Harvesting : (Y15) INF

Harvesting : (Y15) INF


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In Yalding, like other villages in England, the hay is cut in June and July. It is very important to cut hay when it is hot and dry. If the hay becomes wet, the people have to spend valuable time turning it until it is dry.

The crops are usually harvested in July and August. Yields are also low if there is too much sun and not enough rain.

Wheat is cut half way up the stalk by the reapers using sickles. The field workers usually work in teams of five. A team consists of four reapers followed by a binder, who gathers the spears of cut wheat into sheaves. It normally takes a day for five people to harvest two acres. Oats and barley are mown with a scythe close to the ground. The stalks are then gleaned. This involves gathering up ears of corn left by the reapers. This work is usually done by children and old people.

Sometimes it is necessary to employ labourers to help during harvest time. This labour is usually provided by those people who do not produce enough food from their land to feed their families. These labourers are normally paid in sheaves. A day's pay was one sheaf of wheat or two of barley. Sometimes the labourers ask to be paid in money. In 1336 the pay is one penny a day.

After the crops have been harvested, the grain has to be ground down to produce flour. Some people use simple devices such as querns and hand-nulls to do this. Others use Hugh de Audley's water-mill.

When the harvesting has been completed, the villagers are allowed to turn their animals into the fields. The sheep are always the last to be allowed in. As the sheep crops the stems so close to the ground, they leave very little food for the rest of the animals. The droppings of the grazing animals provide the manure needed to improve the quality of the land.

The land then has to be prepared for next season's harvest. First the land is ploughed. The plough is an instrument with mouldboard and coulter, drawn by four, six or eight animals. The number of animals used depends on the kind of soil and its condition at ploughing time. The first ploughing turns what was left of the crop, weeds and grasses. The second ploughing, less deep than the first, prepares the ground for seeding. The timing of the ploughing and seeding is very important. In the spring the soil has to be fairly warm and in the autumn, it has to be done before the arrival of the frost.


Ballot Harvesting: What Is It? How Does It Work?

Rules depend on the state in which a voter resides. An absentee voter may be able to designate someone to submit their absentee ballot for them, such as:

  • A family member
  • A legal guardian
  • A caregiver
  • Another person allowed by law

Although most states have policies regulating voters' ability to designate another individual to return their ballot, the policies can vary drastically. Still, some states do not have any policy regarding third-party ballot returns. That's where ballot harvesting comes in.


Kwanzaa History

The name Kwanzaa is derived from the phrase “matunda ya kwanza” which means 𠇏irst fruits” in Swahili. Each family celebrates Kwanzaa in its own way, but celebrations often include songs and dances, African drums, storytelling, poetry reading, and a large traditional meal. On each of the seven nights, the family gathers and a child lights one of the candles on the Kinara (candleholder), then one of the seven principles is discussed. The principles, called the Nguzo Saba (seven principles in Swahili) are values of African culture which contribute to building and reinforcing community among African-Americans. Kwanzaa also has seven basic symbols which represent values and concepts reflective of African culture. An African feast, called a Karamu, is held on December 31.

Did you know? The seven principles, or Nguzo Saba are a set of ideals created by Dr. Maulana Karenga. Each day of Kwanzaa emphasizes a different principle.

The candle-lighting ceremony each evening provides the opportunity to gather and discuss the meaning of Kwanzaa. The first night, the black candle in the center is lit (and the principle of umoja/unity is discussed). One candle is lit each evening and the appropriate principle is discussed.


Contents

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", and cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". [2] While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, [3] [4] termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years. [5] Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services". [6] Thus defined, it includes arable farming, horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice often excluded. [6]

Origins

The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. [9] Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, [10] and included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. [7] Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. [11] From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, [12] followed by mung, soy and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. [13] Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. [14] Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, [15] where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago. [16] In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, [17] and was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. [18] Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant, and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China. Then, wild stands that had previously been harvested started to be planted, and gradually came to be domesticated. [19] [20] [21]

Civilizations

In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC seed-ploughs around 2,300 BC. Farmers grew wheat, barley, vegetables such as lentils and onions, and fruits including dates, grapes, and figs. [22] Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on the Nile River and its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. [23] [24] In India, wheat, barley and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. [25] Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. [26] [27] [28] Cotton was cultivated by the 5th–4th millennium BC. [29] Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. [30] In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. [31] Water-powered grain mills were in use by the 1st century BC, [32] followed by irrigation. [33] By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron ploughshares and mouldboards. [34] [35] These spread westwards across Eurasia. [36] Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate that is used [37] – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon. [38] In Greece and Rome, the major cereals were wheat, emmer, and barley, alongside vegetables including peas, beans, and olives. Sheep and goats were kept mainly for dairy products. [39] [40]

In the Americas, crops domesticated in Mesoamerica (apart from teosinte) include squash, beans, and cacao. [41] Cocoa was being domesticated by the Mayo Chinchipe of the upper Amazon around 3,000 BC. [42] The turkey was probably domesticated in Mexico or the American Southwest. [43] The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas or artificial islands. The Mayas used extensive canal and raised field systems to farm swampland from 400 BC. [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] Coca was domesticated in the Andes, as were the peanut, tomato, tobacco, and pineapple. [41] Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 3,600 BC. [49] Animals including llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs were domesticated there. [50] In North America, the indigenous people of the East domesticated crops such as sunflower, tobacco, [51] squash and Chenopodium. [52] [53] Wild foods including wild rice and maple sugar were harvested. [54] The domesticated strawberry is a hybrid of a Chilean and a North American species, developed by breeding in Europe and North America. [55] The indigenous people of the Southwest and the Pacific Northwest practiced forest gardening and fire-stick farming. The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology that sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation a sort of "wild" permaculture. [56] [57] [58] [59] A system of companion planting called the Three Sisters was developed in North America. The three crops were winter squash, maize, and climbing beans. [60] [61]

Indigenous Australians, long supposed to have been nomadic hunter-gatherers, practised systematic burning, possibly to enhance natural productivity in fire-stick farming. [62] The Gunditjmara and other groups developed eel farming and fish trapping systems from some 5,000 years ago. [63] There is evidence of 'intensification' across the whole continent over that period. [64] In two regions of Australia, the central west coast and eastern central, early farmers cultivated yams, native millet, and bush onions, possibly in permanent settlements. [65] [21]

Revolution

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees (such as the orange) to Europe by way of Al-Andalus. [66] [67] After 1492 the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips, and livestock (including horses, cattle, sheep and goats) to the Americas. [68]

Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers advanced from the 17th century with the British Agricultural Revolution, allowing global population to rise significantly. Since 1900 agriculture in developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as mechanization replaces human labor, and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding. The Haber-Bosch method allowed the synthesis of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on an industrial scale, greatly increasing crop yields and sustaining a further increase in global population. [69] [70] Modern agriculture has raised or encountered ecological, political, and economic issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies, leading to alternative approaches such as the organic movement. [71] [72]

Pastoralism involves managing domesticated animals. In nomadic pastoralism, herds of livestock are moved from place to place in search of pasture, fodder, and water. This type of farming is practised in arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India. [73]

In shifting cultivation, a small area of forest is cleared by cutting and burning the trees. The cleared land is used for growing crops for a few years until the soil becomes too infertile, and the area is abandoned. Another patch of land is selected and the process is repeated. This type of farming is practiced mainly in areas with abundant rainfall where the forest regenerates quickly. This practice is used in Northeast India, Southeast Asia, and the Amazon Basin. [74]

Subsistence farming is practiced to satisfy family or local needs alone, with little left over for transport elsewhere. It is intensively practiced in Monsoon Asia and South-East Asia. [75] An estimated 2.5 billion subsistence farmers worked in 2018, cultivating about 60% of the earth's arable land. [76]

Intensive farming is cultivation to maximise productivity, with a low fallow ratio and a high use of inputs (water, fertilizer, pesticide and automation). It is practiced mainly in developed countries. [77] [78]

Status

From the twentieth century, intensive agriculture increased productivity. It substituted synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labour, but caused increased water pollution, and often involved farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic, regenerative, and sustainable agriculture movements. [71] [80] One of the major forces behind this movement has been the European Union, which first certified organic food in 1991 and began reform of its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2005 to phase out commodity-linked farm subsidies, [81] also known as decoupling. The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management, selective breeding, [82] and controlled-environment agriculture. [83] [84] Recent mainstream technological developments include genetically modified food. [85] Demand for non-food biofuel crops, [86] development of former farm lands, rising transportation costs, climate change, growing consumer demand in China and India, and population growth, [87] are threatening food security in many parts of the world. [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] The International Fund for Agricultural Development posits that an increase in smallholder agriculture may be part of the solution to concerns about food prices and overall food security, given the favorable experience of Vietnam. [93] Soil degradation and diseases such as stem rust are major concerns globally [94] approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. [95] [96] By 2015, the agricultural output of China was the largest in the world, followed by the European Union, India and the United States. [79] Economists measure the total factor productivity of agriculture and by this measure agriculture in the United States is roughly 1.7 times more productive than it was in 1948. [97]

