never Again!" weighs heavily in the Israeli mind-set and rightly so.
The two groups competing for the same space in the Middle East have two different religions, two different worldviews, two different "scriptures" for the future destiny of the land. Coupled with that is a century of bloodshed, conflict, reprisals and hatred in which citizens from both sides have suffered and died, when for the most part, most simply want to live their lives and raise children in peace. It is clear that peace is unlikely unless it is imposed from without and then the question is, whose peace and at what cost?
- In 1923, when the battered country was struggling to recover from war, cash became very nearly worthless
- Children can be seen making kites out of cash and playing with huge stacks of money instead of toy bricks
- Women can be seen with dresses made out of banknotes, while other people burned cash instead of firewood
- One effect of the disaster was the destruction of middle class people's savings - which Adolf Hitler exploited
Published: 11:17 BST, 16 November 2017 | Updated: 18:58 BST, 16 November 2017
Children playing with stacks of cash as though they were toy bricks, women wearing dresses made of money, a woman burning banknotes instead of wood - these are the bizarre scenes from a Germany beset by hyperinflation.
In 1923, when the battered and heavily indebted country was struggling to recover from the disaster of the First World War, cash became very nearly worthless.
Germany was hit by one of the worst cases of hyperinflation in history with, at one point, 4.2 trillion German marks being worth just one American dollar.
It began during the First World War, when the German government printed unbacked currency and borrowed money to finance its dream of conquering Europe.
The plan was to pay off the debts by seizing resource-rich territories and imposing reparations on the vanquished Allies.
But when Germany was smashed in 1918 it ended up with enormous debts alongside huge, punitive reparations owed to the Allies under the Treaty of Versailles.
The country gradually spiralled into a full-blown economic catastrophe that, by November 1923, had so degraded the German Mark that it took 200 billion of them to buy a loaf of bread.
Children playing with stacks of cash as though they were toy bricks (right), women wearing dresses made of money (left) - these are just some of the bizarre scenes from a Germany beset by hyperinflation. In 1923, when the battered and heavily indebted country was struggling to recover from the disaster of the First World War, cash became very nearly worthless. The country gradually spiralled into a full-blown economic catastrophe that, by November 1923, had so degraded the German Mark that it took 200 billion of them to buy a loaf of bread. Germany was hit by one of the worst cases of hyperinflation in history with, at one point, 4.2 trillion German marks being worth just one American dollar
The inflation began during the First World War, when the German government printed unbacked currency and borrowed money to finance its dream of conquering Europe. The plan was to pay off the debts by seizing resource-rich territories and imposing reparations on the vanquished Allies. But when Germany was smashed in 1918 it ended up with enormous debts alongside huge, punitive reparations owed to the Allies under the Treaty of Versailles. The economy soon collapsed. Pictured: Food displayed in a shop window with absurdly high prices during hyperinflation in Germany in 1923
Inflation crept up slowly at first, before accelerating rapidly in late 1922. By autumn 1923, the country was in full economic collapse. The rate of inflation was 3,250,000 per cent a month and prices for daily commodities doubled in a matter of hours. Pictured left: A man uses banknotes as wallpaper, more affordable that actual wallpaper. Right: Children stand next to a tower of 100,000 marks, which at that time was equal to just one US dollar. Later that year the exchange rate would rise much further, reaching 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar
During the crisis, workers paid by the hour found their wages were essentially worthless because prices had risen since they began their shifts. It became cheaper to burn money than to buy firewood. The currency was of such little value that children played with banknotes, fashioning them into kites (pictured), and people would even use cash as fabric to make clothes. Pensioners on fixed incomes were the most badly hit and people's life savings suddenly became worth less than a loaf of bread
Farmers eventually refused to bring produce into the city as the requirements to calculate and recalculate commercial transactions in the billions and trillions made it practically impossible to do business in cash. Shops were abandoned as storekeepers could not do business fast enough to protect their cash receipts. Pictured: Young boys use the near-worthless banknotes during an arts and crafts session