Workforce

Following the three-sector theory, the number of people employed in agriculture and other primary activities (such as fishing) can be more than 80% in the least developed countries, and less than 2% in the most highly developed countries. [98] Since the Industrial Revolution, many countries have made the transition to developed economies, and the proportion of people working in agriculture has steadily fallen. During the 16th century in Europe, for example, between 55 and 75% of the population was engaged in agriculture by the 19th century, this had dropped to between 35 and 65%. [99] In the same countries today, the figure is less than 10%. [98] At the start of the 21st century, some one billion people, or over 1/3 of the available work force, were employed in agriculture. It constitutes approximately 70% of the global employment of children, and in many countries employs the largest percentage of women of any industry. [100] The service sector overtook the agricultural sector as the largest global employer in 2007. [101]

Safety

Agriculture, specifically farming, remains a hazardous industry, and farmers worldwide remain at high risk of work-related injuries, lung disease, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, as well as certain cancers related to chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. On industrialized farms, injuries frequently involve the use of agricultural machinery, and a common cause of fatal agricultural injuries in developed countries is tractor rollovers. [102] Pesticides and other chemicals used in farming can be hazardous to worker health, and workers exposed to pesticides may experience illness or have children with birth defects. [103] As an industry in which families commonly share in work and live on the farm itself, entire families can be at risk for injuries, illness, and death. [104] Ages 0–6 May be an especially vulnerable population in agriculture [105] common causes of fatal injuries among young farm workers include drowning, machinery and motor accidents, including with all-terrain vehicles. [104] [105] [106]

The International Labour Organization considers agriculture "one of the most hazardous of all economic sectors". [100] It estimates that the annual work-related death toll among agricultural employees is at least 170,000, twice the average rate of other jobs. In addition, incidences of death, injury and illness related to agricultural activities often go unreported. [107] The organization has developed the Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001, which covers the range of risks in the agriculture occupation, the prevention of these risks and the role that individuals and organizations engaged in agriculture should play. [100]

In the United States, agriculture has been identified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies for occupational health and safety issues. [108] [109] In the European Union, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has issued guidelines on implementing health and safety directives in agriculture, livestock farming, horticulture, and forestry. [110] The Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA) also holds a yearly summit to discuss safety. [111]

Overall production varies by country as listed.

The twenty largest countries by agricultural output (in nominal terms) at peak level as of 2018, according to the IMF and CIA World Factbook.

Crop cultivation systems

Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints geography and climate of the farm government policy economic, social and political pressures and the philosophy and culture of the farmer. [113] [114]

Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial crops for a period of several years. [115] Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new plot, returning after many more years (10–20). This fallow period is shortened if population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure) and some manual pest control. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period. This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs. [115]

Further industrialization led to the use of monocultures, when one cultivar is planted on a large acreage. Because of the low biodiversity, nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of pesticides and fertilizers. [114] Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year, and intercropping, when several crops are grown at the same time, are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures. [115]

In subtropical and arid environments, the timing and extent of agriculture may be limited by rainfall, either not allowing multiple annual crops in a year, or requiring irrigation. In all of these environments perennial crops are grown (coffee, chocolate) and systems are practiced such as agroforestry. In temperate environments, where ecosystems were predominantly grassland or prairie, highly productive annual farming is the dominant agricultural system. [115]

Important categories of food crops include cereals, legumes, forage, fruits and vegetables. [116] Natural fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. [117] Specific crops are cultivated in distinct growing regions throughout the world. Production is listed in millions of metric tons, based on FAO estimates. [116]

Top agricultural products, by crop types
(million tonnes) 2004 data
Cereals 2,263
Vegetables and melons 866
Roots and tubers 715
Milk 619
Fruit 503
Meat 259
Oilcrops 133
Fish (2001 estimate) 130
Eggs 63
Pulses 60
Vegetable fiber 30
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization [116]
Top agricultural products, by individual crops
(million tonnes) 2011 data
Sugar cane 1794
Maize 883
Rice 722
Wheat 704
Potatoes 374
Sugar beet 271
Soybeans 260
Cassava 252
Tomatoes 159
Barley 134
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization [116]

Livestock production systems

Animal husbandry is the breeding and raising of animals for meat, milk, eggs, or wool, and for work and transport. [118] Working animals, including horses, mules, oxen, water buffalo, camels, llamas, alpacas, donkeys, and dogs, have for centuries been used to help cultivate fields, harvest crops, wrangle other animals, and transport farm products to buyers. [119]

Livestock production systems can be defined based on feed source, as grassland-based, mixed, and landless. [120] As of 2010 [update] , 30% of Earth's ice- and water-free area was used for producing livestock, with the sector employing approximately 1.3 billion people. Between the 1960s and the 2000s, there was a significant increase in livestock production, both by numbers and by carcass weight, especially among beef, pigs and chickens, the latter of which had production increased by almost a factor of 10. Non-meat animals, such as milk cows and egg-producing chickens, also showed significant production increases. Global cattle, sheep and goat populations are expected to continue to increase sharply through 2050. [121] Aquaculture or fish farming, the production of fish for human consumption in confined operations, is one of the fastest growing sectors of food production, growing at an average of 9% a year between 1975 and 2007. [122]

During the second half of the 20th century, producers using selective breeding focused on creating livestock breeds and crossbreeds that increased production, while mostly disregarding the need to preserve genetic diversity. This trend has led to a significant decrease in genetic diversity and resources among livestock breeds, leading to a corresponding decrease in disease resistance and local adaptations previously found among traditional breeds. [123]

Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as shrubland, rangeland, and pastures for feeding ruminant animals. Outside nutrient inputs may be used, however manure is returned directly to the grassland as a major nutrient source. This system is particularly important in areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil, representing 30–40 million pastoralists. [115] Mixed production systems use grassland, fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastric (one stomach mainly chickens and pigs) livestock. Manure is typically recycled in mixed systems as a fertilizer for crops. [120]

Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries. Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production and manure use becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution. [120] Industrialized countries use these operations to produce much of the global supplies of poultry and pork. Scientists estimate that 75% of the growth in livestock production between 2003 and 2030 will be in confined animal feeding operations, sometimes called factory farming. Much of this growth is happening in developing countries in Asia, with much smaller amounts of growth in Africa. [121] Some of the practices used in commercial livestock production, including the usage of growth hormones, are controversial. [124]

Production practices

Tillage is the practice of breaking up the soil with tools such as the plow or harrow to prepare for planting, for nutrient incorporation, or for pest control. Tillage varies in intensity from conventional to no-till. It may improve productivity by warming the soil, incorporating fertilizer and controlling weeds, but also renders soil more prone to erosion, triggers the decomposition of organic matter releasing CO2, and reduces the abundance and diversity of soil organisms. [125] [126]

Pest control includes the management of weeds, insects, mites, and diseases. Chemical (pesticides), biological (biocontrol), mechanical (tillage), and cultural practices are used. Cultural practices include crop rotation, culling, cover crops, intercropping, composting, avoidance, and resistance. Integrated pest management attempts to use all of these methods to keep pest populations below the number which would cause economic loss, and recommends pesticides as a last resort. [127]

Nutrient management includes both the source of nutrient inputs for crop and livestock production, and the method of use of manure produced by livestock. Nutrient inputs can be chemical inorganic fertilizers, manure, green manure, compost and minerals. [128] Crop nutrient use may also be managed using cultural techniques such as crop rotation or a fallow period. Manure is used either by holding livestock where the feed crop is growing, such as in managed intensive rotational grazing, or by spreading either dry or liquid formulations of manure on cropland or pastures. [129] [125]

Water management is needed where rainfall is insufficient or variable, which occurs to some degree in most regions of the world. [115] Some farmers use irrigation to supplement rainfall. In other areas such as the Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada, farmers use a fallow year to conserve soil moisture to use for growing a crop in the following year. [130] Agriculture represents 70% of freshwater use worldwide. [131]

According to a report by the International Food Policy Research Institute, agricultural technologies will have the greatest impact on food production if adopted in combination with each other using a model that assessed how eleven technologies could impact agricultural productivity, food security and trade by 2050, the International Food Policy Research Institute found that the number of people at risk from hunger could be reduced by as much as 40% and food prices could be reduced by almost half. [132]

Payment for ecosystem services is a method of providing additional incentives to encourage farmers to conserve some aspects of the environment. Measures might include paying for reforestation upstream of a city, to improve the supply of fresh water. [133]

Plant breeding

Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests. Significant advances in plant breeding ensued after the work of geneticist Gregor Mendel. His work on dominant and recessive alleles, although initially largely ignored for almost 50 years, gave plant breeders a better understanding of genetics and breeding techniques. Crop breeding includes techniques such as plant selection with desirable traits, self-pollination and cross-pollination, and molecular techniques that genetically modify the organism. [134]

Domestication of plants has, over the centuries increased yield, improved disease resistance and drought tolerance, eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants. Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants. Plant selection and breeding in the 1920s and 1930s improved pasture (grasses and clover) in New Zealand. Extensive X-ray and ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts (i.e. primitive genetic engineering) during the 1950s produced the modern commercial varieties of grains such as wheat, corn (maize) and barley. [135] [136]

The Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to sharply increase yield by creating "high-yielding varieties". For example, average yields of corn (maize) in the US have increased from around 2.5 tons per hectare (t/ha) (40 bushels per acre) in 1900 to about 9.4 t/ha (150 bushels per acre) in 2001. Similarly, worldwide average wheat yields have increased from less than 1 t/ha in 1900 to more than 2.5 t/ha in 1990. South American average wheat yields are around 2 t/ha, African under 1 t/ha, and Egypt and Arabia up to 3.5 to 4 t/ha with irrigation. In contrast, the average wheat yield in countries such as France is over 8 t/ha. Variations in yields are due mainly to variation in climate, genetics, and the level of intensive farming techniques (use of fertilizers, chemical pest control, growth control to avoid lodging). [137] [138] [139]

Genetic engineering

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are organisms whose genetic material has been altered by genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Genetic engineering has expanded the genes available to breeders to use in creating desired germlines for new crops. Increased durability, nutritional content, insect and virus resistance and herbicide tolerance are a few of the attributes bred into crops through genetic engineering. [140] For some, GMO crops cause food safety and food labeling concerns. Numerous countries have placed restrictions on the production, import or use of GMO foods and crops. [141] Currently a global treaty, the Biosafety Protocol, regulates the trade of GMOs. There is ongoing discussion regarding the labeling of foods made from GMOs, and while the EU currently requires all GMO foods to be labeled, the US does not. [142]

Herbicide-resistant seed has a gene implanted into its genome that allows the plants to tolerate exposure to herbicides, including glyphosate. These seeds allow the farmer to grow a crop that can be sprayed with herbicides to control weeds without harming the resistant crop. Herbicide-tolerant crops are used by farmers worldwide. [143] With the increasing use of herbicide-tolerant crops, comes an increase in the use of glyphosate-based herbicide sprays. In some areas glyphosate resistant weeds have developed, causing farmers to switch to other herbicides. [144] [145] Some studies also link widespread glyphosate usage to iron deficiencies in some crops, which is both a crop production and a nutritional quality concern, with potential economic and health implications. [146]

Other GMO crops used by growers include insect-resistant crops, which have a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which produces a toxin specific to insects. These crops resist damage by insects. [147] Some believe that similar or better pest-resistance traits can be acquired through traditional breeding practices, and resistance to various pests can be gained through hybridization or cross-pollination with wild species. In some cases, wild species are the primary source of resistance traits some tomato cultivars that have gained resistance to at least 19 diseases did so through crossing with wild populations of tomatoes. [148]

Effects and costs

Agriculture is both a cause of and sensitive to environmental degradation, such as biodiversity loss, desertification, soil degradation and global warming, which cause decrease in crop yield. [149] Agriculture is one of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions. Agriculture is the main source of toxins released into the environment, including insecticides, especially those used on cotton. [150] The 2011 UNEP Green Economy report stated that agricultural operations produced some 13 per cent of anthropogenic global greenhouse gas emissions. This includes gases from the use of inorganic fertilizers, agro-chemical pesticides, and herbicides, as well as fossil fuel-energy inputs. [151]

Agriculture imposes multiple external costs upon society through effects such as pesticide damage to nature (especially herbicides and insecticides), nutrient runoff, excessive water usage, and loss of natural environment. A 2000 assessment of agriculture in the UK determined total external costs for 1996 of £2,343 million, or £208 per hectare. [152] A 2005 analysis of these costs in the US concluded that cropland imposes approximately $5 to $16 billion ($30 to $96 per hectare), while livestock production imposes $714 million. [153] Both studies, which focused solely on the fiscal impacts, concluded that more should be done to internalize external costs. Neither included subsidies in their analysis, but they noted that subsidies also influence the cost of agriculture to society. [152] [153]

Agriculture seeks to increase yield and to reduce costs. Yield increases with inputs such as fertilisers and removal of pathogens, predators, and competitors (such as weeds). Costs decrease with increasing scale of farm units, such as making fields larger this means removing hedges, ditches and other areas of habitat. Pesticides kill insects, plants and fungi. These and other measures have cut biodiversity to very low levels on intensively farmed land. [154] Effective yields fall with on-farm losses, which may be caused by poor production practices during harvesting, handling, and storage. [155]

Livestock issues

A senior UN official, Henning Steinfeld, said that "Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today's most serious environmental problems". [156] Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2,) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2.) It also generates 64% of the ammonia emission. Livestock expansion is cited as a key factor driving deforestation in the Amazon basin 70% of previously forested area is now occupied by pastures and the remainder used for feedcrops. [157] Through deforestation and land degradation, livestock is also driving reductions in biodiversity. Furthermore, the UNEP states that "methane emissions from global livestock are projected to increase by 60 per cent by 2030 under current practices and consumption patterns." [151]

Land and water issues

Land transformation, the use of land to yield goods and services, is the most substantial way humans alter the Earth's ecosystems, and is the driving force causing biodiversity loss. Estimates of the amount of land transformed by humans vary from 39 to 50%. [158] Land degradation, the long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, is estimated to be occurring on 24% of land worldwide, with cropland overrepresented. [159] Land management is the driving factor behind degradation 1.5 billion people rely upon the degrading land. Degradation can be through deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, acidification, or salinization. [115]

Eutrophication, excessive nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems resulting in algal blooms and anoxia, leads to fish kills, loss of biodiversity, and renders water unfit for drinking and other industrial uses. Excessive fertilization and manure application to cropland, as well as high livestock stocking densities cause nutrient (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) runoff and leaching from agricultural land. These nutrients are major nonpoint pollutants contributing to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems and pollution of groundwater, with harmful effects on human populations. [160] Fertilisers also reduce terrestrial biodiversity by increasing competition for light, favouring those species that are able to benefit from the added nutrients. [161] Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of withdrawals of freshwater resources. [162] [163] Agriculture is a major draw on water from aquifers, and currently draws from those underground water sources at an unsustainable rate. It is long known that aquifers in areas as diverse as northern China, the Upper Ganges and the western US are being depleted, and new research extends these problems to aquifers in Iran, Mexico and Saudi Arabia. [164] Increasing pressure is being placed on water resources by industry and urban areas, meaning that water scarcity is increasing and agriculture is facing the challenge of producing more food for the world's growing population with reduced water resources. [165] Agricultural water usage can also cause major environmental problems, including the destruction of natural wetlands, the spread of water-borne diseases, and land degradation through salinization and waterlogging, when irrigation is performed incorrectly. [166]

Pesticides

Pesticide use has increased since 1950 to 2.5 million short tons annually worldwide, yet crop loss from pests has remained relatively constant. [167] The World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that three million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths. [168] Pesticides select for pesticide resistance in the pest population, leading to a condition termed the "pesticide treadmill" in which pest resistance warrants the development of a new pesticide. [169]

An alternative argument is that the way to "save the environment" and prevent famine is by using pesticides and intensive high yield farming, a view exemplified by a quote heading the Center for Global Food Issues website: 'Growing more per acre leaves more land for nature'. [170] [171] However, critics argue that a trade-off between the environment and a need for food is not inevitable, [172] and that pesticides simply replace good agronomic practices such as crop rotation. [169] The Push–pull agricultural pest management technique involves intercropping, using plant aromas to repel pests from crops (push) and to lure them to a place from which they can then be removed (pull). [173]

Climate change

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated on a global scale. Global warming affects agriculture through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and weather extremes (like storms and heat waves) changes in pests and diseases changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations changes in the nutritional quality of some foods [174] and changes in sea level. [175] Global warming is already affecting agriculture, with effects unevenly distributed across the world. [176] Future climate change will probably negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries, while effects in northern latitudes may be positive or negative. [176] Global warming will probably increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups, such as the poor. [177]

Animal husbandry is also responsible for greenhouse gas production of CO
2 and a percentage of the world's methane, and future land infertility, and the displacement of wildlife. Agriculture contributes to climate change by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forest for agricultural use. [178] Agriculture, forestry and land-use change contributed around 20 to 25% to global annual emissions in 2010. [179] A range of policies can reduce the risk of negative climate change impacts on agriculture, [180] [181] and greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector. [182] [183] [184]

Sustainability

Current farming methods have resulted in over-stretched water resources, high levels of erosion and reduced soil fertility. There is not enough water to continue farming using current practices therefore how critical water, land, and ecosystem resources are used to boost crop yields must be reconsidered. A solution would be to give value to ecosystems, recognizing environmental and livelihood tradeoffs, and balancing the rights of a variety of users and interests. [185] Inequities that result when such measures are adopted would need to be addressed, such as the reallocation of water from poor to rich, the clearing of land to make way for more productive farmland, or the preservation of a wetland system that limits fishing rights. [186]