Unsurprisingly, the hardships created by hyperinflation led to uprisings. A far-left workers' revolt in the industrial Ruhr region led to a 50,000-man 'Red Army' which took control of the area before being put down by the army. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party also attempted a failed government takeover in Munich, which became known as the Beer Hall Putsch. Pictured: A shopkeeper with a crate of cash in 1922
The fever of hyperinflation finally broke in late 1923 when the government began issuing the new Rentenmark, a currency backed by mortgages on agricultural and industrial land, which was introduced with the old exchange rate of one US dollar to 4.2 Rentenmarks. Pictured: Cash being sold by weight in 1923
The new currency's foundation was shaky at best, but years of terrifying instability left the German people desperate enough to trust it. Nonetheless millions of middle-class Germans - normally the mainstay of a republic - were ruined by hyperinflation. Pictured: Worthless banknotes collected in a huge bowl as they wait to be burned in Germany, 1923
Many members of the ruined middle classes ultimately became receptive to extremist propaganda, with many flocking to Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party - as well as other anti-human ideologies like Communism. Pictured: Piles of banknotes awaiting distribution at the Reichsbank during hyperinflation in Germany during October 1923
Germany owed the Allies huge debts in reparations for having caused the war, so printing cash became a way to pay the countries that had defeated them. This worsened already growing inflation and led an economic crash that prevented Germany from paying any reparations at all. As a consequence, French and Belgian troops occupied the highly productive Ruhr region and took over its industries. Pictured: A Berlin banker counts stacks banknotes in Berlin, 1922
Pictured: A shop owner advertises 'selling and repairing in exchange for food,' one of many Germans turning to a bartering economy amid hyperinflation, circa 1922
Left: A woman uses banknotes to light her stove, Germany, circa 1923. Right: A man uses banknotes as wallpaper, more affordable than actual wallpaper in 1923
A one billion mark note in 1923. Hyperinflation was one of the events in the Weimar Republic era that led to its collapse and the rise of the Nazi Party
Left: Banknotes being uses as a source of cheap fuel in 1923. Right: 'The King of Inflation' - a man clad in worthless coins - was an attraction in hyperinflation-ridden Germany
Pictured: Men carry their cash in baskets in 1923. The world didn't quite learn its lesson from Germany's experience of hyperinflation, however. After the Second World War, the Hungarian pengő suffered from the worst case of hyperinflation ever recorded. In Zimbabwe in 2008, meanwhile, inflation reach 79.6 billion per cent
Children play with virtually worthless German Marks in 1922. Hyperinflation reached its zenith in November 1923. It ended when a new currency - known as the Rentenmark - was introduced to replace it. Banks 'turned the marks over to junk dealers by the ton' at this time so they could be recycled as paper
Pictured: Bread being sold for a staggering 4.60 million marks during hyperinflation in 1923. By November 1923, the currency had so degraded that it took 200 billion marks to buy a loaf of bread
Pictured: A man carrying a wheelbarrow full of cash, which effectively became people's wallets due to hyperinflation in 1923
Loadsamoney: Cash being transported in carts to pay salaries due to extreme hyperinflation in Weimar Germany in the aftermath of the First World War
What is Happening Right Now?
During the holy month of Ramadan, Israel hit again. Sheikh Jarrah, a neighborhood in East Jerusalem, has its citizens being forcefully evicted. This is an area where several Palestinians took refugee after the war. However, this area is now being invaded. Israeli people claim that these are their rightfully owned houses and evict people from their own homes. Israeli law is allowing this claim of the property while denying Palestinians the same rights. Forty-three citizens were evicted in 2002, with more families in 2008 and 2017. However, since the beginning of 2020, Israel has ordered the eviction of 13 more families, which has been attempted quite forcefully. At the beginning of May 2021, as Israeli court delayed a scheduled hearing on a Palestinian appeal amid heightened tension. The appeal ruling will determine whether 4 families will further be evicted from their homes, where they have lived for generations.
Think they are doing it peacefully and respectfully? Watch this. Do you think it is all a hoax? The outraging part is that an old lady living peacefully in her own home has Israeli people waiting to pass away to occupy it.
This was taken as a momentary victory for Palestinians. However, the protests led to Israel’s incursions into Al-Aqsa Mosque in the last week of Ramadan, the holiest time of the year for Muslims. To many, this is not considered a coincidence it has been perceived as a direct provocation for ongoing protests in support of families in Sheikh Jarrah. Put in mind that citizens in the mosque were performing their prayers. People were interrupted as they were praying, kneeling, and praising Allah.