Technological advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to make farming more sustainable. [187] Technology permits innovations like conservation tillage, a farming process which helps prevent land loss to erosion, reduces water pollution, and enhances carbon sequestration. [188] Other potential practices include conservation agriculture, agroforestry, improved grazing, avoided grassland conversion, and biochar. [189] [190] Current mono-crop farming practices in the United States preclude widespread adoption of sustainable practices, such as 2-3 crop rotations that incorporate grass or hay with annual crops, unless negative emission goals such as soil carbon sequestration become policy. [191]

The International Food Policy Research Institute states that agricultural technologies will have the greatest impact on food production if adopted in combination with each other using a model that assessed how eleven technologies could impact agricultural productivity, food security and trade by 2050, it found that the number of people at risk from hunger could be reduced by as much as 40% and food prices could be reduced by almost half. [132] The food demand of Earth's projected population, with current climate change predictions, could be satisfied by improvement of agricultural methods, expansion of agricultural areas, and a sustainability-oriented consumer mindset. [192]

Energy dependence

Since the 1940s, agricultural productivity has increased dramatically, due largely to the increased use of energy-intensive mechanization, fertilizers and pesticides. The vast majority of this energy input comes from fossil fuel sources. [193] Between the 1960s and the 1980s, the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, with world grain production increasing significantly (between 70% and 390% for wheat and 60% to 150% for rice, depending on geographic area) [194] as world population doubled. Heavy reliance on petrochemicals has raised concerns that oil shortages could increase costs and reduce agricultural output. [195]

Industrialized agriculture depends on fossil fuels in two fundamental ways: direct consumption on the farm and manufacture of inputs used on the farm. Direct consumption includes the use of lubricants and fuels to operate farm vehicles and machinery. [195]

Agriculture and food system share (%) of total energy
consumption by three industrialized nations [ needs update ]
Country Year Agriculture
(direct & indirect)
Food
system
United Kingdom [196] 2005 1.9 11
United States [197] 2002 2.0 14
Sweden [198] 2000 2.5 13

Indirect consumption includes the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides, and farm machinery. [195] In particular, the production of nitrogen fertilizer can account for over half of agricultural energy usage. [199] Together, direct and indirect consumption by US farms accounts for about 2% of the nation's energy use. Direct and indirect energy consumption by U.S. farms peaked in 1979, and has since gradually declined. [195] Food systems encompass not just agriculture but off-farm processing, packaging, transporting, marketing, consumption, and disposal of food and food-related items. Agriculture accounts for less than one-fifth of food system energy use in the US. [200] [197]

Agricultural economics

Agricultural economics is economics as it relates to the "production, distribution and consumption of [agricultural] goods and services". [202] Combining agricultural production with general theories of marketing and business as a discipline of study began in the late 1800s, and grew significantly through the 20th century. [203] Although the study of agricultural economics is relatively recent, major trends in agriculture have significantly affected national and international economies throughout history, ranging from tenant farmers and sharecropping in the post-American Civil War Southern United States [204] to the European feudal system of manorialism. [205] In the United States, and elsewhere, food costs attributed to food processing, distribution, and agricultural marketing, sometimes referred to as the value chain, have risen while the costs attributed to farming have declined. This is related to the greater efficiency of farming, combined with the increased level of value addition (e.g. more highly processed products) provided by the supply chain. Market concentration has increased in the sector as well, and although the total effect of the increased market concentration is likely increased efficiency, the changes redistribute economic surplus from producers (farmers) and consumers, and may have negative implications for rural communities. [206]

National government policies can significantly change the economic marketplace for agricultural products, in the form of taxation, subsidies, tariffs and other measures. [207] Since at least the 1960s, a combination of trade restrictions, exchange rate policies and subsidies have affected farmers in both the developing and the developed world. In the 1980s, non-subsidized farmers in developing countries experienced adverse effects from national policies that created artificially low global prices for farm products. Between the mid-1980s and the early 2000s, several international agreements limited agricultural tariffs, subsidies and other trade restrictions. [208]

However, as of 2009 [update] , there was still a significant amount of policy-driven distortion in global agricultural product prices. The three agricultural products with the greatest amount of trade distortion were sugar, milk and rice, mainly due to taxation. Among the oilseeds, sesame had the greatest amount of taxation, but overall, feed grains and oilseeds had much lower levels of taxation than livestock products. Since the 1980s, policy-driven distortions have seen a greater decrease among livestock products than crops during the worldwide reforms in agricultural policy. [207] Despite this progress, certain crops, such as cotton, still see subsidies in developed countries artificially deflating global prices, causing hardship in developing countries with non-subsidized farmers. [209] Unprocessed commodities such as corn, soybeans, and cattle are generally graded to indicate quality, affecting the price the producer receives. Commodities are generally reported by production quantities, such as volume, number or weight. [210]

Agricultural science

Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. It covers topics such as agronomy, plant breeding and genetics, plant pathology, crop modelling, soil science, entomology, production techniques and improvement, study of pests and their management, and study of adverse environmental effects such as soil degradation, waste management, and bioremediation. [211] [212]

The scientific study of agriculture began in the 18th century, when Johann Friedrich Mayer conducted experiments on the use of gypsum (hydrated calcium sulphate) as a fertilizer. [213] Research became more systematic when in 1843, John Lawes and Henry Gilbert began a set of long-term agronomy field experiments at Rothamsted Research Station in England some of them, such as the Park Grass Experiment, are still running. [214] [215] In America, the Hatch Act of 1887 provided funding for what it was the first to call "agricultural science", driven by farmers' interest in fertilizers. [216] In agricultural entomology, the USDA began to research biological control in 1881 it instituted its first large program in 1905, searching Europe and Japan for natural enemies of the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth, establishing parasitoids (such as solitary wasps) and predators of both pests in the USA. [217] [218] [219]

Direct subsidies for animal products and feed by OECD countries in 2012, in billions of US dollars [220]
Product Subsidy
Beef and veal 18.0
Milk 15.3
Pigs 7.3
Poultry 6.5
Soybeans 2.3
Eggs 1.5
Sheep 1.1

Agricultural policy is the set of government decisions and actions relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products. Governments usually implement agricultural policies with the goal of achieving a specific outcome in the domestic agricultural product markets. Some overarching themes include risk management and adjustment (including policies related to climate change, food safety and natural disasters), economic stability (including policies related to taxes), natural resources and environmental sustainability (especially water policy), research and development, and market access for domestic commodities (including relations with global organizations and agreements with other countries). [221] Agricultural policy can also touch on food quality, ensuring that the food supply is of a consistent and known quality, food security, ensuring that the food supply meets the population's needs, and conservation. Policy programs can range from financial programs, such as subsidies, to encouraging producers to enroll in voluntary quality assurance programs. [222]

There are many influences on the creation of agricultural policy, including consumers, agribusiness, trade lobbies and other groups. Agribusiness interests hold a large amount of influence over policy making, in the form of lobbying and campaign contributions. Political action groups, including those interested in environmental issues and labor unions, also provide influence, as do lobbying organizations representing individual agricultural commodities. [223] The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) leads international efforts to defeat hunger and provides a forum for the negotiation of global agricultural regulations and agreements. Dr. Samuel Jutzi, director of FAO's animal production and health division, states that lobbying by large corporations has stopped reforms that would improve human health and the environment. For example, proposals in 2010 for a voluntary code of conduct for the livestock industry that would have provided incentives for improving standards for health, and environmental regulations, such as the number of animals an area of land can support without long-term damage, were successfully defeated due to large food company pressure. [224]


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Origins of agriculture

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Origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle ranching in the Americas, and the like—but a more holistic perspective holds that humans are environmental engineers who disrupt terrestrial habitats in specific ways. Anthropogenic disruptions such as clearing vegetation or tilling the soil cause a variety of localized changes common effects include an increase in the amount of light reaching ground level and a reduction in the competition among organisms. As a result, an area may produce more of the plants or animals that people desire for food, technology, medicine, and other uses.

Over time, some plants and animals have become domesticated, or dependent on these and other human interventions for their long-term propagation or survival. Domestication is a biological process in which, under human selection, organisms develop characteristics that increase their utility, as when plants provide larger seeds, fruit, or tubers than their wild progenitors. Known as cultigens, domesticated plants come from a wide range of families (groups of closely related genera that share a common ancestor see genus). The grass (Poaceae), bean (Fabaceae), and nightshade or potato (Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenable to domestication.

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docile than their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well. They have been used for traction, transport, pest control, assistance, and companionship and as a form of wealth. Species with abundant domesticated varieties, or breeds, include the dog (Canis lupus familiaris), cat (Felis catus), cattle (Bos species), sheep (Ovis species), goat (Capra species), swine (Sus species), horse (Equus caballus), chicken (Gallus gallus), and duck and goose (family Anatidae).

Because it is a cultural phenomenon, agriculture has varied considerably across time and space. Domesticated plants and animals have been (and continue to be) raised at scales ranging from the household to massive commercial operations. This article recognizes the wide range of activities that encompass food production and emphasizes the cultural factors leading to the creation of domesticated organisms. It discusses some of the research techniques used to discern the origins of agriculture as well as the general trajectory of agricultural development in the ancient societies of Southwest Asia, the Americas, East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Europe. For specific techniques of habitat alteration and plant propagation, see horticulture. For techniques of animal propagation, see livestock farming poultry farming.


TN's success story: Rain water harvesting

Rain water harvesting is considered the answer to India’s water woes. The practice has been patchy in many parts of the country, but Tamil Nadu’s experiment with the alternative water conservation technique is a rare success story.

The Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) scheme, a brainchild of Tamil Nadu chief minister J Jayalalithaa, was launched in 2001 in a bid to rejuvenate water sources and improve ground water levels in the parched southern state.

The programme got off to a rocky start because of fierce resistance from residents after the government made it mandatory for all government and residential buildings. But nearly 15 years down the road, the tables have turned, so to speak.

The scheme has helped people in water-starved regions such as Chennai by raising water tables in most neighbourhoods, winning support from activists and local residents long dependent on groundwater for their daily needs.

The scheme has been implemented in rural pockets too, with a great degree of success. “We used to spend sleepless nights, thinking about sourcing water for daily needs. All that changed after the government came up with the RWH method. The water table has risen and we no longer face such an ordeal,” said Vanitha, a Chennai resident.

Chennai owes its success to a change in rules to ensure that new buildings didn't get the nod from authorities without rainwater harvesting structures. With more and more residents migrating to the suburbs from the city to overcome the water-related issues, the scheme has come in handy to make sure that there is no shortage.

Shekhar Raghavan, director of the Rain Centre, said Chennai has a head start because it has completed 70% of the work while other cities are getting started on the scheme. “Chennai has done a good job on the RWH front when compared to other cities/districts. In Tamil Nadu, urban harvesting is better when compared to the rural ones,” he said.


China Killing Prisoners To Harvest Organs For Transplant: BMC Report Accuses China Of ‘Falsifying’ Data

In June, I reported on the China Tribunal in London, which found evidence of "forced organ harvesting" from Chinese prisoners, including Falun Gong and Uighur Muslims. The Tribunal’s final judgment concluded that this "forced organ harvesting has been committed for years. on a significant scale.” China has said that the practice has been outlawed, replaced with a system of voluntary donations. But a new report , published on November 14 in the BMC Medical Ethics journal, has refuted this, alleging that those claims of reform are being supported by the “systematic falsification and manipulation of official organ transplant datasets in China.”

The China Tribunal used first-hand testimony from former detainees and implausible transplant availability and short waiting times to shape its findings. The witness reports were horrific—including organ extractions on live victims, subsequently killed by the procedures. A 2015 documentary claimed China’s illegal organ transplant industry is worth $1 billion each year—but China insists that forced extractions have stopped, that its efforts to reform date back to 2010, with a system of voluntary donations replacing forced organ harvesting from prisoners.

Not so, says the BMC article, claiming that China is “artificially manufacturing organ transplant donation data.” The report says its findings mean that any trust in China’s organ harvesting system “has been violated,” that the reforms were “a mask for the continued use of non-voluntary donors or donors who are coerced into giving organs.” In short, the allegation is that the new system of voluntary donations operates alongside and not instead of forced extractions. The giveaway, according to the report, is patterns in the state’s data which are too neat to be genuine—they must be falsified.

Sources behind the forensic data analysis deployed by the report’s authors included the China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS) and the Red Cross Society of China. Data that found mathematical patterns that defy expected statistical anomalies. In others words, the official China reports emanate from a PR spreadsheet and not from any kind of genuine on the ground analysis and genuine data.

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Susie Hughes from the International Coalition to End Transplant Abuse in China (ETAC ), which initiated the China Tribunal, welcomed the findings, warning that the report “exposes the lies and deception that mark China’s so-called transplant ‘reforms.’ The falsification of the China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS) data appears to be part of an elaborate coverup that disguises the state-run mass murder of innocent people for their organs in China.”

Earlier this year, David Spiegelhalter, a former president of the Royal Statistical Society, reviewed the core analysis, commenting that “the anomalies in the data examined follow a systematic and surprising pattern—the close agreement of the numbers of donors and transplants with a quadratic function is remarkable and is in sharp contrast to other countries who have increased their activity over this period. I cannot think of any good reason for such a quadratic trend arising naturally.”

Responding to the Tribunal’s findings in June, the Chinese Embassy in London said its "government always follows World Health Organisation’s guiding principles on human organ transplant, and has strengthened its management on organ transplant in recent years. On 21 March 2007, the Chinese state council enacted the regulation on human organ transplant, providing that human organ donation must be done voluntarily and gratis.” The embassy has been approached for any comments on the claims made in this latest report. The China Red Cross and China Medical Board have also been approached for any comments on the study and its findings.

As tensions continue between the U.S. and China over alleged human rights abuses, with sanctions including restrictions placed on leading Chinese companies, this report will be seriously unhelpful to Beijing and its claims that the U.S. is painting a misleading picture of the country. This is especially true of Xinjiang and the region’s Uighur Muslim minority, which has prompted sanctions on a number of China’s surveillance technology giants and which also finds itself central to claims of forced organ harvesting. By contrast, the case being made by the U.S. will be strengthened.

This story was updated on November 19 to clarify the nature of the study and its findings.


Secondary Source Publications Related to Mississippi H-P

John William Hadskey. A History of Franklin County, Mississippi to 1861. Vicksburg, MS: The Guice Family Association, 1954. Call Number: F347 F7 H3385 1954.

Raymond Allen Hagood. Ripley Rebel: The Life and Times of Colonel William Falkner. Hayti, MO: Hagood, 1972. Call Number: PS3558 A323 R5 1972.

Martha Lacy Hall. An Historical Sketch of Magnolia, Miss.: Centennial Celebration, Magnolia, Mississippi, 1856-1956. [Magnolia, MS: 1956]. Call Number: F349 M33 H34.

Alfred P. Hamilton. Galloway Memorial Methodist Church, 1836-1956. [Nashville: Panthenon, 1956]. Jackson, Mississippi. Call Number: BX8481 J32 G33.

William Baskerville Hamilton. Holly Springs, Mississippi to the Year 1878. Holly Springs, MS: Marshall County Historical Society, 1984. Call Number: F349 H79 H36 1984.

E.L. Hammond, et al. "Drug and Medical Advertising in Woodville, Miss., 1823-1843." Reprint from Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Vol. 9, No. 3 (March 1948). Call Number: HF616 D7 H36.

William Lee Hamrick. The Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Protestant Church. An Account of the Methodist Protestant Church at Work in the Territory of the Mississippi Conference During All the Years -- 1829 to 1939. Jackson, MS: Hawkins Foundation, [1957]. Call Number: BX8248 M7 J645.

Martin J. Hardeman. The Structure of Time: Pike County, Mississippi, 1815-1912. New York: P. Lang, 1999. Call Number: F347 P6 H37 1999.

Marion Franklin Harmon. A History of the Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) in Mississippi. Aberdeen, MS: 1929. Call Number: BX7317 M7 H3.

Robert George Hartje. Van Dorn: The Life and Times of a Confederate General. [Nashville]: Vanderbilt University Press, 1967. Call Number: E467.1 V2 H3.

J.C. Hathorn. A History of Grenada County. [Grenada, MS: Elizabeth Jones Library, 1968]. Grenada County, Mississippi 1833-1900. Call Number: F347 G7 H3.

John Cooper Hathorn. Early Settlers of Lafayette Co., Mississippi: A Period Study of Lafayette County from 1836-1860, with Emphasis on Population Groups. [Oxford, MS]: Skipwith Historical and Genealogical Society, 1980. Call Number: F347 L2 H38.

Herman Hattaway. General Stephen D. Lee. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1976. Call Number: E467.1 L42 H37.

Herman Hattaway. "Stephen Dill Lee: A Biography." Ph.D. dissertation Louisiana State University 1969. Call Number: F341 L9 H38.

Henry Gabriel Hawkins and Warren C. Black. Methodism in Natchez. Including "A Centennial Retrospect or, Methodism in Natchez, Miss., from 1799 to 1884." Jackson, MS: Hawkins Foundation, [1937]. Call Number: BX8249 N25 H3.

Joseph Allen Hazel. "The Geography of Negro Agricultural Slavery in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi, Circa 1860." Thesis Columbia University 1963. Call Number: E441 H3.

Cleo Carson Hearon. Mississippi and the Compromise of 1850. New York: AMS Press, [1972]. Reprint of 1913 edition. Call Number: F341 H4 1913a.