Ever since the attacks on the Mosque, Israel has proceeded with missiles launched on the Gaza Strip. The death toll in Gaza has risen to 87 as of the 14th of May, 2021, including 18 innocent children.
Suhaib Salem in Reuters — “A Palestinian man runs for cover during an Israeli air attack near the site of a destroyed tower building in Gaza City.”
Popular Culture During WWI
As an American soldier stationed in France from 1917 to 1918, Frank Steed immersed himself in the culture surrounding him. His personal scrapbooks, which memorialize his experiences in World War I, include opera programs, theater playbills, and guides to tourist sites. War did not stop culture in France, nor in Steed’s home country. Day-to-day life went on despite worldwide warfare. In America, trends in music, dance, and fashion were in flux. Some social activities were paused as the Great War raged, while others evolved. WWI had a profound influence on its contemporary culture, as the conflict and its soldiers were represented in the popular culture of the day. This was a period of cultural transition. During World War I, many Americans relied on popular culture to make sense of global affairs.
World War I was a transition point for two popular forms of music. The pre-war years were marked by ragtime while the post-war years gave birth to the Jazz Age. Both styles grew from African American traditions and are a direct result of African American contributions. Ragtime became popular in the 1890s and reigned until the late 1910s. After the close of the war, jazz replaced it as the dominant style of popular music.
While ragtime was fading into jazz, war songs were the most prevalent form of popular music. Even before the United States officially entered WWI, the conflict was inspiring music. From 1917-1919, these types of tunes were the pop anthems of the day. In general, they were more like patriotic odes than protest songs. Their moods range from jubilant (“Over There”) to hesitant (“Don’t Send My Darling Boy Away”) to anti-German (“Bing! Bang! Bing ‘Em on the Rhine”). Other songs depict the everyday lives of soldiers, such as Irving Berlin’s “Oh How I Hate Getting Up In the Morning” and “I Don’t Want to Get Well,” a duet by Arthur Fields and Grace Woods. Love is another common theme. In songs like “If He Can Fight Like He Can Love, Goodnight Germany,” female performers sing to their sweethearts overseas. Some songs give a voice to women’s wartime roles overseas. In “Oh Frenchy,” an American nurse serving in Paris falls in love with her patient. War songs came from many points of view and reflected a unique mixture of sentiments. These are just a few examples from a musical movement that created a massive song library.
Ragtime was the pre-war dance craze. The style developed on dance floors across the United States as a response to the ragtime trend in popular music. Irene and Vernon Castle are credited with introducing the style overseas during their 1911 honeymoon in Paris, making ragtime a worldwide phenomenon. Popular dances within the ragtime movement include the Fox-Trot, the Tango, and the One-Step. By 1915, ragtime dance’s popularity dwindled. With men overseas in combat, dance floors quickly became deserted. Social dance picked up again in 1919 after fighting had ceased. However, ragtime was seen as old-fashioned, a relic from a distant and innocent pre-war past. The Jazz Age ushered in new dance crazes, most notably the Charleston. However, the Fox-Trot and the Tango continued to enjoy popularity and saw updates that kept them current to post-war dancers.
Film & Theater
Silent films were a popular form of entertainment in the 1910s. To avoid being deemed a “nonessential industry” by the government, the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry partnered with the federal government and agreed to aid the war effort in any way possible. Not all movies produced during the war years centered on WWI. Many love stories, comedies, and dramas make no reference to the war, and westerns remained a popular genre.
Patriotic tales became more prevalent by 1917. Love affairs were often metaphors for the war, as in 1917’s The Little American. Set explicitly in WWI, popular movie star Mary Pickford played an American nurse serving in France who fell in love with two men: a French soldier and a German soldier. War films could also take on a comedic tone. Charlie Chaplin’s Shoulder Arms was notable for satirizing the war as a whole, mocking Germans, Americans, and the culture of warfare. Ultimately, the film industry benefited from World War I as a result of its partnership with the federal government and the positive, patriotic reputation it gained in the eyes of Americans.
Even as the film industry took off, vaudeville remained popular during WWI. It became part of the war effort as performance troupes volunteered to travel overseas and put on live shows for soldiers.