Marie H. Hemphill. Fevers, Floods, and Faith: A History of Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1844-1976. Indianola, MS: 1980. Call Number: F347 S9 H4.

Janet Sharp Hermann. Joseph E. Davis: Pioneer Patriarch. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1990. Mississippi plantation owner 1784-1870. Call Number: F341 D25 H47 1990.

Todd Ashley Herring. "Natchez, 1795-1830: Life and Death on the Slavery Frontier." Ph.D. dissertation Mississippi State University, 2000. Call Number: F349 N2 H47 2000a.

Julius Herscovici. Bernhard Henry Gotthelf: The First Reform Rabbi of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Vicksburg, MS: 2001. Call Number: BM755 G69 H47 2001.

Nollie Wade Hickman. "History of Forest Industries in the Longleaf Pine Belt of East Louisiana and Mississippi, 1840-1915." Ph.D. dissertation University of Texas 1958. Call Number: HD9757 M7 H48.

Nollie Hickman. Mississippi Harvest: Lumbering in the Longleaf Pine Belt, 1840-1915. University, MS: 1962. Call Number: HD9757 M7 H5.

A History of the First Baptist Church of Holly Springs, Mississippi 1837-1987. [Holly Springs, MS]: 1987. Call Number: BX6480 H65 H57 1987.

The History of the First Baptist Church of Kosciusko, Mississippi, 1848-1998. [Kosciusko, MS: 1998]. Call Number: BX6480 K6 F5 1998.

History of the First United Methodist Church of Columbia, 1823-1989. [1989]. Call Number: BX8481 C6 H57 1989.

A History of Grace Episcopal Church, Canton, Mississippi, 1848-1948: Commemorating the One Hundredth Anniversary of Grace Parish. [Canton, MS: Herald Printing, 1948]. Call Number: BX5917 M7 C3.

Ray Holder. The Mississippi Methodists, 1799-1983: A Moral People "Born of Conviction. [Jackson, MS]: Maverick Prints, 1984. Call Number: BX8248 M7 H65 1984.

Ray Holder. William Winans: Methodist Leader in Antebellum Mississippi. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1976. Call Number: BX8495 W657 H64.

Grover Cleveland Hooker. "The Origin and Development of the University of Mississippi, with Special Reference to Its Legislative Control." Ph.D. dissertation Stanford University 1932. Call Number: LD3413 H58 1932.

H.R. Howard. The History of Virgil A. Stewart and His Adventure in Capturing and Exposing the Great "Western Land Pirate" and His Gang, in Connection with the Evidence: Also of the Trials, Confessions, and Execution of a Number of Murrell's Associates in the State of Mississippi during the Summer of 1835, and the Execution of Five Professional Gamblers by the Citizens of Vicksburg, on the 6th July, 1835. Spartanburg, SC: Reprint Co., 1976. Reprint of 1836 edition. Call Number: F341 H696 1836a.

H. Grady Howell. We Gather Together: Thanksgiving Day in Mississippi, 1847-1997. Madison, MS: 1997. Call Number: GT4975 H69 1997.

Huey B. Howerton. "Mississippi Unconstitutional Legislation, 1817-1942." Ph.D. dissertation University of Texas 1943. Call Number: JK4625 1943 H6.

Dudley J. Hughes. Oil in the Deep South: A History of the Oil Business in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, 1859-1945. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993. Call Number: HD9567 M7 H84 1993.

Alfred Hume. Dr. John Millington (1799-1868): Distinguished Pupil of Michael Faraday and Sir Humphrey Davy and Others during 100 Years of the University of Mississippi. New York: Newcomen Society of North America, 1950. Call Number: LD3413 H8.

J.R. Hutchison. Reminiscences, Sketches and Addresses Selected from My Papers during a Ministry of Forty-Five Years in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. Houston, TX: E.H. Cushing, 1874. Call Number: BX9225 H85 A3.

In Celebration: Williams Landing, Carroll County Sesquicentennial. Williams Landing, MS: 1983. 1833-1983. Call Number: F349 G82 I5 1983 OVRS.

Jackson (Miss.). Galloway Memorial Church. Souvenir. One Hundred Years of Methodism in Jackson, Mississippi, 1836-1936. Jackson, MS: 1936. Call Number: BX8249 J3 M7.

Hans Jenny. E.W. Hilgard and the Birth of Modern Soil Science. Pisa: 1961. Mississippi geologist. Call Number: S417 H6 J4.

John G. Jones. A Complete History of Methodism as Connected with the Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1799-1845. Baton Rouge: Claitor's Book Store, 1966. Call Number: BX8248 M7 J6 1966.

John Junior Jones. "A Historiographical Study of Jefferson Davis." Ph.D. dissertation University of Missouri, Columbus 1970. Call Number: E467.1 D26 J76.

Samuel H. Kaye, et al. By the Flow of the Inland River: The Settlement of Columbus, Mississippi to 1825. Columbus, MS: Snapping Turtle Press, 1992. Call Number: F349 C7 K39 1992.

Guy Herbert Keeton. "The Theatre in Mississippi from 1840-1870." Thesis: Louisiana State University 1979. Call Number: PN2275 M7 K44.

Kemper County Historical Association. Kemper County: Sesquicentennial Celebration, 1833-1983. [DeKalb, MS: 1983]. Call Number: K347 K3 K4456 1833-1983.

Gloria L. Kerns. Early Newspapers of Natchez, Mississippi 1800-1828. Shreveport, LA: J.S.W. Enterprises, 1993. Call Number: F349 N2 K47 1993.

Clara Sue Kidwell. Choctaws and Missionaries in Mississippi, 1818-1918. Call Number: E99 C8 K53 1995.

Landon Knight. The Real Jefferson Davis. Battle Creek, MI: Pilgrim Magazine Company, 1904. Call Number: E467.1 D26 K7.

Irma May Lang. "Defender of the Faith: A Study of the Opinions of the High Court of Mississippi, 1817-75." Ph.D. dissertation: Harvard University 1972. Call Number: KFM7112 L36 1972.

John H. Lang. History of Harrison County, Mississippi. Gulfport, MS: Dixie Press, 1936. Call Number: F347 H3 L3.

Meredith Lang. Defender of the Faith: The High Court of Mississippi, 1817-1875. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1977. Call Number: KFM7112 L36.

Eric Langhein. Jefferson Davis, Patriot: A Biography, 1808-1865. New York: Vantage Press, [1962]. Call Number: E467.1 D26 L3.

Zachary Taylor Leavell. A Complete History of Mississippi Baptists, from the Earliest Times. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Publishing Co., 1904. Three volumes. Call Number: BX6248 M7 L4.

Guy Carleton Lee. The World's Orators: Comprising the Great Orations of the World's History with Introductory Essay, Biographical Sketches, and Critical Notes. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1903. Includes Jefferson Davis and Seargent S. Prentiss. Call Number: PN6121 W67 1903 vol. 10.

Anna Lewis. Chief Pushmataha: American Patriot. New York: Exposition Press, [1959]. Call Number: E99 C8 P88.

Monte Ross Lewis. "Chickasaw Removal: Betrayal of the Beloved Warriors, 1794-1844." Ph.D. dissertation North Texas State University 1981. Mississippi. Call Number: E99 C55 L49.

William Terrell Lewis. The Centennial History of Winston County, Mississippi. Pasadena, TX: Globe Publishers International, 1970. Originally published in 1876. Call Number: F347 W7 L42.

David J. Libby. Slavery and Frontier Mississippi, 1720-1835. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004. Call Number: E445 M6 L53 2004.

Gildeon Lincecum. Pushmataha: A Choctaw Leader and His People. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004. Mississippi. Call Number: E99 C8 P89 2004.

C.E. Lindgren. "Panola Education: A Historical Interpretation of the Educational Factors between 1836 and the Present which Led to the Formation and Growth of the South Panola Consolidated School System." Fellow of the College of Preceptors College of Preceptors (Essex) 1993. Call Number: LA314 P3 L5 1993 OVRS.

Dabney Lipscomb. "General Stephen D. Lee: His Life, Character and Services." Reprint from Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society Vol. 10 (1909). Call Number: E467.1 L42 L57 1909.

Dabney Lipscomb. "Mississippi's 'Backwood's Poet.'" Reprint from Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society (1898). Samuel Newton Berryhill (1832-1887). Call Number: PS1095 B75 L56.

Dabney Lipscomb. "T.A.S. Adams: Poet, Educator and Pulpit Orator." Reprint from Publications of Mississippi Historical Society Vol. 4 (1901). Call Number: QB235 S3 1985.

W.L. Lipscomb. A History of Columbus, Mississippi during the 19th Century. Birmingham: Dispatch Printing Co., 1909. Call Number: F349 C7 L7.

Milton Lomask. Aaron Burr, the Conspiracy and Years of Exile, 1805-1836. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1982. Call Number: E302.6 B9 L72.

John H. Long. Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. Mississippi. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. 1788-1980. Call Number: G120.1 F7 A8 1993 Miss.

Lowndes County (Miss). Department of Archives and History. A Pictorial History of the People of Lowndes County, Mississippi. [Columbus, MS]: 1981. 1830-1981. Call Number: F347 L8 P5 1981.

James B. Lloyd, ed. Lives of Mississippi Authors, 1817-1967. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1981. Call Number: PS266 M7 L5.

James B. Lloyd. The University of Mississippi: The Formative Years, 1848-1906. University, MS: 1979. Call Number: LD3413.3 L46.

William A. Love. "Historic Localities on Noxubee River." Reprint from Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society Vol. 9 (1906). Call Number: F347 A17 L68 1906.

William Bellinger Lowrance. The Story of the Church with the Hand Pointing Heavenward. First Presbyterian Church, Founded in 1807. Port Gibson, MS: The Reveille, 1953. Call Number: BX8947 M7 P6.

Melvin Philip Lucas. "The Development of the Second Party System in Mississippi, 1817- 1846." Ph.D. dissertation Cornell University 1983. Call Number: F341 L95 1984.

James D. Lynch. The Bench and the Bar of Mississippi. New York: E.J. Hale & Son, 1881. Lawyers and judges. Call Number: F340 L98.

Magnolia Garden Club, Lexington, Mississippi. Lexington, Mississippi: Holmes County, 1833-1976. Florence, MS: Messenger Press, 1976. Call Number: F349 L49 L49.

Frank Buckner Mallonee. "The Political Thought of Jefferson Davis." Thesis Emory University 1966. Call Number: E467.1 D26 M28.

Benjamin Franklin Manire. Reminiscences of Preachers and Churches in Mississippi. Jackson, MS: Messenger Pub. Co., 1892. Call Number: BX6493 M3 R4.

Charles E. Martin. A Heritage to Cherish: A History of First Baptist Church, Clinton, Mississippi, 1852-2002. Brentwood, TN: Baptist History and Heritage Society, 2001. Call Number: BX6480 C45 F5 2001.

J. Harvey Mathes. General Forrest. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1902. Nathan Bedford Forrest. Call Number: E467.1 F72 M4 1902.

Robert F. May. John A. Quitman: Old South Crusader. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985. Call Number: F341 A84 M39 1985.

Edward Mayes. Genealogy and History, a Branch of the Family of Lamar, with Its Related Families of Urquhart, Reynolds, Bird, Williamson, Gilliam, Garratt, Thompson, Herman, Empson, and Others. [Hattiesburg, MS: Southern Library Service, 1935]. Call Number: CS71 L2 1935.

Edward Mayes. Genealogical Notes on a Branch of the Family of Mayes and on the Related Families of Chappell, Bannister, Jones, Peterson, Locke, Hardaway, Thwealt and Others. Jackson, MS: Hederman Bros., 1928. Call Number: CS71 M4467 1928.

Edward Mayes. Genealogy of the Family of Longstreet: With Its Related Families. [1928]. Call Number: CS71 L85.

Edward Mayes. Lucius Q.C. Lamar: His Life, Times, and Speeches, 1825-1893. Nashville: Publishing House of the Methodist Epsiscopal Church, South, 1896. Call Number: E664 L2 M41.

Isabel Barksdale Maynard. Alexander Barksdale, 1798-1850: A Virginia Pioneer in Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi. (2006). Call Number: CS71 B265 2006.

Hubert H. McAlexander. Chalmers Institute: 1837-1879. 2015. Holly Springs, Mississippi. Call Number: F349 H6 M33 2015.

Hubert H. McAlexander. From the Chickasaw Cession to Yoknapatawpha: Historical and Literary Essays on North Mississippi. Oxford, MS: Nautilus Publishing Company, 2017. Call Number: F341.5 F766 2017.

Hubert H. McAlexander. A Southern Tapestry: Marshall County, Mississippi, 1835-2000. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co. Publishers, 2000. Call Number: F347 M3 M37 2000.

William Stephen Mcbride. "Flush Times on the Upper Tombigbee: Settlement and Economic Development in Lowndes County, Mississippi, 1833-1860." Ph.D. dissertation Michigan State University 1991. Call Number: F347 L8 M3 1991a.

William D. McCain. Eight Generations of the Family of William Vance (1786-1844) and His Wife, Mary G. McAnulty Vance (1784-1863), of South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi. Hattiesburg, MS: 1974. Call Number: CS71 V227 1974.

William D. McCain and Charlotte Capers. Memoirs of Henry Tillinghast Ireys: Papers of the Washington County Historical Society, 1910-1915. Jackson: Mississippi Department of Archives and History, 1954. Contains both historical accounts and memoirs on a variety of Washington County, Mississippi topics. Call Number: F347 W35 M3.

Richard Aubrey McLemore. A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970. [Jackson, MS]: Mississippi Baptist Convention Board, [1971]. Call Number: BX6248 M7 M25.

Samuel Proctor McCutchen. "The Political Career of Albert Gallatin Brown." Ph.D. dissertation University of Chicago 1930. Call Number: F341 B88 M3.

Robert McNutt McElroy. Jefferson Davis: The Unreal and the Real. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1937. Call Number: E467.1 D26 M24 1937a.

Edna H. McKee. "History of Theatrical Entertainment in Jackson, Mississippi, from August 1839 to April 1860." M.S. thesis Florida State University 1959. Call Number: PN2277 J3 M2 OVRS.

James Willette McKee. "William Barksdale: The Intrepid Mississippian." Ph.D. dissertation Mississippi State University 1966. Call Number: E467.1 B246 M3.

Elma Lois Ray McKinstry. Wallerville Baptist Church 100th Anniversary, Organized 1854-1954. Call Number: BX6480 W3 W3.

Richard Aubrey McLemore. A History of Providence Baptist Church, 1818-1973. Walter M. Lee Sr., 1969. Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Call Number: BX6480 H28 M35 1969.

Richard Aubrey McLemore. Mississippi through Four Centuries. Chicago: Laidlaw Brothers, 1945. Juvenile literature. Call Number: F341 M2 1945.

James Hayes McLendon. "A History of Simpson County, Mississippi to 1865." M.A. thesis University of Texas 1936. Call Number: F347 S5 M3.

James Hayes McLendon. "John A. Quitman." Ph.D. dissertation University of Texas 1949. Call Number: E403.1 Q8 M3.

Hallie Mae McPherson. "William McKendree Gwin, Expansionist." Thesis University of California 1978. Call Number: E340 G9 M3.

Grady McWhiney. Jefferson Davis, the Unforgiven. Biloxi, MS: Beauvoir Press, 1989. Call Number: E467.1 D26 M328 1989.

Daniel J. Meador. "Lamar and the Law at the University of Mississippi." Reprint from Mississippi Law Journal Vol. 34, No. 3 (May 1963). L.Q.C. Lamar. Call Number: E664 L2 M45.

Edwin Ernest Meek. E. Percy Howe's Dollar Democrat: A Frontier Mississippi Newspaper, 1842-1846. University, MS: Academy Press, 1963. Oxford, Mississippi. Call Number: PN4899 O95 D6.

Memorials of the Life and Character of Wiley P. Harris of Mississippi. Jackson, MS: Clarion Printing Estab., 1892. U.S. Representative from Mississippi (1853-1855). Call Number: CT6950 H3.

James Meredith. My Native Land: The Choctow [sic] Nation, Mississippi, 1540-1830. Jackson, MS: Meredith Pub., 1995. Call Number: F341 M47403 1995.

James Meredith. Yockanookany: History of Attala County, Mississippi, 1833-1917. Jackson, MS: Meredith Pub., 1995. Call Number: F341 M47404 1995.

Edwin Arthur Miles. Jacksonian Democracy in Mississippi. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960. Call Number: F251 J28 v.42.

Edwin Arthur Miles. "Robert J. Walker -- His Mississippi Years." M.A. thesis University of North Carolina 1949. Call Number: F341 W3 M5.

Gene Ramsey Miller. A History of North Mississippi Methodism. Nashville: Parthenon Press, [1966]. Call Number: BX8381 M755 M5 1966.

Mississippi Commission on the War between the States. Civil War and Ante-Bellum History in Mississippi. [Jackson, MS: 1963]. Call Number: F341 M577 1963.

Mississippi Homecoming: Celebrating 175 Years of Statehood: Official Calendar, December 1992-December 1993. [Jackson, MS]: Clarion-Ledger, [1992]. Call Number: F342 M573 1992.

Franklin E. Moak. A History of the Alumni Association of the University of Mississippi, 1852-1986. University, MS: 1986. Call Number: LD3412.4 M6 1986.

John Hebron Moore. The Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom in the Old Southwest: Mississippi, 1770-1860. Baton Rouge: Louiana State University Press, 1988. Call Number: HC107 M7 M66 1988.

Chris B. Morgan. Yalobusha Bound: Yalobusha County, Mississippi in 1850. Oklahoma Street Press. Call Number: F347 Y15 M6 2007 OVRS.