During World War I, many men and women decided that dressing in a gaudy, elaborate manner was inappropriate considering global affairs. As a result, very little innovation occurred in fashion for either gender during the war years. That doesn’t mean that fashion was completely stagnant. Women adapted current styles to make them more functional for their wartime work, phasing out fads like double-skirts and dressing to a more tailored look. Clothing became more practical and comfortable. In the post-war years of the Jazz Age, fashion for fashion’s sake found it voice again. In the 1920’s, women would begin to push the boundaries of socially acceptable dress.
Sports had a waning influence during the war years. In the United States, most professional sports teams shut down due to World War I. Athletic men were needed for the war effort. “Work or fight” orders compelled professional athletes to join the military. Public opinion turned against athletes who chose to stay in the United States and play ball rather than join their fellow countrymen in combat. Professional baseball came under scrutiny when both the American and National Leagues decided against suspending their 1918 seasons. Game play was paused indefinitely on September 2, 1918, after the Boston Red Sox defeated the Chicago Cubs, but only for a few months as the war ended the following November. Despite the negative effects this controversy had on professional baseball’s reputation, attendance increased by over 50% during the 1919 season. This suggests that post-war Americans were eager to return to life and leisure as usual.
Bibliography and Works Cited:
Berlin, Edward. “Ragtime.” Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History 2006: 1872-1875.
“Charles Chaplin – Shoulder Arms.” Youtube video, 44:53. Posted December 15, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rj6DIm119-g.
Hensler, Paul. “”Patriotic Industry”: Baseball’s Reluctant Sacrifice in World War I.” NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture 21, no. 2 (2013): 98-106.
Keil, Charlie, and Ben Singer. American Cinema of the 1910s: Themes and Variations. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press, 2009.
Paris, Michael. The First World War and Popular Cinema: 1914 to the Present. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2000.
“Popular Songs of WWI.” USCB Cylinder Audio Archive. University of California Santa Barbara Library. http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/wwi-radio.php.
Laver, James. The Concise History of Costume and Fashion. New York: Scribner, 1969.
Ritzenhoff, Karen A., and Clémentine Tholas-Disset. Humor, Entertainment, and Popular Culture During World War I. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
Campbell, Donna. “Brief Timeline of American Literature, Music, and Movies 1910-1919.” Washington State University. http://public.wsu.edu/
Golden, Eve. Vernon and Irene Castle’s Ragtime Revolution. The University Press of Kentucky, 2007.
Watkins, Glenn. Proof Through the Night: Music and the Great War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Edward Berlin, “Ragtime,” Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History 2006: 1872-1875.
“Popular Songs of WWI,” USCB Cylinder Audio Archive, University of California Santa Barbara Library, http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/wwi-radio.php.
Richard Powers, “Social Dances of the Ragtime Era,” Standford University.
Richard Powers, “Social Dances of the Ragtime Era,” Standford University.
Michael Paris, The First World War and Popular Cinema: 1914 to the Present, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2000, 147.
Charlie Keil and Ben Singer, American Cinema of the 1910s: Themes and Variations, Piscataway: Rutgers University Press, 2009, 187.
Charlie Keil and Ben Singer, American Cinema of the 1910s: Themes and Variations, Piscataway: Rutgers University Press, 2009, 211.
Karen A. Ritzenhoff and Clémentine Tholas-Disset, Humor, Entertainment, and Popular Culture During World War I, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 169.
James Laver, The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, New York: Scribner, 1969, 229.
Paul Hensler, “Patriotic Industry”: Baseball’s Reluctant Sacrifice in World War I,” NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture 21, no. 2 (2013): 98-106.
It was a pleasure to read a well researched and interesting story on the experiences of the Anzacs in the Middle East during WWI. It is good to see a focus on individual soldiers as opposed to the war in general.
Recommended to anyone who wants a good understanding of the trials and tribulations endured by Anzac soldiers 1916-1918.
&ndash John Meyers, President, Military Historical Society of Australia
One hundred years on we can honor those from Australia and New Zealand whose stories are captured by Dearberg with the intent of providing the soldiers&rsquo perspective. He offers insights into the course of the campaigns in the Sinai, Gaza, Palestine, and Transjordan during WWI and includes many unforgettable details.