Christopher Morris. Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Call Number: F347 W29 M67 1995.

Christopher Morris. "Town and Country in the Old South: Vicksburg and Warren County, Mississippi, 1770-1860." Ph.D. dissertation University of Florida 1991. Call Number: F349 V6 M67 1991a.

Pat Morrison. A Hanging in Perry County: The James Copeland Story: His Life and Death. 1999. Call Number: F296 C67 M67 1999.

James B. Murphy. L.Q.C. Lamar: Pragmatic Patriot. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, [1973]. Call Number: E664 L2 M85.

Elizabeth Dunbar Murray. Early Romances of Historic Natchez. [Natchez, MS: Natchez Printing & Stationery Co., 1938]. Call Number: F349 N2 M9 1938a.

S.M. Nabors. History of Old Tishomingo County [1832-1940]. 1940. Call Number: F347 T5 N3.

The Natchez Trace: Cultural and Historical Impact.[Mathiston, MS: Wood Junior College, 1986]. Call Number: F217 N37 N378 1986.

Tom J. Nettles. The Patience of Providence: A History of First Baptist Church Brandon, Mississippi, 1835-1985. Brandon, MS: 1989. Call Number: BX6480 B69 N47.

New Albany, Mississippi, 1840-1990. New Albany, MS: Rutledge Printing, 1990. Call Number: F349 N47 N49 1990.

Charles E. Nolan. St. Mary's of Natchez: The History of a Southern Catholic Congregation, 1716-1988. Natchez, MS: St. Mary's Catholic Church, 1992. Two volumes. Call Number: BX4603 N34 S25 1992.

Noxubee County Historical Society. Noxubee County, Mississippi Marriages. Macon, MS: [197-]. 1834-1904. Two volumes. Call Number: CS68 M7 N82.

Bruce C. Oakley Jr. A Postal History of Mississippi Stampless Period, 1799-1860. Baldwyn, MS: Magnolia Publishers, 1980. Two volumes. Call Number: HE6376 A1 M7.

Nola Nance Oliver. The Little Burr: The Truth about the Life of Aaron Burr, with Stories of His Trial and Romance, in Natchez, Mississippi. Natchez, MS: Natchez Printing & Stationery Co., 1947. Call Number: E302.6 B9 O5.

One Hundred Fortieth Anniversary Celebration, October 16, 1983: First Presbyterian Church, Water Valley, Mississippi. [1983]. Call Number: BX9211 W38 O54 1983.

One Hundred Years of Progress, 1854-1954: Cato Baptist Church, Rankin County, Mississippi. Rankin County, MS: 1954. Call Number: BX6480 C38 C385 1954.

One Hundred Years of the First Baptist Church, Kosciusko, Mississippi. Centennial Celebration, 1848-1948. Kosciusko, MS: Star-Herald, 1948. Call Number: BX6480 K6 F5.

One Hundredth Anniversary of the Senatobia Presbyterian Church, Senatobia, Mississippi, 1848-1948. Senatobia, MS: [Tate County Democrat], 1948. Call Number: BX8947 M7 S4.

Our Story, 1836-1986: First United Methodist Church, Louisville, Mississippi. Louisville, MS: 1986. Call Number: BX8481 L68 O87 1986.

Ted Ownby. American Dreams in Mississippi: Consumers, Poverty & Culture, 1830-1998. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. Call Number: HC107 M73 C66 1999b.

James Woodrow Parkerson. "Senator Henry Stuart Foote of Mississippi: A Rhetorical Analysis of His Speeches in Behalf of the Unions, 1849-1852." Thesis Louisiana State University 1971. Call Number: E415.7 F68 P3.

Mary F. Parmenter, et al. The Life of George Fisher, 1795-1873, and the History of the Fisher Family in Mississippi. Jacksonville, FL: H. & W.B. Drew, 1959. Call Number: F341 F536.

Margaret Graton Peaster. History of Tchula [Mississippi] 1830-1954. Tchula Business & Professional Women's Club, [1954]. Call Number: F349 T2 P45 1954.

Lillian A. Pereyra. James Lusk Alcorn: Persistant Whig. [Baton Rouge]: Louisiana State University Press, 1966. Call Number: F341 A36 P4.

J.B. Perry Jr. and Mrs. John Rundle. History of Yalobusha Baptist Association from 1835 to 1920. Grenada, MS: Baptist Press, 1960. Call Number: BX6209 M7 Y3.

Sandra Perry. In His Presence for over 150 Years: First United Methodist Church Greenwood, Mississippi. Greenwood, MS: 1996. 1836-1996. Call Number: BX8249 G7343 P47 1996.

Philadelphus Presbyterian Church. The History of an Old Church and Her People, 1821-1950. [1950]. Wayne County, Mississippi. Call Number: BX8947 M7 P3.

Gertrude Philippsborn. The History of the Jewish Community of Vicksburg from 1820 to 1968. Vicksburg, MS: 1969. Call Number: F349 V6 P3.

Albert James Pickett. History of Alabama and Incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi from the Earliest Period. Charleston: Walker and James, 1851. Two volumes. Call Number: F326 P56.

James L. Pillar. The Catholic Church in Mississippi, 1837-65. New Orleans: Hauser Press, [1964]. Call Number: BX1415 M7 P5.

J.R.S. Pitts. Life and Confession of the Noted Outlaw, James Copeland Executed at Augusta, Perry County, Mississippi. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1980. Originally published in 1909. Call Number: E415.9 C73 P5 1980.

J.R.S. Pitts. Life and Confession of the Noted Outlaw, James Copeland Executed at Augusta, Perry County, Mississippi: Leader of the Notorious Copeland and Wages Clan which Terrorized the Entire Southern States, as Related by Himself in Prison after He Was Condemned to Death, Giving a List of All Members of the Clan: Mystic Alphabet of the Clan for Their Secret Correspondence, with an Appendix of Profound Research.1909. Call Number: E415.9 C73 P5.

Noel Polk, ed. Natchez before 1830. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1989. Call Number: F349 N2 N28 1989.

Dale R. Prentiss. "Economic Progress and Social Dissent in Michigan and Mississippi, 1837-1860." Ph.D. dissertation Stanford University, 1990. Call Number: F341 P93 1990a.

George Lewis Prentiss. A Memoir of S.S. Prentiss. New York: Scribner, 1855. Two volumes. U.S. Representative from Mississippi 1838-1839. Call Number: E340 P9 P7 1879.

Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Church Histories. [1932-1968]. Includes Tupelo, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Red Banks, Oxford, Marks, Columbus histories of Mississippi churches. Call Number: BX8947 M7.

Alice Bell Prindiville. Trinity Episcopal Church, Pass Christian, Mississippi, 1849-1974: An Historical Record.[1974]. Call Number: BX5980 P37 T75.

Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society. Oxford, MS: 1898-1914. Special Collections has volumes 1 through 14. Call Number: F336 M75.

Howell Purdue. Pat Cleburne, Confederate General. Hillsboro, TX: Hill Jr. College Press, 1973. Call Number: E467.1 C58 P87 1973.


Trapping/Fur Harvesting

See each of the species below for season information and bag limits.

License requirements for fur harvesting:

  • Base License
  • Fur harvesting license
  • Residents who intend to harvest bobcat, otter, fisher, or marten must request and be issued free kill tags for those species. The kill tag must be replaced by an official DNR seal at a registration station.

If you experience difficulty scheduling your appointment, please email [email protected] so we can assist.

Use the fur harvester digest to find license information, hunting zones & hours, rules & regulations and much more. For a full list of regulations and legal descriptions see the Wildlife Conservation Order.

Trapping Season Dates:

See Fur Harvester Digest for zone information.

Bag Limits:

Species Info:

Trapping Season Dates:

  • Unit A
    • Resident: Oct. 25 - Apr. 30
    • Nonresident: Nov. 15 - Apr. 30
    • Resident: Nov. 1 - Apr. 29
    • Nonresident: Nov. 24 - Apr. 29
    • Resident: Nov. 10 - Apr. 29
    • Nonresident: Dec. 15 - Apr. 29

    See Fur Harvester Digest for unit information.

    Bag Limits:

    Species Info:

    Hunting Season Dates:

    Trapping Season Dates:

    Unit A and B

    Unit C, D, E, and F

    See Fur Harvester Digest for unit information.

    Note: November 30th is the last day to obtain bobcat kill tags for a season.

    Bag Limits:

    • 2 Per resident fur harvester. One kill tag is valid for all lands and for all units combined. A second kill tag is valid for Unit A ONLY, on private lands (excluding Commercial Forest lands).

    Species Info:

    Hunting Season Dates:

    See Fur Harvester Digest for more information.

    Note: The use of .269 caliber or smaller for the take of coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and opossums at night is permitted. Nighttime take with centerfire rifles is prohibited on all state parks and recreation areas statewide, and all state game areas within the limited firearm deer zone.



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