&ndash Barbara A. Porter, Director, American Center Of Oriental Research (ACOR), Amman, Jordan
Background: Life Before the Holocaust
Survivors in this section talk about life before the Holocaust. They encounter anti-Semitic prejudice and discrimination. They talk about the loss of various rights once anti-Jewish decrees are established. Some speak of their childhood memories, such as having to leave their homes in Germany to travel to England on the Kindertransport . Jack Kagan describes occupation and the arrival of the Einatzkommando in his town, as violence towards the Jews escalates.
- The Nazis used propaganda campaigns to promote the party's virulent hatred of Jews. This attitude towards Jews is known as anti-Semitism. It can take different forms - institutional, physical or verbal.
During the early 1930s, at the time of the Nazi rise to power, Germany was experiencing great economic and social hardship. The country:
- had to pay enormous compensation to the Allies as a result of losing WWI
- had to adhere to the Treaty of Versailles, whereby they could no longer have a large army and had to give up land
- experienced severe inflation and economic instability
- experienced great unemployment
Hitler used the Jews as a scapegoat, blaming them for Germany's economic and social problems. The Nazi party promised to resolve these issues, and in 1932 won 37% of the vote.
The persecution of the Jews began systematically, shortly after Hitler came to power. The Nazis introduced anti-Jewish decrees, which gradually eliminated the rights of Jewish citizens. Jews were regularly persecuted and humiliated. Many members of the German public were bystanders and did nothing to condemn the Nazi racial policies. This may have been due to the fact that they were content with other Nazi policies, which appeared to improve the disastrous financial and economic conditions in Germany. People were also afraid to speak out, as they were terrified of the brutality of the Nazis.
All Jews and non-Aryans were excluded from Germany society. They could no longer hold government jobs, own property or run their own businesses. In 1935, when the government passed the Nuremberg Laws that declared that only Aryans could be German citizens. The Nazis believed that the 'pure-blooded' German was racially superior, and that a struggle for survival existed between the German race and those races considered to be inferior. They saw Jews, Roma and Sinti (Gypsies), black people and the disabled as a serious biological threat to the purity of the German-Aryan race, which they called the 'Master Race'. The Nazis idea of a perfect Aryan was someone with Nordic feature such as being tall or having blonde hair or blue-eyes.
The German Jewish community had contributed a great deal to German society culturally, economically and socially. Many Jews were patriotic Germans, and had sacrificed their lives for their country in WWI. For example, survivor Trude Levi's father fought for Germany during the 1914-1918 conflict and was granted medals for serving the country. In her oral testimony in Topic 1 she describes how her father was told to return his medals and that his Hungarian citizenship had been revoked.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression was a worldwide economic drop that lasted from 1929 to 1939. It was both the longest and most severe depression to be experienced in the Western world. Although the Depression first started in America, it spread to other country in the globe and resulted in a decline in net output, a severe unemployment rate, and a deflation in almost every country of the globe. But this didn’t just affect the economy of the world but it also affected the social and cultural aspects of the country
Central Powers Surrender
The Treaty of Brest Litovsk freed Germany to concentrate its forces on the western front. By late July 1918, they had advanced to within 50 miles of Paris, leading Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II to assure the German people that victory was in their grasp. In August, however, Allied forces, now reinforced with two million American troops, halted the German offensive and began steadily pushing back the German lines in what would become known as the "Hundred Days' Offensive."
The Central Powers began to surrender, beginning with Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire, in September and October 1918, respectively. On November 3, Austro-Hungarian forces signed a truce near Padua, Italy. At the end of September, Germany’s military leaders advised the Kaiser that the war was lost and Germany should seek an armistice. On October 4, the German Chancellor telegraphed U.S. President Woodrow Wilson a request to negotiate peace with the Allies. On November 8, the German government sent a delegation led by Catholic Center Party (Zentrum) representative Matthias Erzberger to France to receive and accept the Allies’ terms for ending the war.
War Refugee Board
President Roosevelt also found himself under pressure from another source. Treasury Department officials, working on projects to provide aid to European Jews, discovered that their colleagues in the State Department were actually undermining rescue efforts. They brought their concerns to Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., who was Jewish and a long-time supporter of Roosevelt. Under Morgenthau’s direction, Treasury officials prepared a “Report to the Secretary on the Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews.” Morgenthau presented the report to Roosevelt and requested that he establish a rescue agency. Finally, on January 22, 1944, the president issued Executive Order 9417, creating the War Refugee Board (WRB). John Pehle of the Treasury Department served as the board’s first executive director.